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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30334086/stereoselective-effects-of-the-second-generation-synthetic-cathinone-%C3%AE-pyrrolidinopentiophenone-%C3%AE-pvp-assessments-of-conditioned-taste-avoidance-in-rats
#1
Katharine H Nelson, Raul López-Arnau, Briana J Hempel, Peter To, Hayley N Manke, Madeline E Crissman, Matthew M Clasen, Kenner C Rice, Anthony L Riley
RATIONALE: Work with α-pyrrolidinopentiophenone (α-PVP), a second-generation synthetic cathinone, has been generally limited to the racemate. Given that with other synthetic cathinones, there are behavioral and neurochemical differences between their enantiomers, differences may also be seen with α-PVP. OBJECTIVES: The present study assessed the relative contribution of each enantiomer to the aversive effects of racemic-α-PVP by comparing their ability to induce a conditioned taste avoidance...
October 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333725/deletion-of-long-isoform-of-eukaryotic-elongation-factor-1b%C3%AE-leads-to-audiogenic-seizures-and-aversive-stimulus-induced-long-lasting-activity-suppression-in-mice
#2
Taku Kaitsuka, Hiroshi Kiyonari, Aki Shiraishi, Kazuhito Tomizawa, Masayuki Matsushita
Alternative splicing enables a gene to give rise to diverse protein products. The Eef1d gene produces two isoforms: a short isoform that encodes translation elongation factor 1Bδ (eEF1Bδ1), and a long isoform that encodes the heat shock-responsive transcription factor eEF1BδL. Previously, we found that eEF1BδL was a splice variant that was specific to the brain and testis, and the protein encoded is thought to have a function in the central nervous system. In this study, we generated knockout (KO) mice of C57BL/6J background that selectively lacked a specific exon in Eef1d for the long isoform...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333686/an-assemblage-approach-to-liquid-warfare-africom-and-the-hunt-for-joseph-kony
#3
Jolle Demmers, Lauren Gould
The Western state-led turn to remote forms of military intervention as recently deployed in the Middle East and across Africa is often explained as resulting from risk aversion (avoidance of ground combat), materiality ('the force of matter') or the adoption of a networked operational logic by major military powers, mimicking the 'hit-and-run' tactics of their enemies. Although recognizing the mobilizing capacities of these phenomena, we argue that the new military interventionism is prompted by a more fundamental transformation, grounded in the spatial and temporal reconfiguration of war...
October 2018: Security Dialogue
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30333302/modulations-of-human-resting-brain-connectivity-by-kisspeptin-enhance-sexual-and-emotional-functions
#4
Alexander N Comninos, Lysia Demetriou, Matthew B Wall, Amar J Shah, Sophie A Clarke, Shakunthala Narayanaswamy, Alexander Nesbitt, Chioma Izzi-Engbeaya, Julia K Prague, Ali Abbara, Risheka Ratnasabapathy, Lisa Yang, Victoria Salem, Gurjinder M Nijher, Channa N Jayasena, Mark Tanner, Paul Bassett, Amrish Mehta, John McGonigle, Eugenii A Rabiner, Stephen R Bloom, Waljit S Dhillo
BACKGROUND: Resting brain connectivity is a crucial component of human behavior demonstrated by disruptions in psychosexual and emotional disorders. Kisspeptin, a recently identified critical reproductive hormone, can alter activity in certain brain structures but its effects on resting brain connectivity and networks in humans remain elusive. METHODS: We determined the effects of kisspeptin on resting brain connectivity (using functional neuroimaging) and behavior (using psychometric analyses) in healthy men, in a randomized double-blinded 2-way placebo-controlled study...
October 18, 2018: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30332645/dopamine-neurons-mediate-learning-and-forgetting-through-bidirectional-modulation-of-a-memory-trace
#5
Jacob A Berry, Anna Phan, Ronald L Davis
It remains unclear how memory engrams are altered by experience, such as new learning, to cause forgetting. Here, we report that short-term aversive memory in Drosophila is encoded by and retrieved from the mushroom body output neuron MBOn-γ2α'1. Pairing an odor with aversive electric shock creates a robust depression in the calcium response of MBOn-γ2α'1 and increases avoidance to the paired odor. Electric shock after learning, which activates the cognate dopamine neuron DAn-γ2α'1, restores the response properties of MBOn-γ2α'1 and causes behavioral forgetting...
