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Streptococcus group B

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666608/capsular-sialyltransferase-specificity-mediates-different-phenotypes-in-streptococcus-suis-and-group-b-streptococcus
#1
David Roy, Daisuke Takamatsu, Masatoshi Okura, Guillaume Goyette-Desjardins, Marie-Rose Van Calsteren, Audrey Dumesnil, Marcelo Gottschalk, Mariela Segura
The capsular polysaccharide (CPS) represents a key virulence factor for most encapsulated streptococci. Streptococcus suis and Group B Streptococcus (GBS) are both well-encapsulated pathogens of clinical importance in veterinary and/or human medicine and responsible for invasive systemic diseases. S. suis and GBS are the only Gram-positive bacteria which express a sialylated CPS at their surface. An important difference between these two sialylated CPSs is the linkage between the side-chain terminal galactose and sialic acid, being α-2,6 for S...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659565/cyclic-di-amp-regulation-of-osmotic-homeostasis-is-essential-in-group-b-streptococcus
#2
Laura Devaux, Dona Sleiman, Maria-Vittoria Mazzuoli, Myriam Gominet, Philippe Lanotte, Patrick Trieu-Cuot, Pierre-Alexandre Kaminski, Arnaud Firon
Cyclic nucleotides are universally used as secondary messengers to control cellular physiology. Among these signalling molecules, cyclic di-adenosine monophosphate (c-di-AMP) is a specific bacterial second messenger recognized by host cells during infections and its synthesis is assumed to be necessary for bacterial growth by controlling a conserved and essential cellular function. In this study, we sought to identify the main c-di-AMP dependent pathway in Streptococcus agalactiae, the etiological agent of neonatal septicaemia and meningitis...
April 16, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29653139/influence-of-zinc-oxide-quantum-dots-in-the-antibacterial-activity-and-cytotoxicity-of-an-experimental-adhesive-resin
#3
Isadora Martini Garcia, Vicente Castelo Branco Leitune, Fernanda Visioli, Susana Maria Werner Samuel, Fabrício Mezzomo Collares
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of zinc oxide quantum dots (ZnOQDs ) into an experimental adhesive resin regarding the antibacterial activity against Streptococcus mutans and the cytotoxicity against pulp fibroblasts. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ZnOQDs were synthesized by sol-gel process and were incorporated into 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate (HEMA). An experimental adhesive resin was formulated by mixing 66.6 wt.% bisphenol A glycol dimethacrylate (BisGMA) and 33...
April 10, 2018: Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651822/importance-of-functional-assessment-of-immunity-against-group-b-streptococcus
#4
EDITORIAL
Hyunju Lee
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651820/seroprevalence-of-opsonophagocytic-antibodies-against-serotype-ia-ib-ii-iii-and-v-group-b-streptococcus-among-korean-population
#5
Ji Hyen Lee, Han Wool Kim, Kyung Hyo Kim
BACKGROUND: Invasive Streptococcus agalactiae (group B streptococcus, GBS) infection most commonly occurs in infants; however, cases of GBS infection in adults, particularly in the elderly with significant underlying diseases, are being increasingly reported. We analyzed the serotype specific opsonophagocytic antibodies (the major mechanism of protection against GBS) in infants, adults, and the elderly. METHODS: The opsonization indices (OIs) of antibodies against serotype Ia, Ib, II, III, and V GBS were studied in 89 infants, 35 adults (age, 30-50 years), and 62 elderly individuals (age, 65-85 years) according to the University of Alabama at Birmingham GBS opsonophagocytic killing assay protocol (www...
April 16, 2018: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29651635/effects-of-probiotic-supplementation-on-trimethylamine-n-oxide-plasma-levels-in-hemodialysis-patients-a-pilot-study
#6
Natália A Borges, P Stenvinkel, P Bergman, A R Qureshi, B Lindholm, C Moraes, M B Stockler-Pinto, D Mafra
Components present in the diet, L-carnitine, choline, and betaine are metabolized by gut microbiota to produce metabolites such as trimethylamine-N-oxide (TMAO) that appear to promote cardiovascular disease in chronic kidney disease (CKD) patients. The objective of this pilot study was to evaluate the effects of probiotic supplementation for 3 months on plasma TMAO levels in CKD patients on hemodialysis (HD). A randomized, double-blind trial was performed in 21 patients [54.8 ± 10.4 years, nine men, BMI 26...
April 12, 2018: Probiotics and Antimicrobial Proteins
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29643071/facilitating-the-timely-discharge-of-well-newborns-by-using-quality-improvement-methods
#7
Nicole T Rochester, Laurie P Banach, Wendy Hoffner, Deena Zeltser, Phyllis Lewis, Elizabeth Seelbach, Sandra Cuzzi
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Discharges are a key driver of hospital throughput. Our pediatric hospitalist team sought to improve newborn nursery throughput by increasing the percentage of newborns on our service with a discharge order by 11 am. We hypothesized that implementing a discharge checklist would result in earlier discharge times for newborns who met discharge criteria. METHODS: We identified barriers to timely discharge through focus groups with key stakeholders, chart reviews, and brainstorming sessions...
