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Bertram Richter, Jeff Bergman, James Pierre, Nestor D Tomycz
Loin Pain Hematuria Syndrome (LPHS) is a rare condition characterized by cryptogenic debilitating flank pain and microscopic or macroscopic hematuria. The pathophysiology of LPHS remains poorly understood and diagnosis is made largely by exclusion of alternate pathology. Management strategies can vary widely and include chronic opioid medication and a variety of invasive procedures including regional nerve blocks, transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation, local capsaicin infusion, and surgical renal denervation...
December 16, 2018: Pain Practice: the Official Journal of World Institute of Pain
August E Woerner, Jonathan L King, Bruce Budowle
Compound repeats provide a testing ground for evaluating hypotheses on the causes and consequences of stutter. As compound repeats have two repeating motifs, each motif may produce stutter variants; thus as the repeat within the locus is compound, so is the resultant stutter. Further, the rates of stutter formation between these motifs may not be independent. This lack of independence may complicate modeling strategies, thus contributing to the challenges of mixture interpretation that rely on nucleotide sequence...
December 7, 2018: Forensic Science International. Genetics
Jaasmit Khurana, Vivian Ip, Gerald Todd, Rakesh V Sondekoppam
Pain control following major abdominal surgery remains a significant barrier to patient comfort. Although thoracic epidurals have been used to provide analgesia for these surgeries, the transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is gaining popularity. The TAP catheter insertion method has transformed over the past two decades from a blinded technique to one conducted primarily under ultrasound guidance by anesthesiologists. Recently, however, interest has increased on the potential for direct surgical insertion of catheters into the TAP plane following flank incisions due to anatomical considerations...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Urology
Timothy Baloda, Scott Greenberg, Paula Bellin
OBJECTIVE: To describe the presentation of a rare isolated ureteropelvic junction injury resulting from a mechanical fall on ice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A 71-year-old previously healthy man presented to the emergency department at the University of Massachusetts Medical School three hours following falling on ice with complaints of gross hematuria and flank pain. Patient records were accessed via the institution's electronic medical records system between March 22, 2018 and April 22, 2018...
December 12, 2018: Urology
Patrick van Eijk, Shuvro Prokash Nandi, Shirong Yu, Mark Bennett, Matthew Leadbitter, Yumin Teng, Simon H Reed
Repair of UV-induced DNA damage requires chromatin remodeling. How repair is initiated in chromatin remains largely unknown. We recently demonstrated that global genome-nucleotide excision repair (GG-NER) in chromatin is organized into domains in relation to open reading frames. Here, we define these domains, identifying the genomic locations from which repair is initiated. By examining DNA damage-induced changes in the linear structure of nucleosomes at these sites, we demonstrate how chromatin remodeling is initiated during GG-NER...
December 14, 2018: Genome Research
Anjali Sengar, J Jeya Vandana, Vicki S Chambers, Marco Di Antonio, Fernaldo Richtia Winnerdy, Shankar Balasubramanian, Anh Tuân Phan
Poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase 1 (PARP1) has emerged as an attractive target for cancer therapy due to its key role in DNA repair processes. Inhibition of PARP1 in BRCA-mutated cancers has been observed to be clinically beneficial. Recent genome-mapping experiments have identified a non-canonical G-quadruplex-forming sequence containing bulges within the PARP1 promoter. Structural features, like bulges, provide opportunities for selective chemical targeting of the non-canonical G-quadruplex structure within the PARP1 promoter, which could serve as an alternative therapeutic approach for the regulation of PARP1 expression...
December 15, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Andreas Bernd Bellan, Paul Knochel
Substituted arenes flanked by two bulky triethylsilyl groups are regiospecifically lithiated in 5-position with nBuLi•PMDTA at 25 °C. The resulting aryllithiums reacted with a broad range of electrophiles such as ketones, isocyanates, Weinreb-amides, allyl bromides or CO2 at 25 °C. These bis-silylated arenes were converted in simple reaction sequences to silyl-free tetrasubstituted arenes. This remote lithiation was extended to 2,6-bis(triethylsilyl)pyridine as well as a 3,3'-bis(triethylsilyl)biphenyl.
December 13, 2018: Angewandte Chemie
Miroslav Hejna, Wooyoung M Moon, Jeffrey Cheng, Akinori Kawakami, David E Fisher, Jun S Song
MITF and MYC are well-known oncoproteins and members of the basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper (bHLH-Zip) family of transcription factors (TFs) recognizing hexamer E-box motifs. MITF and MYC not only share the core binding motif, but are also the two most highly expressed bHLH-Zip transcription factors in melanocytes, raising the possibility that they may compete for the same binding sites in select oncogenic targets. Mechanisms determining the distinct and potentially overlapping binding modes of these critical oncoproteins remain uncharacterized...