October 16, 2018: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30329042/integrated-co-located-telemedicine-based-treatment-approaches-for-hepatitis-c-virus-hcv-management-in-opioid-use-disorder-patients-on-methadone
#6
Andrew H Talal, Phyllis Andrews, Anthony Mcleod, Yang Chen, Clewert Sylvester, Marianthi Markatou, Lawrence S Brown
Background and aims: Despite high hepatitis C virus (HCV) prevalence, opioid use disorder (OUD) patients on methadone rarely engage in HCV treatment. We investigated the effectiveness of HCV management via telemedicine in an opioid substitution therapy (OST) program. Methods: OUD patients on methadone underwent biweekly telemedicine sessions between a hepatologist and physician assistant during the entire HCV treatment course. All pretreatment labs (HCV RNA, genotype and noninvasive fibrosis assessments) were obtained onsite and direct acting antivirals were co-administered with methadone using modified directly observed therapy...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30328557/association-of-degree-of-loss-aversion-and-grey-matter-volume-in-superior-frontal-gyrus-by-voxel-based-morphometry
#7
Ce Li, Xue-Qin Wang, Can-Hong Wen, Hai-Zhu Tan
Loss-aversion behaviors reflect individuals' personal preference bias when they meet uncertainties and measure the potential gains and losses of the uncertain situations before making a decision. Such behaviors are common and well documented in daily life; one example is irrational financial investments. The exact neural mechanisms for these loss-aversion behaviors have been widely discussed. In this study, we explored the neural mechanisms of loss-aversion behaviors by using voxel-based morphometry of brain regions based on two datasets...
October 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30327659/minimal-risk-seed-heteromorphism-proportions-of-seed-morphs-for-optimal-risk-averse-heteromorphic-strategies
#8
P William Hughes
Seed heteromorphism is the reproductive strategy characterized by the simultaneous production of multiple seed types. While comparing heteromorphic to monomorphic strategies is mathematically simple, there is no explicit test for assessing which ratio of seed morphs minimizes fitness variance, and hence offers a basis for comparing different heteromorphic strategies. Such a test may be particularly valuable when more than two distinct morphs are present, since many strategies may have equivalent geometric fitnesses...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322983/innate-visual-preferences-and-behavioral-flexibility-in-drosophila
#9
Martyna J Grabowska, James Steeves, Julius Alpay, Matthew van de Poll, Deniz Ertekin, Bruno van Swinderen
Visual decision-making in animals is influenced by innate preferences as well as experience. Interaction between hard-wired responses and changing motivational states determines whether a visual stimulus is attractive, aversive, or neutral. It is however difficult to separate the relative contribution of nature versus nurture in experimental paradigms, especially for more complex visual parameters such as the shape of objects. We used a closed-loop virtual reality paradigm for walking Drosophila flies to uncover innate visual preferences for the shape and size of objects, in a recursive choice scenario allowing the flies to reveal their visual preferences over time...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322892/the-role-of-the-gustatory-cortex-in-incidental-experience-evoked-enhancement-of-later-taste-learning
#10
Veronica L Flores, Tamar Parmet, Narendra Mukherjee, Sacha Nelson, Donald B Katz, David Levitan
The strength of learned associations between pairs of stimuli is affected by multiple factors, the most extensively studied of which is prior experience with the stimuli themselves. In contrast, little data is available regarding how experience with "incidental" stimuli (independent of any conditioning situation) impacts later learning. This lack of research is striking given the importance of incidental experience to survival. We have recently begun to fill this void using conditioned taste aversion (CTA), wherein an animal learns to avoid a taste that has been associated with malaise...
