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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214181/-adult-immunisation-general-points-hot-topics-and-perspectives
#1
P Loubet, O Launay
Vaccination in immunocompetent adult mainly concerns booster vaccination against diphtheria, tetanus, polio and pertussis. Some chronic diseases may also require the achievement of pneumococcal and influenza vaccines. In addition, from the age of 65, annual influenza vaccination as well as one dose of a live attenuated shingles vaccine between 64 and 75 years are recommended. Immunocompromised adults, due to the increased risk of serious infections responsible of significant morbidity and mortality, are particularly concerned by vaccination...
February 14, 2017: La Revue de Médecine Interne
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210463/frequency-of-inducible-clindamycin-resistance-among-gram-positive-cocci-in-a-tertiary-hospital-tehran-iran
#2
Hiva Saffar, Afsaneh Rajabiani, Alireza Abdollahi, Shirin Habibi, Zohreh Baseri
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Accurate designation of antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of the infecting microorganisms is an important crucial factor in making appropriate therapeutic decisions. Macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin B antibiotics are in a family, reserved as an alternative approach in treatment of resistant Gram positive cocci. Amongst them, clindamycin has been considered as the preferred agent due to its excellent pharmacokinetic properties. The inducible resistance to clindamycin in Gram positive staphylococci and streptococci cannot be recognized by routine broth or agar based susceptibility tests and D-zone testing is necessary...
August 2016: Iranian Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207813/interacting-networks-of-resistance-virulence-and-core-machinery-genes-identified-by-genome-wide-epistasis-analysis
#3
Marcin J Skwark, Nicholas J Croucher, Santeri Puranen, Claire Chewapreecha, Maiju Pesonen, Ying Ying Xu, Paul Turner, Simon R Harris, Stephen B Beres, James M Musser, Julian Parkhill, Stephen D Bentley, Erik Aurell, Jukka Corander
Recent advances in the scale and diversity of population genomic datasets for bacteria now provide the potential for genome-wide patterns of co-evolution to be studied at the resolution of individual bases. Here we describe a new statistical method, genomeDCA, which uses recent advances in computational structural biology to identify the polymorphic loci under the strongest co-evolutionary pressures. We apply genomeDCA to two large population data sets representing the major human pathogens Streptococcus pneumoniae (pneumococcus) and Streptococcus pyogenes (group A Streptococcus)...
February 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28196635/childhood-meningitis-in-kuwait-in-the-era-of-post-pneumococcal-conjugate-vaccination-a-multicenter-study
#4
Hussain Sadeq, Entesar H Husain, Amna Alkoot, Suha Atyani, Abdullah Al-Fraij, Abdulrahman Al-Daithan, Talal AlSaleem, Anfal Taher, May Alenezi
This is a retrospective study to evaluate epidemiology and etiologies of childhood meningitis in Kuwait after the routine introduction of the pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. The data was collected from 196 patients in the period of 2010-2014. Aseptic meningitis accounted for 51% of the cases, bacterial meningitis accounted for 29% cases and partially treated meningitis were 20%. Organisms causing bacterial meningitis were: Streptococcus pneumoniae 40.4%, Neisseria meningitidis 17.6%, Haemophilus spp. 12.2%, other gram positive or negative 19...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Infection and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195860/challenging-airway-secondary-to-purpura-fulminans-with-face-and-neck-bullae-in-a-premature-infant-a-case-report
#5
Rhashedah A Ekeoduru, Matthew R Greives, Eric A Nesrsta
A former 25-week-old neonate presented at 34 weeks postconceptual age with necrotizing fasciitis and purpura fulminans because of Group B Streptococcus infection. He was septic and coagulopathic when he was intubated, and the endotracheal tube was secured with adhesives. When he subsequently developed large purpuric, bullous lesions on the face and neck, he presented to the operating room for excision and debridement of his facial lesions. No change was made in how the endotracheal tube was secured. Midprocedure, an unintentional extubation occurred...