December 7, 2018: Pigment Cell & Melanoma Research
Dongchang Sun, Lin Wang, Xudan Mao, Mingyue Fei, Yiyang Chen, Minjia Shen, Juanping Qiu
OBJECTIVES: To develop a convenient chemical transformation mediated CRISPR/Cas9 (CT-CRISPR/Cas9) system for genome editing in Escherichia coli. RESULTS: Here, we have constructed a CT-CRISPR/Cas9 system, which can precisely edit bacterial genome (replacing, deleting, inserting or point mutating a target gene) through chemical transformation. Compared with the traditional electroporation mediated CRISPR/Cas9 (ET-CRISPR/Cas9) system, genome editing with the CT-CRISPR/Cas9 system is much cheaper and simpler...
December 13, 2018: Biotechnology Letters
Max Coulter, Bianca Büttner, Kerstin Hofmann, Micha Bayer, Luke Ramsay, Günther Schweizer, Robbie Waugh, Mark E Looseley, Anna Avrova
Major resistance gene to rhynchosporium, Rrs18, maps close to the telomere on the short arm of chromosome 6H in barley. Rhynchosporium or barley scald caused by a fungal pathogen Rhynchosporium commune is one of the most destructive and economically important diseases of barley in the world. Testing of Steptoe × Morex and CIho 3515 × Alexis doubled haploid populations has revealed a large effect QTL for resistance to R. commune close to the telomere on the short arm of chromosome 6H, present in both populations...
December 13, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Sakthivel Chinnakkulam Kandhasamy, Anubhav Sangwan, Ashok K Sahoo, Gopalakrishnan Gunasekaran, Neelam Sahani, Thangadurai Ramasamy Raju, Subhashini Puducherry Ravichandran
Cecal leiomyomas are rare benign tumors of smooth muscle arising from the colonic muscularis mucosa or muscularis propria. They are usually asymptomatic in nature and, if symptomatic, may present as pain in the abdomen, intestinal obstruction, or bleeding. In some cases, leiomyoma can cause free perforation leading to peritonitis. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) and colonoscopy were the diagnostic modalities used for evaluation. It is extremely unusual for a benign lesion of the cecum to present as a ruptured subcutaneous abscess...
October 9, 2018: Curēus
Jennifer Brandstätter, Walter Kurz, Sylvain Richoz, Matthew J Cooper, Damon A H Teagle
Carbonate veins in the igneous basement and in the lithified sedimentary cover of the Cocos Ridge at International Ocean Discovery Program (IODP) Hole 344-U1414A reveal the hydrologic system and fluid-rock interactions. IODP Hole 344-U1414A was drilled on the northern flank of the Cocos Ridge and is situated 1 km seaward from the Middle America Trench offshore Costa Rica. Isotopic and elemental compositions were analyzed to constrain the fluid source of the carbonate veins and to reveal the thermal history of Hole 344-U1414A...
October 2018: Geochemistry, Geophysics, Geosystems: G³
Janaina O Melo, Laura G C Martins, Beatriz A Barros, Maiana R Pimenta, Ubiraci G P Lana, Christiane E M Duarte, Maria M Pastina, Claudia T Guimaraes, Robert E Schaffert, Leon V Kochian, Elizabeth P B Fontes, Jurandir V Magalhaes
Acidic soils, where aluminum (Al) toxicity is a major agricultural constraint, are globally widespread and are prevalent in developing countries. In sorghum, the root citrate transporter SbMATE confers Al tolerance by protecting root apices from toxic Al3+ , but can exhibit reduced expression when introgressed into different lines. We show that allele-specific SbMATE transactivation occurs and is caused by factors located away from SbMATE Using expression-QTL mapping and expression genome-wide association mapping, we establish that SbMATE transcription is controlled in a bipartite fashion, primarily in cis but also in trans Multiallelic promoter transactivation and ChIP analyses demonstrated that intermolecular effects on SbMATE expression arise from a WRKY and a zinc finger-DHHC transcription factor (TF) that bind to and trans -activate the SbMATE promoter...
