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Surya Sapkota, Li-Ling Chen, Shanshan Yang, Katie E Hyma, Lance Cadle-Davidson, Chin-Feng Hwang
A major QTL for downy mildew resistance was detected on chromosome 18 (Rpv27) in Vitis aestivalis-derived 'Norton' based on a high-resolution linkage map with SNP and SSR markers as well as 2 years of field and laboratory phenotyping data. Grapevine downy mildew caused by the oomycete Plasmopara viticola is one of the most widespread and destructive diseases, particularly in humid viticultural areas where it damages green tissues and defoliates vines. Traditional Vitis vinifera wine grape cultivars are susceptible to downy mildew whereas several North American and a few Asian cultivars possess various levels of resistance to this disease...
October 19, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Yurong Xu, Meilan Ke, Jie Li, Yaqian Tang, Nian Wang, Guoqing Tan, Yansheng Wang, Ruihua Liu, Linquan Bai, Lixin Zhang, Hang Wu, Buchang Zhang
Lincomycin A (Lin-A) is a widely used anti-bacterial antibiotic fermented by Streptomyces lincolnensis However, the transcriptionally regulatory mechanisms underlying lincomycin biosynthesis have seldom been investigated. Here, we first identified a TetR family transcriptional regulator (TFR), SLCG_2919, negatively modulating lincomycin biosynthesis in S. lincolnensis LCGL. SLCG_2919 was found to specifically bind to promoter regions of the lincomycin biosynthetic gene cluster ( lin cluster), including twenty four structural genes, three resistance genes, and one regulatory gene, and to inhibit the transcription of these genes, demonstrating the directly regulatory role in lincomycin biosynthesis...
October 19, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Arnaldo Machado, Manuel Carvalho, Jorge Caravana
INTRODUCTION: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) has been the most common surgical operation used to treat obesity and its inherent co-morbidities. Intussusception with bowel obstruction after RYGB is a rare complication and its physiopathology remains unclear. The diagnosis is generally based on typical image of computed tomography (CT) scan and a surgical exploration is generally recommended. CASE PRESENTATION: A 54-year-old female patient with history of a gastric bypass six years before, presented herself on the emergency department with acute onset of abdominal pain, nausea, and nonbilious vomiting...
September 21, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Xiaofeng Liu, Min Wang, Yufeng Qin, Xuan Shi, Peiqing Cong, Yaosheng Chen, Zuyong He
BACKGROUND: Targeted DNA integration is widely used in basic research and commercial applications because it eliminates positional effects on transgene expression. Targeted integration in mammalian cells is generally achieved through a double crossover event between the genome and a linear donor containing two homology arms flanking the gene of interest. However, this strategy is generally less efficient at introducing larger DNA fragments. Using the homology-independent NHEJ mechanism has recently been shown to improve efficiency of integrating larger DNA fragments at targeted sites, but integration through this mechanism is direction-independent...
October 19, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Zixun Song, Nuo Si, Wei Xiao
BACKGROUND: Congenital cataract is the leading cause of blindness in children worldwide. Approximately half of all congenital cataracts have a genetic basis. Protein aggregation is the single most important factor in cataract formation. METHODS: A four-generation Chinese family diagnosed with autosomal dominant congenital cataracts and microphthalmia was recruited at the Shengjing Hospital of China Medical University. Genomic DNA was extracted from the peripheral blood of the participants...
October 19, 2018: BMC Medical Genetics
Monika Zwirek, Robbie Waugh, Sarah M McKim
Hordeum species develop a central spikelet flanked by two lateral spikelets at each inflorescence node. In 'two-rowed' spikes, the central spikelet alone is fertile and sets grain while in 'six-rowed' spikes, lateral spikelets can also produce grain. Induced loss-of-function alleles of any of five Six-rowed spike (VRS) genes (VRS1-5) cause complete to intermediate gains of lateral spikelet fertility. Current six-row cultivars contain natural defective vrs1 and vrs5 alleles. Little is known about VRS mechanism(s)...
October 19, 2018: New Phytologist
Arshed Hussain Parry, Abdul Haseeb Wani, Imza Feroz
Intra-renal-pelvic hydatid cyst is a rare manifestation of renal hydatid disease, as most of the renal hydatid cysts are based in the renal cortex. We present and discuss the clinical and radiological findings of a 55-year-old woman who presented with left flank pain, frequency, dysuria, and hydatiduria. She was thoroughly investigated radiologically, and the diagnosis of intra-renal-pelvic hydatid cyst was confirmed surgically.
