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Tomoyuki Miyashita, Emi Kikuchi, Junjiro Horiuchi, Minoru Saitoe
Training-dependent increases in c-fos have been used to identify engram cells encoding long-term memories (LTMs). However, the interaction between transcription factors required for LTM, including CREB and c-Fos, and activating kinases such as phosphorylated ERK (pERK) in the establishment of memory engrams has been unclear. Formation of LTM of an aversive olfactory association in flies requires repeated training trials with rest intervals between trainings. Here, we find that prolonged rest interval-dependent increases in pERK induce transcriptional cycling between c-Fos and CREB in a subset of KCs in the mushroom bodies, where olfactory associations are made and stored...
December 4, 2018: Cell Reports
Justine Fletcher, Bridget Hamilton, Stuart Kinner, Georgina Sutherland, Kylie King, Juan Jose Tellez, Carol Harvey, Lisa Brophy
There has been a shift towards provision of mental health care in community-based settings in Australia. However, hospitals continue to care for people in acute mental health wards. An increasing proportion of the people in wards are admitted involuntarily, subject to restrictions of movement to minimize risk of harm to self and others. In response to concerns about the safety of people absconding from care, Queensland Health introduced a policy requiring all acute mental health wards in the State to be locked...
December 5, 2018: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Lucinda M van Beerschoten, Ad de Jongh, Irene G Klugkist, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visual Schema Displacement Therapy (VSDT) is a novel therapy which has been described as a treatment for stress and dysfunction caused by a traumatic event. Although its developers claim this therapy is quicker and more beneficial than other forms of trauma therapy, its effectiveness has not been tested. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of VSDT to an abbreviated EMDR protocol and a non-active control condition (CC) in two studies. In Study 1 participants (N = 30) were asked to recall three negative emotional memories under three conditions: VSDT, EMDR, and a CC, each lasting 8 min...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Caitlin M Vander Weele, Cody A Siciliano, Kay M Tye
Decades of research suggest that the mesocortical dopamine system exerts powerful control over mPFC physiology and function. Indeed, dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in a vast array of processes, including working memory, stimulus discrimination, stress responses, and emotional and behavioral control. Consequently, even slight perturbations within this delicate system result in profound disruptions of mPFC-mediated processes. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulation of mesocortical dopamine, including schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, among others...
December 1, 2018: Brain Research
Christian Meyer, Srikanth Padmala, Luiz Pessoa
During real-life situations, multiple factors interact dynamically to determine threat level. In the current fMRI study involving healthy adult human volunteers, we investigated interactions between proximity, direction (approach vs. retreat), and speed during a dynamic threat-of-shock paradigm. As a measure of threat-evoked physiological arousal, skin conductance responses were recorded during fMRI scanning. Whereas some brain regions tracked individual threat-related factors, others were also sensitive to combinations of these variables...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Sarah E Calcutt, Darby Proctor, Sarah M Berman, Frans B M de Waal
Social risk is a domain of risk in which the costs, benefits, and uncertainty of an action depend on the behavior of another individual. Humans overvalue the costs of a socially risky decision when compared with that of purely economic risk. Here, we played a trust game with 8 female captive chimpanzees ( Pan troglodytes) to determine whether this bias exists in one of our closest living relatives. A correlation between an individual's social- and nonsocial-risk attitudes indicated stable individual variation, yet the chimpanzees were more averse to social than nonsocial risk...
December 4, 2018: Psychological Science
Matthew P Kronman, Adam L Hersh, Jason G Newland, Jeffrey S Gerber
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2018: Pediatrics
Carina Brown, Rebbia Shahab, Katherine Collins, Lazar Fleysher, Wayne K Goodman, Katherine E Burdick, Emily R Stern
Sensory phenomena (SP) are aversive or uncomfortable sensations that accompany and/or drive repetitive behaviors in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). Although SP are associated with significant distress and may respond less well to standard treatments than harm-related obsessions, little is known about their underlying neurobiology. The present study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) to measure brain functioning related to severity of SP during a "body-focused" videos task designed to elicit activation in sensorimotor brain regions...