February 15, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182227/reduced-transplacental-transfer-of-group-b-streptococcus-surface-protein-antibodies-in-hiv-infected-mother-newborn-dyads
#6
Sonwabile Dzanibe, Peter V Adrian, Sheila Z Kimaro Mlacha, Ziyaad Dangor, Gaurav Kwatra, Shabir A Madhi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 9, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28178310/diversity-and-composition-of-vaginal-microbiota-of-pregnant-women-at-risk-for-transmitting-group-b-streptococcus-treated-with-intrapartum-penicillin
#7
Luiz Fernando Wurdig Roesch, Rita C Silveira, Andréa L Corso, Priscila Thiago Dobbler, Volker Mai, Bruna S Rojas, Álvaro M Laureano, Renato S Procianoy
BACKGROUND: Administering intravenous antibiotics during labor to women at risk for transmitting Group B Streptococcus (GBS) can prevent infections in newborns. However, the impact of intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis on mothers' microbial community composition is largely unknown. We compared vaginal microbial composition in pregnant women experiencing preterm birth at ≤ 32 weeks gestation that received intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis with that in controls. METHODS: Microbiota in vaginal swabs collected shortly before delivery from GBS positive women that received penicillin intravenously during labor or after premature rupture of membranes was compared to controls...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168775/structural-characterization-of-the-pts-iia-and-iib-proteins-associated-with-pneumococcal-fucose-utilization
#8
Melanie A Higgins, Aileen M Hamilton, Alisdair B Boraston
Streptococcus pneumoniae harbors a significant number of transporters, including phosphotransferase (PTS) systems, allowing the bacterium to utilize a number of different carbohydrates for metabolic and other purposes. The genes encoding for one PTS transport system in particular (EII(fuc) ) are found within a fucose utilization operon in S. pneumoniae TIGR4. Here, we report the 3-dimensional structures of IIA(fuc) and IIB(fuc) providing evidence that this PTS system belongs to the EII(man) family. Additionally, the predicted metabolic pathway for this distinctive fucose utilization system suggests that EII(fuc) transports the H-disaccharide blood group antigen, which would represent a novel PTS transporter specificity...
February 7, 2017: Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162823/mucosal-vaccination-promotes-clearance-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-vaginal-colonization
#9
Jacqueline A Baker, Emma L Lewis, Leah M Byland, Maryam Bonakdar, Tara M Randis, Adam J Ratner
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in infants, and colonization of the maternal genital tract is the primary risk factor for newborn infection. Despite the importance of mucosal colonization in GBS pathogenesis, relevant host and bacterial factors are incompletely understood. We investigated the role of humoral immunity in clearance of vaginal colonization in vivo. B-cell-deficient mice or those lacking neonatal Fc-receptor, a mediator of IgG transport to the vaginal mucosa, exhibit prolonged GBS vaginal colonization compared to wild type animals...
February 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161180/clinical-outcome-comparison-of-immediate-blanket-treatment-versus-a-delayed-pathogen-based-treatment-protocol-for-clinical-mastitis-in-a-new-york-dairy-herd
#10
A K Vasquez, D V Nydam, M B Capel, S Eicker, P D Virkler
The purpose was to compare immediate intramammary antimicrobial treatment of all cases of clinical mastitis with a selective treatment protocol based on 24-h culture results. The study was conducted at a 3,500-cow commercial farm in New York. Using a randomized design, mild to moderate clinical mastitis cases were assigned to either the blanket therapy or pathogen-based therapy group. Cows in the blanket therapy group received immediate on-label intramammary treatment with ceftiofur hydrochloride for 5 d. Upon receipt of 24 h culture results, cows in the pathogen-based group followed a protocol automatically assigned via Dairy Comp 305 (Valley Agricultural Software, Tulare, CA): Staphylococcus spp...
February 1, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28149033/neonatal-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-a-case-report-and-current-state-in-mainland-china
#11
Jianguo Zhou, Chao Chen, Guoping Lu, Yun Cao
We report the first successful treatment of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) in a neonate with Group B streptococcus (GBS) sepsis and cardiorespiratory failure, and further conduct a literature review in the experience of neonatal ECMO utility in Mainland China. A term neonate with cardiorespiratory failure secondary to GBS sepsis was put on venous-arterial ECMO at 23 h of age. After 273 h of ECMO running, the patient was saved and without major complications. The comprehensive literature review demonstrated that there were 22 neonates received ECMO previously in Mainland China, 14 of 22 of the patients are cases with congenital heart defects...
