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Gastrointestinal failure

Yasuaki Okuda, Toshiyuki Yamada, Mitsuharu Ueda, Yukio Ando
Objective To clarify the underlying diseases, clinical manifestations, and treatment strategies for AA amyloidosis (AAA) in Japanese patients. Methods We conducted a survey on Japanese patients with AAA treated between January 1, 2012, and December 31, 2014. Results A total of 199 patients with AAA were included in the present study. The underlying diseases of AAA were rheumatoid arthritis (60.3%), uncharacterized inflammatory disorders (11.1%), neoplasms (7.0%), other rheumatic diseases (6.5%), inflammatory bowel diseases (4...
August 10, 2018: Internal Medicine
Satoshi Kataoka, Koji Miyagawa, Yosuke Ishihara, Nobuaki Fuji
We report an uncommon case of an elderly patient with cecal volvulus caused by intestinal malrotation. We performed lower gastrointestinal endoscopy on an 84-year-old man with a chief complaint of abdominal distention and fever. However, emergency surgery had to be performed because intestinal perforation had occurred. The patient had cecal volvulus associated with incomplete rotation of the intestine. Subsequently, the patient developed multiple organ failure and died 2 days after the surgery. Despite its low incidence, we believe that the possibility of intestinal malrotation should be considered in elderly patients who present with abdominal distention for which the definitive diagnosis cannot be easily obtained...
2018: Nihon Shokakibyo Gakkai Zasshi, the Japanese Journal of Gastro-enterology
Masayuki Saijo
Severe fever with thrombocytopenia syndrome (SFTS) caused by SFTS virus (SFTSV), a novel phlebovirus, was reported to be endemic to central and northeastern PR China and was also to be endemic to South Korea and western Japan. SFTS is an emerging viral infection, which should be categorized as a viral hemorrhagic fever disease as Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is caused by CCHF virus. SFTS is a tick-borne viral infection. SFTSV is maintained between several species of ticks and wild and domestic animals in nature...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Gensheng Zhang, Kai Zhang, Wei Cui, Yucai Hong, Zhongheng Zhang
STUDY OBJECTIVE: To analyze the effect of enteral nutrition compared with parenteral nutrition in critically ill patients. DESIGN: Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. SETTING: Intensive care unit. PATIENTS: 23 trials containing 6478 patients met our inclusion criteria. INTERVENTION: A systematical literature search was conducted to identify eligible trials in electronic databases including PubMed, Embase, Scopus, EBSCO and Cochrane Library...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Anesthesia
Becky Rozier, Erica Liebelt
Acute ingestions of spherical lead ammunition foreign bodies such as bullets and lead shot can cause acute blood lead level elevations and clinical symptoms necessitating emergency department evaluations and sometimes treatment. This article presents 3 cases of children ingesting lead ammunition, all receiving gastrointestinal (GI) decontamination and chelation therapy for significantly elevated blood lead level. Case-specific exposures and treatments for the lead ammunitions are presented. Radiographs documented lead pellet ingestion in all 3 cases...
August 8, 2018: Pediatric Emergency Care
Dale N Gerding, Susan P Sambol, Stuart Johnson
The beneficial effect of colonization of the gastrointestinal tract by non-toxigenic Clostridioides difficile (NTCD) strains as a preventive of toxigenic C. difficile infection (CDI) has been known since the early 1980s. Investigators in both the USA and United Kingdom demonstrated that prior colonization by randomly selected NTCD strains provided prevention against infection by toxigenic C. difficile in hamsters, albeit with limited durability. In the 1980s two patients with multiply recurrent CDI in the UK were treated with vancomycin followed by NTCD to prevent further recurrences, with one success and one failure...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Sarah J Nevitt, Anthony G Marson, Jennifer Weston, Catrin Tudur Smith
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a common neurological condition in which abnormal electrical discharges from the brain cause recurrent unprovoked seizures. It is believed that with effective drug treatment up to 70% of individuals with active epilepsy have the potential to become seizure-free, and to go into long-term remission shortly after starting drug therapy with a single antiepileptic drug in monotherapy.Worldwide, sodium valproate and phenytoin are commonly used antiepileptic drugs for monotherapy treatment...