November 21, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
David Nguyen, Erind Alushaj, Suzanne Erb, Rutsuko Ito
The dorsal striatum is traditionally known for its role in sensorimotor integration. However, the dorsomedial striatum (DMS) has also been implicated in cost-benefit conflict processing, a role more readily attributed to the ventral striatum (VS), as a site of limbic-motor integration. We recently showed that dopaminergic D1 (D1R) and D2 receptors (D2R) in the VS exert dissociable control over cue-elicited approach-avoidance decision-making, in the presence of conflicting motivational stimuli. We therefore sought to investigate the contribution of DMS dopaminergic receptors in the regulation of cue-elicited and innate approach-avoidance decision-making...
November 30, 2018: Neuropharmacology
Johannes Griessner, Manuel Pasieka, Vincent Böhm, Florian Grössl, Joanna Kaczanowska, Pinelopi Pliota, Dominic Kargl, Barbara Werner, Nadia Kaouane, Sandra Strobelt, Silke Kreitz, Andreas Hess, Wulf Haubensak
Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have been a standard treatment for anxiety disorders for decades, but the neuronal circuit interactions mediating their anxiolytic effect remain largely unknown. Here, we find that systemic BZDs modulate central amygdala (CEA) microcircuit activity to gate amygdala output. Combining connectome data with immediate early gene (IEG) activation maps, we identified the CEA as a primary site for diazepam (DZP) anxiolytic action. Deep brain calcium imaging revealed that brain-wide DZP interactions shifted neuronal activity in CEA microcircuits...
November 30, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
Shuo Huang, Stephanie L Borgland, Gerald W Zamponi
Chronic pain is a massive socieoeconomic burden and is often refractory to treatment. To devise novel therapeutic interventions, it is important to understand in detail the processing of pain signals in the brain. Recent studies have revealed shared features between the brain's reward and pain systems. Dopamine (DA) is a key neuromodulator in the mesocorticolimbic system that has been implicated not only in motivated behaviours, reinforcement learning and reward processing, but also in the pain axis. The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is an important region mediating executive functions including attention, judgement, and learning...
November 29, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Maryanne Syrmis, Nadine Frederiksen, Claire Reilly
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to characterise the content of hospital parent guides related to pediatric tube feeding. DESIGN AND METHODS: A naturalistic search strategy was used to retrieve parent guides produced by hospitals using Google. Guides were analysed and content identified as being associated with codes which were derived from previous research into the education of parents on tube feeding and the prevention and treatment of tube feeding dependency and tube weaning...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Nursing
Johannes W de Jong, Seyedeh Atiyeh Afjei, Iskra Pollak Dorocic, James R Peck, Christine Liu, Christina K Kim, Lin Tian, Karl Deisseroth, Stephan Lammel
Ventral tegmental area (VTA) dopamine (DA) neurons play a central role in mediating motivated behaviors, but the circuitry through which they signal positive and negative motivational stimuli is incompletely understood. Using in vivo fiber photometry, we simultaneously recorded activity in DA terminals in different nucleus accumbens (NAc) subnuclei during an aversive and reward conditioning task. We find that DA terminals in the ventral NAc medial shell (vNAcMed) are excited by unexpected aversive outcomes and to cues that predict them, whereas DA terminals in other NAc subregions are persistently depressed...
November 19, 2018: Neuron
Michael Q Steinman, Natalia Duque-Wilckens, Brian C Trainor
Oxytocin (OT) is widely known for promoting social interactions, but there is growing appreciation that it can sometimes induce avoidance of social contexts. The social salience hypothesis posed an innovative solution to these apparently opposing actions by proposing that OT enhances the salience of both positive and negative social interactions. The mesolimbic dopamine system was put forth as a likely system to evaluate social salience owing to its well-described role in motivation. Evidence from several sources supports the premise that OT acting within the nucleus accumbens and ventral tegmental area facilitates social reward and approach behavior...