December 2016: Indian Journal of Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28147379/decidualization-mediated-by-steroid-hormones-modulates-the-innate-immunity-in-response-to-group-b-streptococcal-infection-in-vitro
#12
Violeta Castro-Leyva, Veronica Zaga-Clavellina, Aurora Espejel-Nuñez, Rodrigo Vega-Sanchez, Arturo Flores-Pliego, Enrique Reyes-Muñoz, Silvia Giono-Cerezo, Sonia Nava-Salazar, Salvador Espino Y Sosa, Guadalupe Estrada-Gutierrez
BACKGROUND: Decidual cells play a role in the modulation of the innate immune response to protect pregnancy against infection. Steroid hormones regulate the innate immune response in different tissues, and they are involved in several biological processes like decidualization. The aim of this study was to assess if steroid hormones modulate the innate immunity in endometrial stromal cells (ESCs) and decidual stromal cells (DSCs) in response to group B streptococcus (GBS) infection in vitro...
February 2, 2017: Gynecologic and Obstetric Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139479/antibacterial-effect-and-physical-properties-of-chitosan-and-chlorhexidine-cetrimide-modified-glass-ionomer-cements
#13
Apurva Mishra, Ramesh Kumar Pandey, Natesan Manickam
AIMS: To compare antibacterial effect and physical properties of chitosan (CH) modified glass ionomer cement (GIC) (10% v/v), chlorhexidine-cetrimide (CHX-CT) modified GIC (2.5/2.5% w/w) and conventional GIC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of fifty healthy children of age 7-12 years were selected and randomly assigned to class A and B for in vivo analysis. Slabs of CH modified GIC (Group II) along with slabs of conventional GIC (Group I, control) were cemented on buccal surfaces of maxillary molars (split-mouth technique) for class A children...
January 2017: Journal of the Indian Society of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28131960/three-species-biofilm-model-onto-plasma-treated-titanium-implant-surface
#14
Adaias O Matos, Antônio P Ricomini-Filho, Thamara Beline, Erika S Ogawa, Bárbara E Costa-Oliveira, Amanda B de Almeida, Francisco H Nociti Junior, Elidiane C Rangel, Nilson C da Cruz, Cortino Sukotjo, Mathew T Mathew, Valentim A R Barão
In this study, titanium (Ti) was modified with biofunctional and novel surface by micro-arc oxidation (MAO) and glow discharge plasma (GDP) and we tested the development of a three-species periodontopatogenic biofilm onto the treated commercially-pure titanium (cpTi) surfaces. Machined and sandblasted surfaces were used as control group. Several techniques for surface characterizations and monoculture on bone tissue cells were performed. A multispecies biofilm composed of Streptococcus sanguinis, Actinomyces naeslundii and Fusobacterium nucleatum was developed onto cpTi discs for 16...
January 21, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28126051/loop-mediated-isothermal-amplification-lamp-assay-for-rapid-detection-of-streptococcus-agalactiae-group-b-streptococcus-gbs-in-vaginal-swabs-a-proof-of-concept-study
#15
James Patrick McKenna, Ciara Cox, Derek John Fairley, Rachael Burke, Michael D Shields, Alison Watt, Peter Valentine Coyle
PURPOSE: Neonatal infection with Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B streptococcus - GBS) is a life threatening condition which is preventable if colonised mothers are identified and given antibiotic prophylaxis during labour. Conventional culture is time consuming and unreliable, and many available non-culture diagnostics are too complex to implement routinely at point of care. Loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) is a method which enables the rapid and specific detection of target nucleic acid sequences in clinical material without requirements for extensive sample preparation...