October 2018: Indian Journal of Urology: IJU: Journal of the Urological Society of India
M Oliva, R Monno, P Addabbo, G Pesole, M Scrascia, C Calia, A M Dionisi, M Chiara, D S Horner, C Manzari, C Pazzani
In the present study we report the identification of a sul3-associated class 1 integron containing the dfrA12-orfF-aadA2-cmlA1-aadA1-qacH array embedded in a Tn21-derived element that is part of a conjugative FII plasmid named pST1007-1A. The plasmid was identified in the Salmonella Typhimurium strain ST1007, a member of a clinically relevant clonal MDR lineage diffuse in Italy. ST1007 exhibited resistance to ampicillin, chloramphenicol, streptomycin, sulphamethoxazole, tetracycline and trimethoprim encoded by blaTEM-1 , cmlA1, (aadA1, aadA2, strAB), (sul2, sul3), tet(B) and dfrA12 genes, respectively...
October 15, 2018: Plasmid
Pei Zhao, Qihao Zhu, James C Fettinger, Philip Power
The reaction of Sm[N(SiMe3 )2 ]2 (THF)2 with 2 equiv of the bulky aryloxide ligand HOAr iPr6 [Ar iPr6 = -C6 H3 -2,6-(C6 H2 -2,4,6- i Pr3 )2 ] afforded the first monomeric homoleptic solvent-free bis(aryloxide) lanthanide complex Sm(OAr iPr6 )2 . The complex was characterized by crystallography and UV-visible and IR spectroscopy and magnetically by Evans' method. The O-Sm-O angle is highly bent at 111.08(9)°. The samarium ion in Sm(OAr iPr6 )2 also displays close contacts with the flanking aryl rings of the terphenyloxide ligands...
October 18, 2018: Inorganic Chemistry
James Amor Smith, Maor Bar-Peled
The rare branched-chain sugar apiose, once thought to only be present in the plant kingdom, was found in two bacterial species: Geminicoccus roseus and Xanthomonas pisi. Glycans with apiose residues were detected in aqueous methanol-soluble fractions as well as in the insoluble pellet fraction of X. pisi. Genes encoding bacterial uridine diphosphate apiose (UDP-apiose) synthases (bUASs) were characterized in these bacterial species, but the enzyme(s) involved in the incorporation of the apiose into glycans remained unknown...
2018: PloS One
Ricardo M F Fernandes, Jing Dai, Oren Regev, Eduardo F Marques, Istvan Furo
When using amphiphilic polymers to exfoliate and disperse carbon nanotubes in water the balance between the hydrophobic and hydrophilic moieties is critical and nontrivial. Here, we investigate the mode of surface attachment of a triblock copolymer, Pluronics F127, composed by a central hydrophobic polypropylene oxide block flanked by hydrophilic polyethylene oxide blocks, onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNT). Crucially, we analyze the composition in dispersant of both the as-obtained dispersion (the supernatant) and the precipitate containing undispersed materials...
October 18, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Yuchan Li, Jian Wang, Jingyan Tang, Zhigang Wang, Bingqiang Han, Niu Li, Tingting Yu, Yulin Chen, Qihua Fu
Hereditary multiple osteochondroma (HMO) is one of the most common genetic skeletal disorders. It is caused by mutations in either EXT1 or EXT2 resulting in abnormal skeletal growth and morphogenesis. However, the spectrum and frequency of EXT1 and EXT2 mutations in Chinese patients with HMO was not previously investigated.Mutations were identified by performing Sanger sequencing analysis of the complete coding regions and flanking intronic sequences of EXT1 and EXT2, followed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification (MLPA) analysis to detect gene deletions or duplications that could not be identified by the Sanger sequencing method...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Andrea Alberto Conti
"Health" is a positive multi-dimensional concept involving a variety of features, ranging from ability to integrity, from fitness to well-being. According to the first principle of the constitution of the World Health Organization "Health is a state of complete physical, mental and social well-being and not merely the absence of disease or infirmity". This constitution was adopted by the International Health Conference held in New York in June-July 1946 and became operative in April 1948...
October 8, 2018: Acta Bio-medica: Atenei Parmensis
Mengcheng Wang, Yujie Ji, Shiting Feng, Chun Liu, Zhen Xiao, Xiaoping Wang, Yanxia Wang, Guangmin Xia
BACKGROUND: Asymmetric somatic hybridization is an efficient crop breeding approach by introducing several exogenous chromatin fragments, which leads to genomic shock and therefore induces genome-wide genetic variation. However, the fundamental question concerning the genetic variation such as whether it occurs randomly and suffers from selection pressure remains unknown. RESULTS: Here, we explored this issue by comparing expressed sequence tags of a common wheat cultivar and its asymmetric somatic hybrid line...
