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carotid body

Limor Raz, Yi Yang, Jeffrey Thompson, Sasha Hobson, John Pesko, Shahriar Mobashery, Mayland Chang, Gary Rosenberg
Vascular cognitive impairment dementia (VCID) is a major cause of cognitive loss in the elderly. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are a family of proteases involved in remodeling the extracellular matrix in development, injury and repair. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption due to inflammation mediated by MMPs is a mechanism of white matter injury. Currently there are no treatments besides the control of vascular risk factors. We tested two MMP-9 inhibitors that improved outcome in acute stroke: DP-460 and SB-3CT...
2018: PloS One
Chien-Yu Lin, Yi-Ting Hwang, Pau-Chung Chen, Fung-Chang Sung, Ta-Chen Su
In the family of alkylphenolic compounds, 4-tertiary-Octylphenol (4-t-OP) is extensively used in many products. In animal and in vitro studies, 4-t-OP exposure has been linked to cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors; however, there are no previous human epidemiological studies. In this study, 886 subjects were recruited from a cohort of Taiwanese adolescents and young adults to study the relationship between serum levels of 4-t-OP, CVD risk factors, and common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT)...
December 1, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Tae Kyung Koh, Eun-Ju Kang, Woo Yong Bae, Sung Wan Kim, Chul Hoon Kim, Soo Kweon Koo, Sang Jun Kim, Moon Sung Kim, Jae Hoon Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) severity and carotid arterial calcification by quantitative analysis using airway computed tomography (CT). METHODS: This study included a total of 180 consecutive OSA patients aged 45-80years underwent polysomnography and airway CT between March 2014 and October 2016. The subjects were divided into three groups based on the results of the respiratory disturbance index (RDI): mild (RDI 5-14, n=29), moderate (RDI 15-29, n=50), and severe (RDI≥30, n=101)...
December 6, 2018: Auris, Nasus, Larynx
Barbara Reiner, Renate Oberhoffer, Anna-Luisa Häcker, Peter Ewert, Jan Müller
BACKGROUND: With increased long-term survival, children with congenital heart disease (CHD) are at increased risk of early-onset adult cardiovascular disease. Carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) is a surrogate marker of atherosclerosis. The aim of this present study was to detect high-risk diagnostic subgroups by measuring cIMT and determine its correlates in children with CHD and subgroups of CHD compared with healthy controls. METHODS: This cross-sectional study enrolled 385 patients (138 girls) aged 5 to 18 years (12...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Dietmar Spengler, Elisa Loewe, Martin F Krause
Intraventricular hemorrhage (IVH) is a frequent major damage to the brain of premature babies ≤32 weeks gestational age, and its incidence (20-25%) has not significantly changed lately. Because of the intrinsic fragility of germinal matrix blood vessels, IVH occurs following disruption of subependymal mono-layer arteries and is generally attributed to ischemia-reperfusion alterations or venous congestion, which may be caused by turn of the head. Therefore, supine position with the head in a midline position is considered a standard position for preterm infants during their first days of life...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Anna Solini, Marta Seghieri, Eleonora Santini, Livia Giannini, Edoardo Biancalana, Stefano Taddei, Duccio Volterrani, Rosa Maria Bruno
OBJECTIVE: Bariatric surgery may ameliorate renal function through vascular mechanisms. This study tested surgery's ability to improve measured glomerular filtration rate (mGFR) and identified clinical, renal, and systemic vascular predictors of such improvement. METHODS: Twenty-five nondiabetic subjects with severe obesity were studied before and 1 year after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass, evaluating mGFR and renal plasma flow, basal renal resistive index (RI) and dynamic renal RI, renal visceral fat, and systemic vascular parameters, including flow-mediated dilation, aortic pulse wave velocity, and carotid intima media thickness and stiffness...
December 5, 2018: Obesity
Sahera Dirajlal-Fargo, Manjusha Kulkarni, Emily Bowman, Lingpeng Shan, Abdus Sattar, Nicholas Funderburg, Grace A McComsey
Background: This study was conducted to explore the associations between serum albumin and markers of inflammation and cardiovascular disease in treated human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected adults. Methods: We conducted a nested study within in the SATURN-HIV trial in which 147 HIV+ adults on stable antiretroviral therapy were (1) virally suppressed, (2) had a low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol level <130 mg/dL, and (3) were randomized to 10 mg daily rosuvastatin or placebo...