August 9, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Chamara Basnayake, Michael A Kamm, Michael Salzberg, Annalise Stanley, Angela Khera, Kathryn Burrell, Amy Wilson-O'Brien, Geoffrey Hebbard, Alexander J Thompson
BACKGROUND: Functional gastrointestinal disorders (FGIDs), are the commonest conditions observed in gastrointestinal (GI) practice, yet the outcomes of their outpatient care are not known. We evaluated the outcome for patients with FGIDs attending a specialist GI clinic. METHODS: Consecutive, newly referred patients with a FGID attending a specialist GI clinic in a tertiary hospital, over a one-year period were reviewed and then completed a phone survey to assess current symptoms...
August 8, 2018: Internal Medicine Journal
Elyssa Cannaerts, Anju Shukla, Mensuda Hasanhodzic, Maaike Alaerts, Dorien Schepers, Lut Van Laer, Katta M Girisha, Iva Hojsak, Bart Loeys, Aline Verstraeten
BACKGROUND: Mutations in the X-linked gene filamin A (FLNA), encoding the actin-binding protein FLNA, cause a wide spectrum of connective tissue, skeletal, cardiovascular and/or gastrointestinal manifestations. Males are typically more severely affected than females with common pre- or perinatal death. CASE PRESENTATION: We provide a genotype- and phenotype-oriented literature overview of FLNA hemizygous mutations and report on two live-born male FLNA mutation carriers...
August 8, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Kevin M Izquierdo, Ece Unal, John H Marks
Over the past 30 years, colorectal surgery has evolved to include minimally invasive surgical techniques. Minimally invasive surgery is associated with reduced postoperative pain, reduced wound complications, earlier return of bowel function, and possibly shorter length of hospital stay. These benefits have been attributed to a reduction in operative trauma compared to open surgery. The need to extract the specimen in colorectal operations through a "mini-laparotomy" can negate many of the advantages of minimally invasive surgery...
2018: Clinical and Experimental Gastroenterology
Ting-Ting Zhang, Rui Xue, Xin Wang, Shi-Wen Zhao, Lei An, Yun-Feng Li, You-Zhi Zhang, Shao Li
Current target-oriented paradigm for novel antidepressant discovery has been difficult to succeed and the failures always bring huge economic losses. Although abundant ledge of disease related genes and drug action targets has been accumulated, the successful application of the knowledge for new drug discovery is limited. Here, we predicted and validated potential antidepressants and molecular targets from DrugBank recorded drugs using a novel network-based drug repositioning approach. This approach predicted relationships between drug and targets through network-based integration of drug chemical similarity, therapeutic similarity and protein-protein interactions...
August 4, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Omar Alshuwaykh, Michael J Krier
BACKGROUND Heyde syndrome is the association between gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding from arteriovenous malformation (AVM) and aortic stenosis. The aim of this study was to review Heyde syndrome and to discuss the management of this condition. CASE REPORT A 56-year-old female with a history of severe aortic stenosis and recurrent GI bleeding secondary to small bowel AVM, presented for hospital admission with melena and maroon blood in her stool. The patient underwent esophagogastroduodenoscopy with push enteroscopy, full colonoscopy, and mesenteric angiogram with failure to identify any active bleeding sources...
August 7, 2018: American Journal of Case Reports
Parth Kanaiyalal Patel, Mishal Shah, Sanjeev Patni, Shashikant Saini
BACKGROUND: Anastomosis in gastrointestinal (GI) surgery is a commonly performed procedure. Irrelevant various methods of intestinal anastomosis were followed - recent advance is the use of a stapler as a device for GI anastomosis. Due to the use of staplers, technical failures are a rarity, anastomosis is more consistent and can be used at difficult locations. MATERIALS AND METHODS: : Between 2008 and August 2016, 75 patients with esophagus or gastroesophageal junction carcinoma underwent curative intent resection either via a right posterolateral thoracotomy (TTE) or transhiatal esophagectomy or video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery with linear stapler anastomosis...
October 2017: Indian Journal of Cancer
Renae Sattler, Amanda Bishop, Kathleen Woodie, Lori Polasek
The ability to monitor the estrus cycle in wild and captive marine species is important for identifying reproductive failures, ensuring a successful breeding program, and monitoring animal welfare. Minimally invasive sampling methods to monitor estrus in captive populations have been developed, but results suggest these tools can be species-specific in their precision and accuracy. Therefore, the minimally invasive sampling methods of trans-abdominal ultrasounds, a fecal steroid analysis (estrone-3-glucuronide, E1G), and vaginal cytology, were evaluated for their efficacy to characterize and monitor estrus in a captive breeding population of Steller sea lions (Eumetopias jubatus)...