October 17, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
Eugenia Lee, Tracy Popowics, Susan W Herring
The development of the mandibular symphysis in late fetal and postnatal pigs, Sus scrofa dom. (n = 17), was studied as a model for the early fusing symphysis of anthropoid primates, including humans. The suture-like ligaments occurring in species that retain a mobile symphysis are not present in the pig. Instead, cartilage is the predominant tissue in the mandibular symphysis prior to fusion. In late fetuses the rostrum of the fused Meckel's cartilages forms a minor posterior component of the symphysis whereas the major component is secondary cartilage, developing bilaterally and joined at the midline with mesenchyme...
October 17, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Canxing Duan, Fengjing Song, Suli Sun, Cheng Guo, Zhendong Zhu, Xiaoming Wang
Pythium stalk rot caused by Pythium inflatum is becoming a more and more serious disease in maize, which has caused severe yield loss in China in recent years. Deployment of resistant maize varieties is the most effective way to control this disease. Searching for the resistant maize germplasm and identifying the resistance genes is the vital process in breeding program. The maize inbred line X178 previously showed high resistance to Pythium stalk rot. Thus, this study aimed to reveal the gene(s) resistance to Pythium stalk rot in X178 by resistance inheritance analysis using the derived F2 and F2:3 genetic populations...
October 17, 2018: Phytopathology
Jacob L Brown, David E Lee, Megan E Rosa-Caldwell, Lemuel A Brown, Richard A Perry, Wesley S Haynie, Kendra Huseman, Kavithalakshmi Sataranatarajan, Holly Van Remmen, Tyrone A Washington, Michael P Wiggs, Nicholas P Greene
BACKGROUND: Cancer cachexia occurs in approximately 80% of cancer patients and is a key contributor to cancer-related death. The mechanisms controlling development of tumour-induced muscle wasting are not fully elucidated. Specifically, the progression and development of cancer cachexia are underexplored. Therefore, we examined skeletal muscle protein turnover throughout the development of cancer cachexia in tumour-bearing mice. METHODS: Lewis lung carcinoma (LLC) was injected into the hind flank of C57BL6/J mice at 8 weeks age with tumour allowed to develop for 1, 2, 3, or 4 weeks and compared with PBS injected control...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
Jakub Cieslak, Lukasz Wodas, Alicja Borowska, Piotr Pawlak, Grazyna Czyzak-Runowska, Jacek Wojtowski, Kamila Puppel, Beata Kuczynska, Mariusz Mackowski
Genes encoding casein proteins are important candidates for milk composition traits in mammals. In the case of the domestic horse, our knowledge of casein genes is limited mainly to coding sequence variants. This study involved screening for polymorphism in 5'-flanking regions of four genes encoding equine caseins (CSN1S1, CSN1S2, CSN2, and CSN3) and making a preliminary assessment of their effect on the gene expression (on the mRNA and protein levels) and milk composition traits in selected horse breeds. Altogether, 23 polymorphisms (21 described previously SNPs and two novel InDels) were found in the studied sequences, the majority of which are common in various horse breeds...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Applied Genetics
Genqiao Li, Brett F Carver, Christina Cowger, Guihua Bai, Xiangyang Xu
A new recessive powdery mildew resistance gene, Pm223899, was identified in Afghanistan wheat landrace PI 223899 and mapped to an interval of about 831 Kb in the terminal region of the short arm of chromosome 1A. Wheat powdery mildew, a globally important disease caused by the biotrophic fungus Blumeria graminis f.sp. tritici (Bgt), has occurred with increased frequency and severity in recent years, and some widely deployed resistance genes have lost effectiveness. PI 223899 is an Afghanistan landrace exhibiting high resistance to Bgt isolates collected from the Great Plains...
October 16, 2018: TAG. Theoretical and Applied Genetics. Theoretische und Angewandte Genetik
Chewon Yim, Sung-Jun Jung, Ji Eun Hani Kim, Yunjae Jung, Seoyoon Dymphna Jeong, Hyun Kim
The N-terminal signal sequence (SS) on proteins targeted to the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is surprisingly diverse in hydrophobicity, in the number of preceding N-terminal residues (N-length), and in charged residues flanking the sequence. However, it remains unclear how these sequences despite their heterogeneity bind to the same site and open the Sec61 translocon. We assessed varying features of SSs and their efficiencies in initiating translocation across the ER by using 5-min radiolabeling in yeast. We found that while hydrophobic SSs with a short N-length efficiently initiated translocation in Sec62 mutant, Sec63 mutant and Sec72 deletion strains, most SSs showed varying degrees of translocation defect in these strains...
November 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
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