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Streptococcus group B

C Sartori, V Perreten, I Ivanovic, M C Härdi-Landerer, H U Graber
In Switzerland, sanitation programs of dairy herds infected with the contagious mastitis pathogen Staphylococcus aureus genotype B (GTB) have been established for several years. In recent years, Streptococcus uberis and non-aureus staphylococci have emerged as the bacteria most frequently isolated from bovine milk samples. The latter cause subclinical mastitis, and some species are more persistent or pathogenic than others. The present study aimed to investigate the developments in the intramammary colonization spectrum of 5 dairy herds undergoing a sanitation program for Staph...
June 13, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Dhanya Dharmapalan, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan, Suhas Kharche, Asmita Patil, Shrikrishna Joshi, Vijay Yewale, Jones Lionel Kumar Daniel, Kamini Walia, Balaji Veeraraghavan
Streptococcus pyogenes , belonging to group A streptococcus (GAS), causes over 600 million infections annually being a predominant human pathogen. Lack of genomic data on GAS from India is one limitation to understand its virulence and antimicrobial resistance determinants. The genome of GAS isolates from clinical samples collected at Navi Mumbai, India was sequenced and annotated. Sequencing was performed on Ion Torrent PGM platform. The size of annotated S. pyogenes genomes ranged from ~1.69 to ~1.85 Mb with coverage of 38× to 189×...
June 2018: Data in Brief
Elliott Smock, E Demertzi, A Abdolrasouli, B Azadian, Greg Williams
The authors devised a comparative prospective study to determine the in vitro microbicidal efficacy of skin preparation solutions in the concentrations and temperatures used in the burns theatre against common bacterial and fungal microorganisms. A panel of 10 microorganisms Staphylococcus aureus, streptococcus pyogenes, enterococcus faecalis, escherichia coli, pseudomonas aeruginosa, candida albicans, bacillus cereus were assembled comprising 8 common strains of S. aureus (including methicillin resistant staphylococcus aureus (MRSA)), S...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Burn Care & Research: Official Publication of the American Burn Association
Anouk M Oordt-Speets, Renee Bolijn, Rosa C van Hoorn, Amit Bhavsar, Moe H Kyaw
Bacterial meningitis is a global public health concern, with several responsible etiologic agents that vary by age group and geographical area. The aim of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to assess the etiology of bacterial meningitis in different age groups across global regions. PubMed and EMBASE were systematically searched for English language studies on bacterial meningitis, limited to articles published in the last five years. The methodological quality of the studies was assessed using a customized scoring system...
2018: PloS One
Gg Salzler, B Long, Ed Avgerinos, Ra Chaer, S Leers, E Hager, Ms Makaroun, Mh Eslami
OBJECTIVE: Mycotic aneurysms of the extremities occur infrequently but can cause severe life and limb complications. Traditional treatment typically includes debridement and revascularization, though in select patients ligation may be well tolerated. We reviewed our experience with these aneurysms treated with these two modalities. METHODS: A retrospective review of patients treated for peripheral mycotic aneurysms at one institution from January 2005 to December 2015 was performed under an Institutional Review Board-approved protocol...
June 7, 2018: Annals of Vascular Surgery
Judith E K R Hentzen, Marloes A Smit, Marjan J Bruins, Coen G B M Rupert, Jennifer Schreinemakers, Gijs J H M Ruijs, Gijs A Patijn
BACKGROUND: The most common complications after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) are infectious, despite the standard use of cefazolin and metronidazole prophylaxis. Pre-operative biliary drainage (PBD) is a well-known risk factor for infectious complications. The objective was to identify the pathogens in intra-operative bile cultures in patients undergoing PD-with and without PBD-to determine the optimal antimicrobial prophylaxis regimen. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who underwent PD between 2009 and 2016 were identified retrospectively in three major teaching hospitals in The Netherlands...