November 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
Martin G Schultz, Chloe Park, Abigail Fraser, Laura D Howe, Siana Jones, Alicja Rapala, George Davey Smith, James E Sharman, Deborah A Lawlor, Nish Chaturvedi, John Deanfield, Alun D Hughes
PURPOSE: Dynamic exercise results in increased systolic blood pressure (BP). Irrespective of resting BP, some individuals may experience exaggerated rise in systolic BP with exercise, which in adulthood is associated with risk of hypertension, and cardiovascular (CV) disease. It is unknown if exercise BP is associated with markers of CV structure during adolescence. We examined this question in a large adolescent cohort taking account of the possible confounding effect of body composition and BP status...
January 15, 2019: International Journal of Cardiology
Lesley-Anne Bissell, Bara Erhayiem, Graham Fent, Elizabeth M A Hensor, Agata Burska, Helena Donica, Sven Plein, Maya H Buch, John P Greenwood, Jacqueline Andrews
BACKGROUND: Common carotid artery intima-media thickness (CIMT), as measured by ultrasound, has utility in stratification of the accelerated cardiovascular risk seen in rheumatoid arthritis (RA); however, the technique has limitations. Carotid magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is emerging as a useful research tool in the general population, but has yet to be applied in RA populations. Our objectives were to describe the utility of carotid artery MRI (carotid-MRI) in patients with RA in comparison to healthy controls and to describe the association with RA disease phenotype...
December 3, 2018: Arthritis Research & Therapy
R Garrett Morgan, Ashley E Walker, Daniel W Trott, Daniel R Machin, Grant D Henson, Kelly D Reihl, Richard M Cawthon, Eros L Denchi, Yu Liu, Samuel I Bloom, Tam T Phuong, Russell S Richardson, Lisa A Lesniewski, Anthony J Donato
Age-related vascular dysfunction in large elastic and resistance arteries is associated with reductions in microvascular perfusion and elevations in blood pressure. Recent evidence indicates that telomere uncapping-induced senescence in vascular cells may be an important source of oxidative stress and vascular dysfunction in aging, but the causal relationship between these processes has yet to be elucidated. To test this important unexplored hypothesis, we measured arterial senescence signaling and oxidative stress, carotid and mesenteric artery endothelium-dependent vasodilatory capacity, markers of mesenteric microvascular perfusion and endothelial glycocalyx deterioration, and blood pressure in a novel mouse model of Cre-inducible whole body Trf2 deletion and telomere uncapping...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Verónica Sobrino, Valentina Annese, Elena Navarro-Guerrero, Aida Platero-Luengo, Ricardo Pardal
Oxygen constitutes a vital element for the survival of every single cell in multicellular aerobic organisms like mammals. A complex homeostatic oxygen-sensing system has evolved in these organisms, including detectors and effectors, to guarantee a proper supply of the element to every cell. The carotid body represents the most important peripheral arterial chemoreceptor organ in mammals and informs about hypoxemic situations to the effectors at the brainstem cardiorespiratory centers. To optimize organismal adaptation to maintained hypoxemic situations, the carotid body has evolved containing a niche of adult tissue-specific stem cells with the capacity to differentiate into both neuronal and vascular cell types in response to hypoxia...
November 29, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
Shu-Fen Su, Hsuan-Yin Su, Meng-Shan Wu
Atherosclerosis, a major cause of carotid artery stenosis, has a high correlation to stroke, which may induce transient ischemic attack (TIA) and/or permanent brain damage. The main treatment of carotid artery stenosis includes medication, carotid endarterectomy (CEA), and carotid artery stenting (CAS). However, when artery stenosis becomes severe, CEA or CAS is the most-often recommended intervention. CAS, a type of revascularization, is considered less invasive than CEA and is associated with a higher successful rate...
December 2018: Hu Li za Zhi the Journal of Nursing
Yiming Ding, Yaru Feng, Michael Wells, Zhigang Huang, Xiaohong Chen
OBJECTIVES: The goal of this study was to detect and explore the mechanisms of the succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) complex subunit-related gene mutations in cases of multiple paraganglioma (PGL) in the head and neck. METHODS: In Beijing Tongren Hospital (Capital Medical University, Beijing, People's Republic of China) between January 2013 and February 2017, 23 cases of head and neck multiple PGL were evaluated by genetic sequencing. From these cases, four hereditary families and 10 cases with sporadic occurrences were found...