April 11, 2018: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29642927/streptococcus-bovis-unusual-etiology-of-meningitis-in-a-neonate-with-down-syndrome-a-case-report
#8
Sachith Mettananda, Phirarthana Kamalanathan, K Dhananja Namalie
BACKGROUND: Common etiological agents of neonatal meningitis include group B Streptococcus, Escherichia coli, and Staphylococcus aureus. Here we report a rare pathogen - Streptococcus bovis - causing meningitis in a premature neonate with Down syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 26-day-old Asian male neonate with Down syndrome presented with a history of high-grade fever, poor sucking, poor cry, and reduced activity. On admission, he was febrile and had features of circulatory collapse...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629904/group-b-streptococcus-exploits-vaginal-epithelial-exfoliation-for-ascending-infection
#9
Jay Vornhagen, Blair Armistead, Verónica Santana-Ufret, Claire Gendrin, Sean Merillat, Michelle Coleman, Phoenicia Quach, Erica Boldenow, Varchita Alishetti, Christina Leonhard-Melief, Lisa Y Ngo, Christopher Whidbey, Kelly S Doran, Chad Curtis, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Elizabeth Nance, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Thirteen percent of pregnancies result in preterm birth or stillbirth, accounting for fifteen million preterm births and three and a half million deaths annually. A significant cause of these adverse pregnancy outcomes is in utero infection by vaginal microorganisms. To establish an in utero infection, vaginal microbes enter the uterus by ascending infection; however, the mechanisms by which this occurs are unknown. Using both in vitro and murine models of vaginal colonization and ascending infection, we demonstrate how a vaginal microbe, group B streptococcus (GBS), which is frequently associated with adverse pregnancy outcomes, uses vaginal exfoliation for ascending infection...
April 9, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29618502/group-b-streptococcus-vaginal-carriage-in-pregnant-women-deciphered-by-crispr-analysis
#10
Clemence Beauruelle, Adeline Pastuszka, Laurent Mereghetti, Philippe Lanotte
We evaluated the diversity of Group B Streptococcus (GBS) vaginal carriage populations in pregnant women. For this purpose, we studied each isolate present in a primary culture of a vaginal swab using a new approach based on Clustered Regularly Interspaced Short Palindromic Repeats (CRISPR) locus analysis. To evaluate the CRISPR array composition rapidly, a Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) analysis was performed. For each different pattern observed, the CRISPR array was sequenced and capsular typing and Multi Locus Sequence Typing (MLST) were performed...
April 4, 2018: Journal of Clinical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29609583/risk-factors-for-neonatal-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-related-diseases-after-the-implementation-of-a-universal-screening-program-in-taiwan
#11
Li-Chen Hung, Pei-Tseng Kung, Tsan-Hung Chiu, Hsun-Pi Su, Ming Ho, Hui-Fen Kao, Li-Ting Chiu, Kuang-Hua Huang, Wen-Chen Tsai
BACKGROUND: We examined the risk for Group B streptococcus (GBS)-related diseases in newborns born to mothers who participated in a universal GBS screening program and to determine whether differences are observed in factors affecting the morbidity for neonatal early-onset GBS-related diseases. METHODS: This is a retrospective study and the study subjects were women who had undergone GBS screening and who gave birth naturally and their newborns between April 15, 2012 and December 31, 2013...
April 2, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608212/glycan-metabolizing-enzymes-in-microbe-host-interactions-the-streptococcus-pneumoniae-paradigm
#12
REVIEW
Joanne K Hobbs, Benjamin Pluvinage, Alisdair B Boraston
Streptococcus pneumoniae is a frequent colonizer of the upper airways; however, it is also an accomplished pathogen capable of causing life-threatening diseases. To colonize and cause invasive disease, this bacterium relies upon a complex array of factors to mediate the host-bacterium interaction. The respiratory tract is rich in functionally important glycoconjugates that display a vast range of glycans and, thus, a key component of the pneumococcus-host interaction involves an arsenal of bacterial carbohydrate-active enzymes to depolymerize these glycans and carbohydrate transporters to import the products...
April 2, 2018: FEBS Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29606026/strategies-for-preventing-early-onset-sepsis-and-for-managing-neonates-at-risk-wide-variability-across-six-western-countries
#13
Alberto Berardi, Cecilia Rossi, Caterina Spada, Giulia Vellani, Isotta Guidotti, Angela Lanzoni, Milena Azzalli, Irene Papa, Chiara Giugno, Laura Lucaccioni
OBJECTIVE: Group B streptococcus (GBS) early-onset sepsis (EOS) has declined after widespread intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis. However, strategies for preventing EOS may differ across countries. The analysis of their strategies allows to compare the effectiveness of prevention in different countries and suggests opportunities for improvement. METHODS: We compared six western countries. Prevention strategies, incidence rates of EOS and approaches for managing neonates at-risk were analysed...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29601454/bacterial-load-and-molecular-markers-associated-with-early-onset-group-b-streptococcus-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#14
Farah Seedat, Colin Stewart Brown, Chris Stinton, Jacoby Patterson, Julia Geppert, Karoline Freeman, Bee Tan, Samantha Ann Johnson, Hannah Fraser, Olalekan A Uthman, Esther R Robinson, Noel Denis McCarthy, Aileen Clarke, Sian Taylor-Phillips
BACKGROUND: The natural history of neonatal group B Streptococcus (GBS) is poorly understood. Little is known about the bacterial factors influencing the transmission of GBS from mother to neonate, or the development of invasive early-onset GBS disease (EOGBS) in colonized neonates. We reviewed whether bacterial load and molecular markers are associated with GBS vertical transmission and progression to EOGBS. METHODS: We searched Medline, Embase, Cochrane and Web of Science from inception to 10 October 2016 for observational studies in English...