December 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Makiko Yashiro, Hiroshi Furukawa, Tomoyuki Asano, Shuzo Sato, Hiroko Kobayashi, Hiroshi Watanabe, Eiji Suzuki, Tadashi Nakamura, Tomohiro Koga, Toshimasa Shimizu, Masataka Umeda, Fumiaki Nonaka, Yukitaka Ueki, Katsumi Eguchi, Atsushi Kawakami, Kiyoshi Migita
Adult-onset Still's disease (AOSD) is a rare systemic inflammatory disorder in which inflammasome activation plays a pathophysiological role. In view of the inflammatory nature of AOSD, we investigated whether serum amyloid A (SAA) gene polymorphisms affect the susceptibility of patients with AOSD.Eighty-seven Japanese patients with AOSD and 200 healthy Japanese subjects were recruited in this study. The genotypes of the -13C/T SNP in the 5'-flanking region of the SAA1 gene (rs12218) and two SNPs within exon 3 of SAA1 (2995C/T and 3010C/T polymorphisms) were determined using polymerase chain reaction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) assay in all subjects...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chastity Li, Claudia Danilowicz, Tommy F Tashjian, Veronica G Godoy, Chantal Prévost, Mara Prentiss
Bacterial recombinational repair of double-strand breaks often begins with creation of initiating 3' single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) tails on each side of a double-strand break (DSB). Importantly, if the RecBCD pathway is followed, RecBCD creates a gap between the sequences at 3' ends of the initiating strands. The gap flanks the DSB and extends at least to the nearest Chi site on each strand. Once the initiating strands form ssDNA-RecA filaments, each ssDNA-RecA filament searches for homologous double-stranded DNA (dsDNA) to use as a template for the DNA synthesis needed to fill the gap created by RecBCD...
December 14, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Kensuke Hikami, Masakatsu Ueda, Noboru Shibasaki, Hiroshi Yasui, Toshiya Akao
A 71-year-old man with left flank pain was referred to our hospital. Computed tomography (CT) revealed a left renal tumor, left renal pelvic wall thickening, bilateral adrenal gland swelling, multiple pulmonary nodules, and a bone metastatic tumor. Further, positron emission tomography/CT revealed increased 18F fluorodeoxyglucose uptake in the left renal tumor, multiple pulmonary nodules, and bone metastatic tumor. Accordingly, we performed biopsies of the thickening of the left renal pelvic wall and bone metastatic tumor, and histological examinations revealed an unknown type carcinoma and bone metastasis from clear cell carcinoma...
November 2018: Hinyokika Kiyo. Acta Urologica Japonica
Jun Zhang, Yan Hong
In this chapter, we present detailed experimental procedures for investigating integration patterns of transgenes in cotton genome. We use conventional PCR and genomic Southern blot hybridization to characterize integration of T-DNA components and vector backbone fragments. For multiple-copy insertions into the same site (complex loci), transgene/transgene junctions (including canonical and truncated T-DNA and transgene involved vector backbone sequences) are characterized by PCR and sequencing. Inverse PCR and sequencing are used to characterize transgene/cotton genome junctions...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Kelsie L Becklin, Branden A Smeester, Branden S Moriarity
Transposable elements are DNA sequences with the ability to move from one genomic location to another. The movement of class II transposable elements has been functionally harnessed and separated into two distinct DNA transposon components: the terminal inverted repeat sequences that flank genetic cargo to be mobilized and a transposase enzyme capable of recognizing the terminal inverted repeat sequences and catalyzing the transposition reaction. In particular, the Sleeping Beauty (SB) system was the first successful demonstration of transposon-based gene transfer in vertebrate species...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Cynthia L Walker, Atsuko Uchida, Yinyun Li, Niraj Trivedi, J Daniel Fenn, Paula C Monsma, Roxanne C Lariviére, Jean-Pierre Julien, Peter Jung, Anthony Brown
Myelinated axons are constricted at nodes of Ranvier. These constrictions are important physiologically because they increase the speed of saltatory nerve conduction, but they also represent potential bottlenecks for the movement of axonally transported cargoes. One type of cargo are neurofilaments, which are abundant space-filling cytoskeletal polymers that function to increase axon caliber. Neurofilaments move bidirectionally along axons, alternating between rapid movements and prolonged pauses. Strikingly, axon constriction at nodes is accompanied by a reduction in neurofilament number that can be as much as 10-fold in the largest axons...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Anna D Koromyslova, Vasily A Morozov, Lisa Hefele, Grant S Hansman
Temporal changes in the GII.4 human norovirus capsid sequences occasionally result in the emergence of genetic variants capable of causing new epidemics. The GII.4 persistence is believed to be associated with the recognition of numerous histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) types and antigenic drift. We found that one of the earliest known GII.4 isolate (1974) and a more recent epidemic GII.4 variant (2012) had varied norovirus-specific monoclonal antibody (MAb) reactivities, yet similar HBGA binding profiles. To better understand the binding interaction of one MAb (10E9) that had varied reactivities with these GII...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
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