November 28, 2018: Laryngoscope
Amy Tse, Andy K Lee, Noriko Takahashi, Alex Gong, Haruo Kasai, Frederick W Tse
Chemosensory glomus cells of the carotid bodies release transmitters, including ATP and dopamine mainly via the exocytosis of small dense core granules (SDCGs, vesicular diameter of ∼100 nm). Using carbon-fiber amperometry, we showed previously that with a modest uniform elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ concentration ([Ca2+ ]i of ∼0.5 µM), SDCGs of rat glomus cells predominantly underwent a "kiss-and-run" mode of exocytosis. Here, we examined whether a larger [Ca2+ ]i rise influenced the mode of exocytosis...
September 2018: Journal of Neurogenetics
Ali Dehghani, Zeynab Hafizibarjin, Razieh Najjari, Fatemeh Kaseb, Fatemeh Safari
The current study investigates the cooperative cardioprotective effect of calcitriol (active form of vitamin D) combined with resveratrol in a rat model of D-galactose ( aging. Male Wistar rats received resveratrol ( + Res), calcitriol ( + Cal), or a combination of them ( + Res + Cal). Intact animals served as control (Ctl). Blood pressure (BP) was recorded by cannulation of the left carotid artery. Fibrosis and cell size were assessed by Masson's trichrome and hematoxylin-eosin staining, respectively...
November 27, 2018: Aging Clinical and Experimental Research
Amit Pujari, Brian Matthew Howard, Thomas P Madaelil, Susana Libhaber Skukalek, Anil K Roy, Jacques E Dion, C Michael Cawley, Jonathan A Grossberg
BACKGROUND: The pipeline embolization device (PED) is approved for the treatment of large aneurysms of the proximal internal carotid artery (ICA). Its off-label application in treating aneurysms located specifically at the ICA terminus (ICA-T) has not been studied. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective chart review of patients from 2011 to 7 treated with PEDs. Out of 365 patients, 10 patients with ICA-T aneurysms were included. Patient demographics, procedural information, follow-up imaging, and clinical assessments were recorded...
November 24, 2018: Journal of Neurointerventional Surgery
Abdelaal M Elkamshoushi, Salma S Omar, Amr M El Abd, Seham Z Hassan, Eman A Sultan, Eman Abd Elkawy
BACKGROUND: Psoriasis is a common multisystem inflammatory disease with several associated comorbidities. Serological markers to detect associated subclinical atherosclerosis in psoriatic patients are needed. We aimed to study serum endocan levels in psoriasis vulgaris and its relation to severity of psoriasis, systemic inflammation, associated atherosclerosis, obesity, and the possible factors affecting its level in psoriatic patients. METHODS: This study was conducted on 30 moderate-severe psoriasis vulgaris patients and 30 healthy controls...
November 23, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Golaleh Asghari, Pooneh Dehghan, Parvin Mirmiran, Emad Yuzbashian, Maryam Mahdavi, Maryam Tohidi, Tirang R Neyestani, Farhad Hosseinpanah, Fereidoun Azizi
BACKGROUND: To investigate the association between markers of insulin metabolism and carotid intima-media thickness(cIMT) among overweight and obese children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 378 children and adolescents aged from 6 to 13 years, with WHO body mass index Z-Scores ≥2 were enrolled in this study. We measured fasting serum insulin and glucose, conducted a homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance(HOMA-IR), and calculated the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index(QUICKI)...
November 23, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Manuel Fortún Landecho, Inmaculada Colina, Patricia Sunsundegui, Bruno Camarero, Jorge M Núñez-Córdoba, Óscar Beloqui
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 23, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Bin Zhu, Lei Zhang, Xiao Ping Cheng, Lei Wang, Yue Tian, Xi Xi Li, Ying Ping Liu, Zhi Gang Zhao
Background: To examine the association of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with carotid artery stenosis (CAS), especially in menopausal women in China. Materials and methods: A cross-sectional study of menopause women aged ≥40 years were enrolled from the Jidong community of Tangshan City between 2013 and 2014 to examine the association between MetS and CAS. Logistic regression analyses were performed to analyze the association between MetS and the presence of CAS. Results: A total of 762 menopause women with mean age 59...
2018: Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
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