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carotid body

David P Fisher, Eric Johnson, Sebastien Haneuse, David Arterburn, Karen J Coleman, Patrick J O'Connor, Rebecca O'Brien, Andy Bogart, Mary Kay Theis, Jane Anau, Emily B Schroeder, Stephen Sidney
Importance: Macrovascular disease is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality for patients with type 2 diabetes, and medical management, including lifestyle changes, may not be successful at lowering risk. Objective: To investigate the relationship between bariatric surgery and incident macrovascular (coronary artery disease and cerebrovascular diseases) events in patients with severe obesity and type 2 diabetes. Design, Setting, and Participants: In this retrospective, matched cohort study, patients with severe obesity (body mass index ≥35) aged 19 to 79 years with diabetes who underwent bariatric surgery from 2005 to 2011 in 4 integrated health systems in the United States (n = 5301) were matched to 14 934 control patients on site, age, sex, body mass index, hemoglobin A1c, insulin use, observed diabetes duration, and prior health care utilization, with follow-up through September 2015...
October 16, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Wojciech G Lesniak, Chengyan Chu, Anna Jablonska, Yong Du, Martin G Pomper, Piotr Walczak, Miroslaw Janowski
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is the most aggressive and common type of brain cancer. Five-year survival rates are below 12%, even with the most aggressive tri-modal therapies. Poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability of therapeutics is a major obstacle limiting efficacy. Intravenous (IV) administration of bevacizumab (BV) is the standard treatment for GBM. It has been recently demonstrated that single intra-arterial (IA) infusion of BV provides superior therapeutic outcomes in patients with recurrent GBM...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Renato Casana, Chiara Malloggi, Valerio Stefano Tolva, Andrea Odero, Richard Bulbulia, Alison Halliday, Vincenzo Silani
AIMS: The metabolic syndrome (MetS) is composed of a cluster of related cardiovascular risk factors. The aim of the present study was to determine how MetS contributes to short- (30-day) and long-term complications and restenosis after carotid endarterectomy (CEA) or stenting (CAS). METHODS: A consecutive cohort of 752 patients undergoing CEA (n = 314) and CAS (n = 438) in a single institution were examined, of which 296 (39.4%) were identified as having MetS. All patients were followed-up with carotid duplex ultrasound scan of the supraaortic vessels and a neurological assessment of symptoms status at 30 days post-procedure and at 3, 6 and 12 months, with annual follow-up thereafter for 3 years...
October 12, 2018: Diabetes/metabolism Research and Reviews
Yu-Qing Huang, Jie Li, Cheng Huang, Ying-Qing Feng
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Atherosclerosis is a serious disease that increases the risk of myocardial infarction and ischemic stroke. Previous studies have demonstrated that microRNA (miR)-29c could play significant roles in atherosclerosis via regulating inflammatory processes. However, the relationship between miR-29c and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) remains unknown. This study investigated associations between miR-29c and atherosclerosis and tested whether plasma miR-29c levels could be used to detect atherosclerosis...
October 11, 2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Chiu-Huang Kuo, Yu-Li Lin, Chih-Hsien Wang, Yu-Hsien Lai, Ru-Jiang Syu, Bang-Gee Hsu
Objective: Central arterial stiffness predicts cardiovascular (CV) mortality in hemodialysis (HD) patients. The aging process transforms lipid distribution and thus alters adipokine secretion. The harmful effects of leptin on CV events may change in the elderly. The purpose of this study was to investigate the relationship between leptin and central arterial stiffness markers through carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV) in geriatric HD patients. Materials and Methods: Patients over 65 years old on chronic HD were recruited...
October 2018: Ci Ji Yi Xue za Zhi, Tzu-chi Medical Journal
Nicholas J Swerdlow, Douglas W Jones, Alexander B Pothof, Thomas F X O'Donnell, Patric Liang, Chun Li, Mark C Wyers, Marc L Schermerhorn
OBJECTIVE: Three-dimensional (3D) image fusion is associated with lower radiation exposure, contrast agent dose, and operative time during endovascular abdominal aortic aneurysm repair. Therefore, we evaluated the impact of this technology on carotid artery stenting (CAS). METHODS: We identified consecutive CAS procedures from 2009 to 2017 and compared those performed with and without 3D image fusion. For image fusion, we created a 3D reconstruction of the aortic arch anatomy based on preoperative computed tomography or magnetic resonance angiography that we merged with two-dimensional fluoroscopy, allowing 3D image overlay...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Vascular Surgery
Bruna Cherubini Alves, Juliana Paula Bruch-Bertani, Clara Belle Manfroi Galinatti, Claudia Czarnobay Garbin, Mário Reis Álvares-da-Silva, Valesca Dall'Alba
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular disease is a major cause of death in post-liver transplantation (LT). The aim of this study was to evaluate LT patients as to the carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) and its association with nutritional status, dietary intake, metabolic profile and cardiovascular risk factors. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, adult patients with more than 12 months of post-transplant follow-up underwent clinical, laboratory, functional and nutritional evaluation by 3-day-diet-record, anthropometry and dynamometry...
