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dna damage and virus

Rui Liao, Cheng-You Du, Jian-Ping Gong, Fang Luo
Background: Both persistent inflammatory activity and liver function damage contribute to a poor prognosis of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). This study aimed to develop nomograms that incorporate hepatitis virus B (HBV)-related peritumoral inflammation score (PIS) and liver function based on ALBI score to predict postoperative outcomes of HCC. Methods: The prognostic roles of HBV-related preoperative PIS and ALBI scores in HCC recurrence were examined, and then two nomograms were constructed...
2018: Journal of Oncology
Sandeep Kumar, Monisha Dhiman
Helicobacter pylori is a leading cause of gastric cancer worldwide, its type four secretary toxin CagA is cited to be primarily responsible for it. Other virulence factors such as urease, VacA, HopQ, BabA and SabA are responsible for bacterial survival in acidic environment, adherence and cellular damage but its molecular mechanism is not completely understood. A number of pathogens including bacteria, fungi and virus are involved in the regulation of cellular machinery of inflammasome. Inflammasomes are multimeric protein complexes formed after external stimuli such as PAMPs/DAMPs or salt crystals and activates cellular caspases causes inflammation via pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 10, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Maria I Poole, Inmaculada Sorribes, Harsh Vardhan Jain
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection has reached epidemic proportions worldwide. Individuals with chronic HCV infection and without access to treatment are at high risk for developing hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), a liver cancer that is rapidly fatal after diagnosis. A number of factors have been identified that contribute to HCV-driven carcinogenesis such as scarring of the liver, and chronic inflammation. Recent evidence indicates a direct role for HCV-encoded proteins themselves in oncogenesis of infected hepatocytes...
October 9, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
Zhengfang Lin, Yinghua Li, Guifang Gong, Yu Xia, Changbing Wang, Yi Chen, Liang Hua, Jiayu Zhong, Ying Tang, Xiaomin Liu, Bing Zhu
Introduction: Ribavirin (RBV) is a broad-spectrum antiviral drug. Selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) attract much attention in the biomedical field and are used as carriers of drugs in current research studies. In this study, SeNPs were decorated by RBV, and the novel nanoparticle system was well characterized. Madin-Darby Canine Kidney cells were infected with H1N1 influenza virus before treatment with RBV, SeNPs, and SeNPs loaded with RBV (Se@RBV). Methods and results: MTT assay showed that Se@RBV nanoparticles protect cells during H1N1 infection in vitro...
2018: International Journal of Nanomedicine
Mariska G M van Rosmalen, Chenglei Li, Adam Zlotnick, Gijs J L Wuite, Wouter H Roos
Simian virus 40 (SV40) is a possible vehicle for targeted drug delivery systems because of its low immunogenicity, high infectivity, and high transfection efficiency. To use SV40 for biotechnology applications, more information is needed on its assembly process to efficiently incorporate foreign materials and to tune the mechanical properties of the structure. We use atomic force microscopy to determine the effect of double-stranded DNA packaging, buffer conditions, and incubation time on the morphology and strength of virus-like particles (VLPs) composed of SV40 VP1 pentamers...
September 13, 2018: Biophysical Journal
Suheyla Ekemen, Ant Uzay, Nuray Bassullu, Emel Dikicioglu-Cetin, Kyoko Matsuda, Umit Ince, Cevayir Coban
BACKGROUND: Malaria is known to cause acute and deadly complications. However, malaria can cause unforeseen pathologies due to its chronicity. It increases the risk of endemic Burkitt Lymphoma development by inducing DNA damage in germinal centre (GC) B cells, and leading higher frequency of Epstein-Barr virus (EBV)-infected cells in GCs. EBV is well known for its tropism for B cells. However, less is known about EBV's interaction with T cells and its association with T cell lymphoma...
October 5, 2018: Malaria Journal
M Damen, A J J Groenen, S F M van Dongen, R J M Nolte, B J Scholte, M C Feiters
Diseases that are linked to defective genes or mutations can in principle be cured by gene therapy, in which damaged or absent genes are either repaired or replaced by new DNA in the nucleus of the cell. Related to this, disorders associated with elevated protein expression levels can be treated by RNA interference via the delivery of siRNA to the cytoplasm of cells. Polynucleotides can be brought into cells by viruses, but this is not without risk for the patient. Alternatively, DNA and RNA can be delivered by transfection, i...