June 6, 2018: Surgical Infections
Kathryn A Patras, Jaclyn Derieux, Mahmoud M Al-Bassam, Nichole Adiletta, Alison Vrbanac, John D Lapek, Karsten Zengler, David J Gonzalez, Victor Nizet
Background: Streptococcus agalactiae (Group B Streptococcus, GBS) asymptomatically colonizes ~20% of adults; however, GBS causes severe disease in susceptible populations including newborns, pregnant women, and the elderly. In shifting between commensal and pathogenic states, GBS reveals multiple mechanisms of virulence factor control. Here we describe a GBS protein, which we named biofilm regulatory protein A (BrpA), based on its homology with BrpA from S. mutans. Methods: We coupled phenotypic assays, RNA-seq profiling, human neutrophil and whole blood killing, and a murine infection models to investigate the contribution of BrpA to GBS physiology and virulence...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Corinne Ruppen, Thomas Mercier, Denis Grandgirard, Stephen L Leib, Cristina El Haj, Oscar Murillo, Laurent Decosterd, Parham Sendi
The rate of invasive group B Streptococcus (GBS) infections is steadily increasing, particularly in older persons and in adults with diabetes and other comorbidities. This population includes persons with a foreign body (e.g., who have undergone arthroplasty). In a rat tissue cage model, we evaluated the efficacy of adjunctive gentamicin (GEN) administered systemically (5 mg/kg body weight) every 24 h, or locally (12.5 mg/L tissue cage concentration) every 24 or 72 h, in combination with penicillin (PEN) administered systemically (250,000 IU/kg body weight three times per day)...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Francesco Berti, Riccardo De Ricco, Rino Rappuoli
The incidence of infectious diseases caused by several bacterial pathogens such as Haemophilus influenzae type b, Streptococcus pneumoniae , and Neisseria meningitidis , has been dramatically reduced over the last 25 years through the use of glycoconjugate vaccines. The structures of the bacterial capsular polysaccharide (CPS) antigens, extracted and purified from microbial cultures and obtained with very high purity, show that many of them are decorated by O-acetyl groups. While these groups are often considered important for the structural identity of the polysaccharides, they play a major role in the functional immune response to some vaccines such as meningococcal serogroup A and Salmonella typhi Vi, but do not seem to be important for many others, such as meningococcal serogroups C, W, Y, and type III Group B Streptococcus ...
June 2, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Shuping Nie, Xuedong Lu, Zhengjiang Jin, Juyi Gao, Dongli Ma, Jikui Deng, Xianglin Wu, Yan-Wei Hu, Lei Zheng, Qian Wang
Group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of invasive neonatal infections and has increasingly been associated with invasive diseases in non-pregnant adults. We collected 113 GBS isolates recovered from sterile and non-sterile specimens from seven tertiary hospitals in China between October 2014 and September 2016. Medical records were retrospectively reviewed and the sequence types, serotypes, virulence, and antimicrobial resistance profiles of the isolates were characterized and correlated. Significantly higher C-reactive protein and procalcitonin levels and absolute neutrophil counts were observed in patients with invasive infections than in those with non-invasive infections (P < 0...
May 16, 2018: Diagnostic Microbiology and Infectious Disease
D R Hernandez, D M Wolk, K L Walker, S Young, R Dunn, S A Dunbar, A Rao
Vertical transmission of Group B streptococcus (GBS) causing neonatal sepsis is one of the leading reasons for neonatal mortality worldwide. The gold standard for GBS detection is enriched culture, with or without the aid of chromogenic agars. Given the high risk for morbidity and mortality in this population, high assay sensitivity is required to prevent the personal and economic costs of GBS disease. Nucleic acid amplification tests (NAATs) allow for objective determination of GBS colonization with higher sensitivity and specificity than traditional culture methods...
May 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
Esther Wicker, Fabian Lander, Felix Weidemann, Markus Hufnagel, Reinhard Berner, Gérard Krause
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in newborns worldwide. From 2000-2008, national guidelines in Germany recommended intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis for pregnant women displaying risk factors (e.g. perinatal anogenital GBS colonization, rupture of the membranes ≥ 18 hours before birth), for the vertical transmission of GBS to their children.In 2008, these guidelines were revised in order to advocate universal, culture-based screening for GBS colonization among all pregnant women between 35 and 37 weeks of gestation...
May 24, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Elísia Lopes, Tânia Fernandes, Miguel P Machado, João André Carriço, José Melo-Cristino, Mário Ramirez, Elisabete R Martins
We characterised Lancefield group B streptococcal (GBS) isolates causing invasive disease among non-pregnant adults in Portugal between 2009 and 2015. All isolates (n = 555) were serotyped, assigned to clonal complexes (CCs) by multilocus sequence typing and characterised by surface protein and pilus island gene profiling. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by disk diffusion and resistance genotypes identified by PCR. Overall, serotype Ia was most frequent in the population (31%), followed by serotypes Ib (24%) and V (18%)...
May 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Preeti Jaggi, Asuncion Mejias, Zhaohui Xu, Han Yin, Melissa Moore-Clingenpeel, Bennett Smith, Jane C Burns, Adriana H Tremoulet, Alejandro Jordan-Villegas, Damien Chaussabel, Karen Texter, Virginia Pascual, Octavio Ramilo
BACKGROUND: Early identification of children with Kawasaki Disease (KD) is key for timely initiation of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) therapy. However, the diagnosis of the disease remains challenging, especially in children with an incomplete presentation (inKD). Moreover, we currently lack objective tools for identification of non-response (NR) to IVIG. METHODS: Children with KD were enrolled and samples obtained before IVIG treatment and sequentially at 24 h and 4-6 weeks post-IVIG in a subset of patients...