July 27, 2018: Theriogenology
Birgit Puschner, Colette Wegenast
Ingestion of poisonous mushrooms by small animals can lead to liver failure, neurotoxicity, or gastrointestinal irritation. Although amanita poisoning can be lethal, ingestion of other toxic mushrooms is generally self-limiting and not life threatening. Most cases are undiagnosed, as routine diagnostic tests only exist for amanitins and psilocin. Early detection of amanitin exposure can greatly aid in the therapeutic intervention by allowing veterinarians to make timely decisions regarding patient management...
August 1, 2018: Veterinary Clinics of North America. Small Animal Practice
Mirna Chehade, Stacie M Jones, Robbie D Pesek, A Wesley Burks, Brian P Vickery, Robert A Wood, Donald Y M Leung, Glenn T Furuta, David M Fleischer, Alice K Henning, Peter Dawson, Robert W Lindblad, Scott H Sicherer, J Pablo Abonia, Joseph D Sherrill, Hugh A Sampson, Marc E Rothenberg
BACKGROUND: Eosinophilic esophagitis (EoE) is increasingly common, but data on phenotypic aspects are still incomplete. OBJECTIVES: To describe the clinical, endoscopic and histopathological features of a large number of children and adults with EoE across the US. METHODS: This was a multi-site single visit registry enrolling subjects aged 6 months-65 years with EoE. Participants provided responses regarding their medical history, with verification of the diagnosis and history by the study teams...
July 31, 2018: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology in Practice
Kyle J Berean, Nam Ha, Jian Zhen Ou, Adam F Chrimes, Danilla Grando, Chu K Yao, Jane G Muir, Stephanie A Ward, Rebecca E Burgell, Peter R Gibson, Kourosh Kalantar-Zadeh
BACKGROUND: Intestinal gases are currently used for the diagnosis of disorders including small intestinal bacterial overgrowth and carbohydrate malabsorption. AIM: To compare the performance of measuring hydrogen production within the gut directly with the telemetric gas-sensing capsule with that of indirect measurement through breath testing. METHODS: Using standard breath testing protocols, the capsules and breath tests were simultaneously evaluated in a single-blinded trial in 12 healthy subjects...
August 1, 2018: Alimentary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Marc S Rendell
Albiglutide is a long acting GLP-1 receptor agonist (GLP-1 RA) administered by weekly injection and approved for use in type 2 diabetes. It has less gastrointestinal side effects than other GLP-1 RAs in current use but does not improve HbA1c or promote weight loss to the same extent as some competitor agents. Area covered: The current use of albiglutide is discussed. The review encompassed a search of PubMed and a thorough analysis of the European Union and US Food and Drug Administration approval documents...
January 2018: Expert Review of Endocrinology & Metabolism
Chara Litou, Angela Effinger, Edmund S Kostewicz, Karl J Box, Nikoletta Fotaki, Jennifer B Dressman
OBJECTIVES: Drugs used to treat gastrointestinal diseases (GI drugs) are widely used either as prescription or over-the-counter (OTC) medications and belong to both the 10 most prescribed and 10 most sold OTC medications worldwide. The objective of this review article is to discuss the most frequent interactions between GI and other drugs, including identification of the mechanisms behind these interactions, where possible. KEY FINDINGS: Current clinical practice shows that in many cases, these drugs are administered concomitantly with other drug products...
July 30, 2018: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Paolo Orlandoni, Nikolina Jukic Peladic, Mirko Di Rosa, Claudia Venturini, Donata Fagnani, Debora Sparvoli, Natascia Giorgini, Redenta Basile, Claudia Cola
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: European and international guidelines advice against initiating tube-feeding in patients with severe dementia. These recommendations are based on studies with important methodological limitations that evaluated the benefits of artificial nutrition in patients with percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy almost exclusively in terms of the prolongation of survival. The aims of this study were to assess the harmful effects of home enteral nutrition administered via the nasogastric tube and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy in patients with advanced dementia in terms of mechanical, gastrointestinal and metabolic complications, to estimate the survival, to explore the risk factors for mortality and to compare the outcomes of patients with advanced dementia with those of patients without dementia...
July 20, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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