March 27, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29594067/route-of-glucose-uptake-in-the-group-a-streptococcus-impacts-sls-mediated-hemolysis-and-survival-in-human-blood
#15
Ganesh S Sundar, Emrul Islam, Rezia D Braza, Aliyah B Silver, Yoann Le Breton, Kevin S McIver
The transport and metabolism of glucose has been shown to have far reaching consequences in the transcriptional profile of many bacteria. As glucose is most often the preferred carbon source for bacteria, its presence in the environment leads to the repression of many alternate carbohydrate pathways, a condition known as carbon catabolite repression (CCR). Additionally, the expression of many virulence factors is also dependent on the presence of glucose. Despite its importance, little is known about the transport routes of glucose in the human pathogen Streptococcus pyogenes ...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29593684/group-b-streptococcal-colonization-molecular-characteristics-and-epidemiology
#16
REVIEW
Sarah Shabayek, Barbara Spellerberg
Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) is a leading cause of serious neonatal infections. GBS is an opportunistic commensal constituting a part of the intestinal and vaginal physiologic flora and maternal colonization is the principal route of GBS transmission. GBS is a pathobiont that converts from the asymptomatic mucosal carriage state to a major bacterial pathogen causing severe invasive infections. At present, as many as 10 serotypes (Ia, Ib, and II-IX) are recognized. The aim of the current review is to shed new light on the latest epidemiological data and clonal distribution of GBS in addition to discussing the most important colonization determinants at a molecular level...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29588295/early-onset-neonatal-infections-in-australia-and-new-zealand-2002-2012
#17
Tarun Singh, Elizabeth H Barnes, David Isaacs
BACKGROUND: The epidemiology of early-onset neonatal sepsis (EONS) varies over time, and requires regular surveillance. OBJECTIVE: To analyse data on EONS in Australia and New Zealand. METHODS: Retrospective analysis of data collected longitudinally from multiple neonatal units from 2002 to 2012. RESULTS: Of 386 423 live births, 454 infants had EONS. The incidence rate of EONS was 1.20 per 1000 live births in 2002 and 0...
March 27, 2018: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29578894/comparison-of-placental-and-neonatal-admission-complete-blood-cell-count-and-blood-cultures
#18
Desi M Newberry
BACKGROUND: The utilization of placental blood for neonatal admission laboratory tests, specifically the complete blood cell (CBC) count and blood culture, has the potential to delay the onset of anemia of prematurity and intraventricular hemorrhage, frequency of blood transfusions and associated complications, and painful procedures related to laboratory sampling. PURPOSE: To determine the feasibility of drawing neonatal admission laboratory tests from the placenta rather than the neonate and to compare CBC count and blood culture results...
March 23, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565180/ablation-of-the-leptin-receptor-in-myeloid-cells-impairs-pulmonary-clearance-of-streptococcus-pneumoniae-and-alveolar-macrophage-bactericidal-function
#19
Peter Mancuso, Jeffrey L Curtis, Christine M Freeman, Marc Peters-Golden, Jason B Weinberg, Martin G Myers
Leptin is a pleiotropic hormone produced by white adipose tissue that regulates appetite and many physiologic functions including the immune response to infection. Genetic leptin deficiency in humans and mice impairs host defenses against respiratory tract infections. Since leptin deficiency is associated with obesity and other metabolic abnormalities, we generated mice that lack the leptin receptor (LepRb) in cells of the myeloid linage (LysM-LepRb-KO) to evaluate its impact in lean metabolically normal mice in a murine model of pneumococcal pneumonia...
March 22, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561513/two-overlapping-clusters-of-group-b-streptococcus-late-onset-disease-in-a-nicu
#20
Alberto Berardi, Isotta Guidotti, Roberta Creti, Giovanna Alfarone, Antonella Grottola, Claudia Venturelli, Giulia Fregni Serpinid, Elisa Della Casa, Elena Vecchi, Alessandra Boncompagni, Carlotta Toffoli, Fabrizio Ferrari
OBJECTIVES: Current predominant routes of group B Streptococcus (GBS) transmission in preterm neonates admitted to neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) are poorly defined. We report two overlapping clusters of GBS late-onset disease (LOD) from June to September 2015 in an Italian NICU. METHODS: During the outbreak, possible sources of transmission (equipment, feeding bottles, breast pumps) were swabbed. Specimens from throat and rectum were collected on a weekly basis from all neonates admitted to NICU...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
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