January 24, 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124734/importance-of-whole-genome-sequencing-for-the-assessment-of-outbreaks-in-diagnostic-laboratories-analysis-of-a-case-series-of-invasive-streptococcus-pyogenes-infections
#16
F Tagini, B Aubert, N Troillet, T Pillonel, G Praz, P A Crisinel, G Prod'hom, S Asner, G Greub
Outbreaks of Streptococcus pyogenes hypervirulent clones are constant public health threats. In western Switzerland, an increase of severe cases of S. pyogenes invasive infections was observed between December 2015 and March 2016. Our aim was (i) to investigate these cases by the use of Whole Genome Sequencing (WGS) and (ii) to determine the specific virulome and resistome of each isolate in order to undertake adequate public health measures. Eleven Streptococcus pyogenes strains isolated from 11 patients with severe invasive infections between December 13, 2015 and March 12, 2016 were included in our study...
January 26, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120587/identification-of-group-b-streptococci-using-16s-rrna-cfb-scpb-and-atr-genes-in-pregnant-women-by-pcr
#17
Seyed Masoud Mousavi, Seyed Mostafa Hosseini, Rasoul Yousefi Mashouf, Mohammad Reza Arabestani
Streptococcus agalactiae is acommensalorganism, but it may cause infection in susceptible hosts. The aim of this study was to evaluate PCR assay compared with conventional culture method for direct detection of Streptococcus agalactiae. Total of 203 paired low vaginal swabs were collected from women at 35-37 weeks of pregnancy from June 2013 through February 2014 for detection of Streptococcus agalactiae using PCR assay targeting 16S rRNA, cfb, scpB, and atr genes and culture method following broth enrichment...
December 2016: Acta Medica Iranica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28119471/blood-group-antigen-recognition-via-the-group-a-streptococcal-m-protein-mediates-host-colonization
#18
David M P De Oliveira, Lauren Hartley-Tassell, Arun Everest-Dass, Christopher J Day, Rebecca A Dabbs, Thomas Ve, Bostjan Kobe, Victor Nizet, Nicolle H Packer, Mark J Walker, Michael P Jennings, Martina L Sanderson-Smith
: Streptococcus pyogenes (group A streptococcus [GAS]) is responsible for over 500,000 deaths worldwide each year. The highly virulent M1T1 GAS clone is one of the most frequently isolated serotypes from streptococcal pharyngitis and invasive disease. The oral epithelial tract is a niche highly abundant in glycosylated structures, particularly those of the ABO(H) blood group antigen family. Using a high-throughput approach, we determined that a strain representative of the globally disseminated M1T1 GAS clone 5448 interacts with numerous, structurally diverse glycans...
January 24, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28118952/the-only-case-of-mycotic-aneurysm-of-the-pica-clinical-radiological-remarks-and-review-of-literature
#19
Manolo Piccirilli, Emiliano Prizio, Delia Cannizzaro, Maria Pia Tropeano, Giulio Guidetti, Antonio Santoro
We present the first and only case, reported in literature, of a 67-years-old man with a mycotic aneurysm (MA) of the left posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA), caused by group B Streptococcus, that we surgically treated, performing neck aneurysm clipping, preserving patency of parent vessel. Moreover the peculiarity of this case is represented by the fact that the MA is originated from a tooth abscess, treated about two years before. To date, there have been only 10 cases of association between MA with either tooth pathologies or dental surgical procedures and our case is the only one originating from PICA...
January 21, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114152/enhanced-identification-of-group-b-streptococcus-and-escherichia-coli-in-young-infants-with-meningitis-using-the-biofire-filmarray-meningitis-encephalitis-panel
#20
Harbir Singh Arora, Basim Isa Asmar, Hossein Salimnia, Prashant Agarwal, Sanjay Chawla, Nahed Abdel-Haq
FilmArray® Meningitis/Encephalitis (ME) PCR Panel was tested on 62 CSF samples from young infants (0-3 months) with suspected meningitis and compared with CSF cultures. Twelve CSF samples from 9 infants were positive by ME PCR panel (10 GBS, 2 E. coli) of which only 5 were positive by culture. The 7 CSF samples that were positive only by ME PCR panel were obtained from infants who had received prior antibiotic treatment. The ME PCR Panel can be a useful tool in the rapid diagnosis of bacterial meningitis in pretreated young infants...
January 19, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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