September 1, 2018: MedChemComm
Paul W Harms, Kelly L Harms, Patrick S Moore, James A DeCaprio, Paul Nghiem, Michael K K Wong, Isaac Brownell
Merkel cell carcinoma (MCC) is a rare and aggressive skin cancer associated with advanced age and immunosuppression. Over the past decade, an association has been discovered between MCC and either integration of the Merkel cell polyomavirus, which likely drives tumorigenesis, or somatic mutations owing to ultraviolet-induced DNA damage. Both virus-positive and virus-negative MCCs are immunogenic, and inhibition of the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1)-programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1) immune checkpoint has proved to be highly effective in treating patients with metastatic MCC; however, not all patients have a durable response to immunotherapy...
October 4, 2018: Nature Reviews. Clinical Oncology
Joseph M Dybas, Christin Herrmann, Matthew D Weitzman
Viruses exploit cellular ubiquitination machinery to shape the host proteome and promote productive infection. Among the cellular processes influenced by viral manipulation of ubiquitination is the DNA damage response (DDR), a network of cellular signaling pathways that sense and respond to genomic damage. This host-pathogen interaction is particularly important during virus replication and transformation by DNA tumor viruses. Manipulating DDR pathways can promote virus replication but also impacts host genomic instability, potentially leading to cellular transformation and tumor formation...
September 24, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Dolores Limongi, Sara Baldelli, Flavia Santi, Cartesio D'Agostini, Anna Teresa Palamara, Lucia Nencioni, Marco Ciotti
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection plays a pivotal role in hepatocarcinogenesis and has been associated with oxidative DNA damage. Few data have been reported on the general redox state in patients infected with different HCV genotypes. Total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and hydrogen peroxide levels as well as oxidative stress index were measured in serum of hepatitis C chronic patients in relation to genotype, viral load, transaminases level and degree of fibrosis. Serum was obtained from two-hundred-fifty-two HCV infected patients and twenty-five healthy donors...
September 1, 2018: Le Infezioni in Medicina
Julian Musa, Jing Li, Thomas G P Grünewald
Chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a main risk factor for development of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Although HBV vaccination and antiviral therapy lead to substantial risk reduction for HCC development, it is evident that both can reduce, but not completely eliminate the risk. High serum levels of HBV surface antigen (HBsAg) were shown to predict disease progression of chronic HBV infection in patients harboring low viral load, and in line with this, HBV surface proteins were shown to exert oncogenic functions...
September 23, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Corey Smith, Rajiv Khanna
It is estimated that 60-70% of cancers associated with infectious agents are linked to viral infections. Both RNA and DNA viruses that can establish persistent infection exploit various mechanisms including host cell immortalization through genomic instability, chronic inflammation and immune escape, to promote oncogenic transformation of human cells. Expression of selected viral proteins in malignant cells provides a unique opportunity to employ targeted therapies that can disrupt the cellular proliferation and prevent collateral damage caused by standard clinical therapies...
September 18, 2018: Current Opinion in Virology
Simona Roxana Georgescu, Cristina Iulia Mitran, Madalina Irina Mitran, Constantin Caruntu, Maria Isabela Sarbu, Clara Matei, Ilinca Nicolae, Sandra Milena Tocut, Mircea Ioan Popa, Mircea Tampa
Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a small double-stranded DNA virus with tropism for epithelial cells. To this date, over 150 genotypes are known and are classified into two major groups, low-risk and high-risk strains, depending on the ability of the virus to induce malignant transformation. The host's immunity plays a central role in the course of the infection; therefore, it may not be clinically manifest or may produce various benign or malignant lesions. The pathogenic mechanisms are complex and incompletely elucidated...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
Min Sun Kim, Ki Hong Kim
Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1) is a heterodimer of HIF-1α and HIF-1β, and its key role in the regulation of cellular responses to hypoxia has been well-demonstrated. The participation of HIF-1α in apoptosis has been reported in mammals, however, a little information is available on the role of HIF-1α in the progression of apoptosis in fish. In this study, to know the role of HIF-1α in the apoptosis of fish cells, we produced HIF-1α knockout Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cells using a CRISPR/Cas9 vector, and a single cell clone showing a heterozygous insertion/deletion (indel) mutation (one nucleotide insertion and one nucleotide deletion in HIF-1α gene) was chosen for further experiments...