October 25, 2018: Biological Psychiatry
Tatsurou Serita, Mizuki Miyahara, Toshiyuki Tanimizu, Shohei Takahashi, Satoru Oishi, Taikai Nagayoshi, Ryuhei Tsuji, Hirofumi Inoue, Mariko Uehara, Satoshi Kida
Magnesium (Mg2+ ) is an essential mineral for maintaining biological functions. One major action of Mg2+ in the brain is modulating the voltage-dependent blockade of N-methyl-D-aspartate type glutamate receptors, thereby controlling their opening, which is crucial for synaptic plasticity. Therefore, Mg2+ has been shown to play critical roles in learning and memory, and synaptic plasticity. However, the effects of dietary Mg2+ deficiency (MgD) on learning and memory and the morphology of neurons contributing to memory performance have not been examined in depth...
November 27, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Wojciech B Solecki, Natalia Kus, Katarzyna Gralec, Adam Klasa, Kamil Pradel, Ryszard Przewłocki
Somatic and motivational symptoms accompanying opiate withdrawal are considered one of the major reasons for relapse to opiate-seeking and opiate-taking behaviors. These symptoms are accompanied by the activation of stress-related processes including hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and noradrenergic (NA) signaling. In particular, the NA system plays an important role in the expression of somatic signs of opiate withdrawal, whereas glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR) are activated during opiate abstinence...
November 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Magdalena Sikora, Urszula Skupio, Kamila Jastrzebska, Jan Rodriguez Parkitna, Ryszard Przewlocki
Novelty- and sensation-seeking behaviors induce activity of the brain reward system and are associated with increased susceptibility to drug abuse. Endogenous opioids have been implicated in reward-related behavior; however, the involvement of specific opioid receptors in the mechanism of sensation seeking is unknown. Here, we show that selective inhibition of opioid receptors reduce operant sensation seeking in mice. Administration of naltrexone (a nonselective opioid antagonist) reduced instrumental responding for sensory stimuli at one of the tested doses (2 mg/kg)...
November 27, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Hideaki Tani, Mitsuhiro Tada, Takaki Maeda, Mika Konishi, Satoshi Umeda, Yuri Terasawa, Masaru Mimura, Takuya Takahashi, Hiroyuki Uchida
AIM: While emotional processing is implicated in various psychiatric illnesses, its differences among diagnoses are unclear. We compared associative learning of social values in patients with depression and schizophrenia by measuring skin conductance response (SCR) to the interpersonal stimuli. METHODS: We included twenty female outpatients each with depression and schizophrenia. They underwent Pavlovian conditioning experiments in response to a classical aversive sound, and an interpersonal stimulus that was designed to cause aversive social conditioning with actors' faces coupled with negative verbal messages...
November 29, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Da-Wei Zhang, Stuart J Johnstone, Hui Li, Robert J Barry, Adam R Clarke, Qihua Zhao, Yan Song, Lu Liu, Qiujin Qian, Yufeng Wang, Li Sun
In this study we extend on behavioural evidence to examine the effect of time on EEG measures related to arousal and emotion/motivation in children with/without AD/HD. Thirty children with AD/HD and 30 age- and sex-matched controls participated. EEG was recorded during an eyes-closed resting condition and divided into three 2.5 min blocks after pre-processing. Time effects for absolute and relative alpha activity were found in healthy controls; these effects did not interact with AD/HD status. Interactions between time and AD/HD status were found for absolute theta, relative theta, and theta/beta ratio (TBR), with these EEG indices increasing over time in children with AD/HD...
November 29, 2018: Brain Topography
H Schwarzmeier, N I Kleint, H U Wittchen, A Ströhle, A O Hamm, U Lueken
Emotional-associative learning represents a translational model for the development, maintenance and treatment of anxiety disorders such as panic disorder (PD). The exact nature of the underlying fear learning and extinction deficits however, remains under debate. Using a three-day paradigm to separate the distinct learning and consolidation processes, we aimed to gain insights into the neurofunctional substrates of altered fear conditioning, extinction training and recall in PD. In contrast to studies employing one-session fear conditioning paradigms, a differential fear conditioning and delayed extinction task was conducted for the purpose of disentangling neural networks involved in fear acquisition, extinction training and recall of extinction memories...
November 26, 2018: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
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