November 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322483/age-as-a-factor-in-stress-and-alcohol-interactions-a-critical-role-for-the-kappa-opioid-system
#11
REVIEW
Marvin Rafael Diaz, Kathryn Renee Przybysz, Siara K Rouzer
The endogenous kappa opioid system has primarily been shown to be involved with a state of dysphoria and aversion. Stress and exposure to drugs of abuse, particularly alcohol, can produce similar states of unease and anxiety, implicating the kappa opioid system as a target of stress and alcohol. Numerous behavioral studies have demonstrated reduced sensitivity to manipulations of the kappa opioid system in early life relative to adulthood, and recent reports have shown that the kappa opioid system is functionally different across ontogeny...
November 2018: Alcohol
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321807/the-effect-of-paroxetine-venlafaxine-and-bupropion-administration-alone-and-combined-on-spatial-and-aversive-memory-performance-in-rats
#12
Carlos Eduardo de Souza Menezes, Roger S McIntyre, Adriano José Maia Chaves Filho, Silvânia Maria Mendes Vasconcelos, Francisca Cléa Florenço de Sousa, João Quevedo, Thomas N Hyphantis, André F Carvalho, Danielle Macêdo
BACKGROUND: The use of antidepressants in combination is common practice following non-response to single antidepressant agents. Nevertheless, the scientific literature lacks preclinical studies regarding the combined administration of antidepressants across multiple behavioral measures including, but not limited to, cognition. Hence, we aimed to determine the effects of paroxetine (PAR), venlafaxine (VEN) and bupropion (BUP) alone or combined (PAR + BUP or VEN + BUP) on spatial and affective memory tasks to advance the knowledge about the combined use of antidepressants in cognition...
July 21, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321346/response-to-a-selection-index-including-environmental-costs-and-risk-preferences-of-producers
#13
Beshir M Ali, John W M Bastiaansen, Yann de Mey, Alfons G J M Oude Lansink
Genetic improvement of animals plays an important role in improving the economic and environmental sustainability of livestock production systems. This paper proposes a method to incorporate mitigation of environmental impacts and risk preferences of producers into a breeding objective via economic values (EVs). The paper assesses the effects of using these alternative EVs of breeding goal traits on discounted economic response to selection and on environmental impacts at commercial farm level. The application focuses on a Brazilian pig production system...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321293/detection-of-inflammation-via-volatile-cues-in-human-urine
#14
Amy R Gordon, Bruce A Kimball, Kimmo Sorjonen, Bianka Karshikoff, John Axelsson, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Contagious disease is a major threat to survival, and the cost of relying on the immune system to defeat pathogens is high; therefore, behavioral avoidance of contagious individuals is arguably an adaptive strategy. Animal findings demonstrate the ability to detect and avoid sick individuals by the aid of olfactory cues, and a recent study indicated that human axillary odor also becomes more aversive as a function of immune activation. By injecting healthy human participants with lipopolysaccharide (0.6 ng/kg body weight) to experimentally induce inflammation, this study demonstrates that natural daily rhythms of urine odor-its perceived dimensions and volatile profile-are altered within hours of inflammation onset...
September 24, 2018: Chemical Senses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321037/emotion-regulation-conflict-resolution-and-spillover-on-subsequent-family-functioning
#15
Rachel S T Low, Nickola C Overall, Emily J Cross, Annette M E Henderson
How does emotion regulation in one social context spillover to functioning in another? We investigate this novel question by drawing upon recent evidence that 3 categories underpin the most commonly assessed emotion regulation strategies: disengagement, aversive cognitive perseveration, and adaptive engagement. We examine how these emotion regulation categories during marital conflict are associated with conflict resolution and assess the associated implications for functioning during a subsequent family activity...
October 15, 2018: Emotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320606/punishment-and-reinforcement-by-opioid-receptor-agonists-in-a-choice-procedure-in-rats
#16
Vanessa Minervini, Daniela C Osteicoechea, Angelo Casalez, Charles P France
Intravenous (i.v.) drug self-administration remains the 'gold standard' for assessing abuse potential of drugs. Failure of a drug to maintain self-administration might indicate merely the absence of positive-reinforcing effects but might also indicate presence of aversive effects. Sensitivity to aversive effects is thought to affect the initiation and maintenance of drug use as well as relapse. Choice procedures are used to study positive-reinforcing effects of drugs and to a much lesser extent to study punishing effects of drugs...