September 15, 2018: Archives of Virology
Madalina E Carter-Timofte, Anders F Hansen, Maibritt Mardahl, Sébastien Fribourg, Franck Rapaport, Shen-Ying Zhang, Jean-Laurent Casanova, Søren R Paludan, Mette Christiansen, Carsten S Larsen, Trine H Mogensen
Objective: Deficiency in the cytosolic DNA sensor RNA Polymerase III (POL III) was recently described in children with severe varicella-zoster virus (VZV) infection in the CNS or lungs. Here, we describe a pair of monozygotic female twins, who both experienced severe recurrent CNS vasculitis caused by VZV reactivation. The clinical presentation and findings included recurrent episodes of headache, dizziness, and neurologic deficits, CSF with pleocytosis and intrathecal VZV antibody production, and MRI of the brain showing ischemic lesions...
November 2018: Neurology® Neuroimmunology & Neuroinflammation
Akio Kawabe, Kazuhisa Nakano, Hiroko Miyata, Ryo Shibuya, Atsuji Matsuyama, Takaaki Ogoshi, Yoshiya Tanaka
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus (CAEBV) T-cell type infection, systemic form, is characterized by persistent infectious mononucleosis-like symptoms, high EBV DNA levels in the peripheral blood, organ damage, and a poor prognosis. The association between CAEBV and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is unclear. We report a case of fatal CAEBV T-cell type infection in an RA patient undergoing treatment with cytotoxic T-lymphocyte-associated antigen 4 immunoglobulin fusion protein (abatacept, ABT). CAEBV can rapidly worsen in RA patients receiving ABT...
September 12, 2018: Internal Medicine
Hirotaka Imai, Hiromichi Dansako, Youki Ueda, Shinya Satoh, Nobuyuki Kato
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) causes hepatic diseases such as chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. These diseases are closely associated with persistent HBV infection. To prevent the progression of hepatic diseases, it is thus important to suppress persistent HBV infection. Daunorubicin (DNR), a topoisomerase II (Top II) poison, is a clinically used anticancer agent with a wide spectrum of activity against malignancies. DNR was recently reported to cause DNA damage-dependent interferon (IFN)-β induction through exogenous cyclic GMP-AMP synthetase (cGAS) and subsequently to suppress Ebola virus replication...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Dorota Piekna-Przybylska, Sanjay B Maggirwar
The population of HIV reservoir in infected person is very small, but extremely long-lived and is a major obstacle for an HIV cure. We previously showed that cells with established HIV latency have deficiencies in DNA damage response (DDR). Here, we investigated ability of HIV-1 to interfere with telomere maintenance, and the effects of targeting telomeres on latently infected cells. Our results show that telomeres are elongated in cultured primary memory CD4 + T cells (TCM ) after HIV-1 infection and when virus latency is established...
September 9, 2018: Cell Cycle
Lam Nhat Nguyen, Juan Zhao, Dechao Cao, Xindi Dang, Ling Wang, Jianqi Lian, Ying Zhang, Zhansheng Jia, Xiao Y Wu, Zheng Morrison, Qian Xie, Yingjie Ji, Zheng Zhang, Mohamed El Gazzar, Shunbin Ning, Jonathan P Moorman, Zhi Q Yao
T cells play a crucial role in viral clearance and vaccine responses; however, the mechanisms that regulate their homeostasis during viral infections remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the machineries of T-cell homeostasis and telomeric DNA damage using a human model of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection. We found that naïve CD4 T cells in chronically HCV-infected patients (HCV T cells) were significantly reduced due to apoptosis compared with age-matched healthy subjects (HSs). These HCV T cells were not only senescent, as demonstrated by overexpression of aging markers and particularly shortened telomeres; but also DNA damaged, as evidenced by increased dysfunctional telomere-induced foci (TIF)...
September 5, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
A Kramvis
  Hepatitis B virus (HBV), a DNA virus, replicates via an RNA intermediate, through reverse transcription catalysed by the viral polymerase that lacks proof reading ability. Thus sequence heterogeneity is a feature of HBV being classified into at least 9 genotypes and over 35 subgenotypes. Africa has a high diversity of genotypes/subgenotypes, with distinct geographical distributions. Genotype A is found mainly in south-eastern Africa, E in western and central Africa and D prevailing in northern Africa. Outside Africa, subgenotype A2 prevails and A1 in Africa, which was the most probable source of its dispersal to Asia and Latin America, as a result of slave and trade routes...
August 8, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
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