2018: PloS One
H Hannachi, H Elloumi, M Hamdoun, K Kacem, A Zhioua, O Bahri
OBJECTIVES: Bacteriospermia may result in male hypofertlity. Indeed, 60% of patients treated by Assisted Reproductive Techniques had a local infection or inflammation of genital tract. However, direct effects of bacteriospermia on semen parameters remain controversial. The aim of our work was to explore the effect of bacteriospermia on sperm parameters among patients consulting for hypofertility. METHODS: A retrospective comparative study of two groups: a group of 70 patients with bacteriospermia (group 1) and a control group of 70 patients without bacteriospermia (group 2)...
May 18, 2018: Gynecologie, Obstetrique, Fertilite & Senologie
Christopher Woll, Mark I Neuman, Christopher M Pruitt, Marie E Wang, Eugene D Shapiro, Samir S Shah, Russell J McCulloh, Lise E Nigrovic, Sanyukta Desai, Adrienne G DePorre, Rianna C Leazer, Richard D Marble, Fran Balamuth, Elana A Feldman, Laura F Sartori, Whitney L Browning, Paul L Aronson
OBJECTIVES: To help guide empiric treatment of infants ≤60 days old with suspected invasive bacterial infection by describing pathogens and their antimicrobial susceptibilities. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study of infants ≤60 days old with invasive bacterial infection (bacteremia and/or bacterial meningitis) evaluated in the emergency departments of 11 children's hospitals between July 1, 2011 and June 30, 2016. Each site's microbiology laboratory database or electronic medical record system was queried to identify infants from whom a bacterial pathogen was isolated from either blood or cerebrospinal fluid...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Pediatrics
Sarah Teatero, Allison McGeer, Gregory J Tyrrell, Linda Hoang, Hanan Smadi, Marc-Christian Domingo, Paul N Levett, Michael Finkelstein, Ken Dewar, Agron Plevneshi, Taryn B T Athey, Jonathan B Gubbay, Michael R Mulvey, Irene Martin, Walter Demczuk, Nahuel Fittipaldi
Background: The number of invasive group A Streptococcus (iGAS) infections due to hitherto extremely rare type emm74 strains has increased in several Canadian provinces since late 2015. We hypothesized that the cases recorded in the different provinces are linked and caused by strains of an emm74 clone that recently emerged and expanded explosively. Methods: We analyzed both active and passive surveillance data for iGAS infections and used whole-genome sequencing to investigate the phylogenetic relationships of the emm74 strains responsible for these invasive infections country-wide...
May 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Camilla Dalby Salvig, Marie Højriis Storkholm, Jannie Dalby Salvig, Niels Uldbjerg
The aim of this commentary is to describe changes in women care at an obstetric department that made it possible to reduce the number of beds from 40 to 29. Patient pathways were reviewed and revised using lean methodology. The mean length of stay was reduced from 70 to 59 hours and the mean numbers of hospitalizations per woman from 1.26 to 1.20. At the organizational level, we introduced a Family Department, home management of newborns, home monitoring of the women with cardiotocography and blood samples, and intrapartum Group B Streptococcus-PCR...
May 19, 2018: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
Yosanan Yospaiboon, Kidakarn Meethongkam, Suthasinee Sinawat, Wipada Laovirojjanakul, Tanapat Ratanapakorn, Thuss Sanguansak, Chavakij Bhoomibunchoo
Objective: To evaluate visual outcomes and possible predictive factors in the treatment of infectious endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species during 2012-2016 at a large referral eye center in northeastern Thailand. Methods: A retrospective medical record chart review of patients with culture-positive endophthalmitis caused by Streptococcus species was conducted. Demographic data including age, gender, occupation, duration of symptoms, time to surgery, surgical procedures, initial visual acuity at presentation, and final visual acuity after treatment were collected and analyzed...
2018: Clinical Ophthalmology
Hirotsugu Banno, Kouji Kimura, Tomomi Seki, Wanchun Jin, Jun-Ichi Wachino, Keiko Yamada, Noriyuki Nagano, Yoshichika Arakawa
Group B Streptococcus (GBS) clinical isolates with reduced penicillin susceptibility (PRGBS) have emerged through acquisition of amino acid substitutions in penicillin-binding protein 2X (PBP2X). Moreover, we also reported the emergence of penicillin-susceptible GBS clinical isolates with reduced ceftibuten susceptibility (CTBr PSGBS) due to amino acid substitutions in PBPs. However, whether or not these amino acid substitutions are responsible for the reduced ceftibuten susceptibility (RCTBS) profile remains unclear...
May 17, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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