October 12, 2018: Behavioural Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319361/extended-combined-neonatal-treatment-with-erythropoietin-plus-melatonin-prevents-posthemorrhagic-hydrocephalus-of-prematurity-in-rats
#17
Shenandoah Robinson, Fatu S Conteh, Akosua Y Oppong, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Jessie C Newville, Nagat El Demerdash, Christine L Shrock, Jessie R Maxwell, Stephen Jett, Frances J Northington, Lauren L Jantzie
Posthemorrhagic hydrocephalus of prematurity (PHHP) remains a global challenge. Early preterm infants (<32 weeks gestation), particularly those exposed to chorioamnionitis (CAM), are prone to intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) and PHHP. We established an age-appropriate, preclinical model of PHHP with progressive macrocephaly and ventriculomegaly to test whether non-surgical neonatal treatment could modulate PHHP. We combined prenatal CAM and postnatal day 1 (P1, equivalent to 30 weeks human gestation) IVH in rats, and administered systemic erythropoietin (EPO) plus melatonin (MLT), or vehicle, from P2 to P10...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319349/epinephrine-released-during-traumatic-events-may-strengthen-contextual-fear-memory-through-increased-hippocampus-mrna-expression-of-nr4a-transcription-factors
#18
Ana Oliveira, Raquel Martinho, Paula Serrão, Mónica Moreira-Rodrigues
Epinephrine (EPI) strengthens contextual fear memories by acting on peripheral β2 -adrenoceptors. Phenylethanolamine- N -methyltransferase-knockout (Pnmt-KO) mice are EPI-deficient mice and have reduced contextual fear learning. Our aim was to evaluate the molecular mechanisms by which peripheral EPI strengthens contextual fear memory and if a β2 -adrenoceptor antagonist can erase contextual fear memories. Pnmt-KO and wild-type (WT) mice were submitted to fear conditioning (FC) procedure after treatment with EPI, norepinephrine (NE), EPI plus ICI 118,551 (selective β2 -adrenoceptor antagonist), ICI 118,551 or vehicle (NaCl 0...
2018: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317689/no-evidence-of-quantitative-signal-honesty-across-species-of-aposematic-burnet-moths-lepidoptera-zygaenidae
#19
Emmanuelle Sophie Briolat, Mika Zagrobelny, Carl Erik Olsen, Jonathan D Blount, Martin Stevens
Many defended species use conspicuous visual warning signals to deter potential predators from attacking. Traditional theory holds that these signals should converge on similar forms, yet variation in visual traits and the levels of defensive chemicals is common, both within and between species. It is currently unclear how the strength of signals and potency of defences might be related: conflicting theories suggest that aposematic signals should be quantitatively honest, or, in contrast, that investment in one component should be prioritised over the other, while empirical tests have yielded contrasting results...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30314288/kappa-opioid-receptor-agonist-mesyl-sal-b-attenuates-behavioral-sensitization-to-cocaine-with-fewer-aversive-side-effects-than-salvinorin-a-in-rodents
#20
Bronwyn M Kivell, Kelly F Paton, Nitin Kumar, Aashish S Morani, Aimee Culverhouse, Amy Shepherd, Susan A Welsh, Andrew Biggerstaff, Rachel S Crowley, Thomas E Prisinzano
The acute activation of kappa opioid receptors (KOPr) produces antinociceptive and anti-cocaine effects, however, their side-effects have limited further clinical development. Mesyl Sal B is a potent and selective KOPr analogue of Salvinorin A (Sal A), a psychoactive natural product isolated from the plant Salvia divinorum . We assessed the antinociceptive, anti-cocaine, and side-effects of Mesyl Sal B. The anti-cocaine effects are evaluated in cocaine-induced hyperactivity and behavioral sensitization to cocaine in male Sprague Dawley rats...
October 11, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
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