October 6, 2018: Clinics and Research in Hepatology and Gastroenterology
Patrick G McPhee, Matthew Wong-Pack, Joyce Obeid, Maureen J MacDonald, Brian W Timmons, Jan Willem Gorter
OBJECTIVE: To compare cardiovascular health variables and physical activity levels of adolescents and adults with cerebral palsy who are Gross Motor Func-tion Classification System (GMFCS) levels I and II. METHODS: Eleven adolescents (mean age 13.1 (standard deviation (SD) 2.1) years) and 14 adults (mean age 31.7 (SD 10.4) years)) with cerebral palsy were included, grouped by their GMFCS level (level I (n = 12); level II (n = 13)). Assessments of cardiovascular health, body composition and physical activity levels were performed...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Rehabilitation Medicine
Qiang Zhao, Fen Liu, Ying-Hong Wang, Hong-Mei Lai, Qian Zhao, Jun-Yi Luo, Yi-Tong Ma, Xiao-Mei Li, Yi-Ning Yang
OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to explore the relationship between low-density lipoprotein cholesterol:high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C:HDL-C) ratio and common carotid atherosclerotic plaque (CCAP) among obese adults of Uygur community in Xinjiang, China. DESIGN: A hospital-based cross-sectional study. SETTING: First Affiliated Hospital of Xinjiang Medical University. PARTICIPANTS: A total of 1449 obese adults of Uygur population who were free of coronary artery disease were included in our study from 1 January 2014 to 31 December 2016...
October 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Candela Caballero-Eraso, Mi-Kyung Shin, Huy Pho, Lenise J Kim, Luis E Pichard, ZhiJuan Wu, Chenjuan Gu, Slava Berger, Luu Pham, Ho-Yee Bonnie Yeung, Machiko Shirahata, Alan R Schwartz, Wan-Yee Winnie Tang, James S K Sham, Vsevolod Y Polotsky
KEY POINTS: Leptin is a potent respiratory stimulant A long functional isoform of leptin receptor, LepRb , was detected in the carotid body (CB), a key peripheral hypoxia sensor. However, the effect of leptin on minute ventilation (VE ) and the hypoxic ventilatory response (HVR) was not sufficiently studied. We report that LepRb is present in approximately 74% of the CB glomus cells Leptin increased carotid sinus nerve activity at baseline and response to hypoxia in vivo Subcutaneous infusion of leptin increased VE and the HVR in C57BL/6J mice and this effect was abolished by CB denervation Expression of LepRb in the carotid bodies of LepRb deficient obese db/db mice increased VE during wakefulness and sleep and augmented the HVR...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Peadar B O'Donohoe, Nicky Huskens, Philip J Turner, Jaideep J Pandit, Keith J Buckler
Sensing of hypoxia and acidosis in arterial chemoreceptors is thought to be mediated through the inhibition of TASK and possibly other (e.g., BKC a ) potassium channels which leads to membrane depolarization, voltage-gated Ca-entry, and neurosecretion. Here, we investigate the effects of pharmacological inhibitors on TASK channel activity and [Ca2+ ]i -signaling in isolated neonatal rat type-1 cells. PK-THPP inhibited TASK channel activity in cell attached patches by up to 90% (at 400 nmol/L). A1899 inhibited TASK channel activity by 35% at 400 nmol/L...
September 2018: Physiological Reports
Raúl Pulgar-Sepúlveda, Rodrigo Varas, Rodrigo Iturriaga, Rodrigo Del Rio, Fernando C Ortiz
Chronic sustained hypoxia (CSH) evokes ventilatory acclimatization characterized by a progressive hyperventilation due to a potentiation of the carotid body (CB) chemosensory response to hypoxia. The transduction of the hypoxic stimulus in the CB begins with the inhibition of K+ currents in the chemosensory (type-I) cells, which in turn leads to membrane depolarization, Ca2+ entry and the subsequent release of one- or more-excitatory neurotransmitters. Several studies have shown that CSH modifies both the level of transmitters and chemoreceptor cell metabolism within the CB...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Jorge S Chaglla E, Numan Celik, Wamadeva Balachandran
Continuous and reliable measurements of core body temperature (CBT) are vital for studies on human thermoregulation. Because tympanic membrane directly reflects the temperature of the carotid artery, it is an accurate and non-invasive method to record CBT. However, commercial tympanic thermometers lack portability and continuous measurements. In this study, graphene inks were utilized to increase the accuracy of the temperature measurements from the ear by coating graphene platelets on the lens of an infrared thermopile sensor...
October 3, 2018: Sensors
Chendi Cui, Akira Sekikawa, Lewis H Kuller, Oscar L Lopez, Anne B Newman, Allison L Kuipers, Rachel H Mackey
Cardiovascular disease risk factors, including age, hypertension, and diabetes, contribute to aortic stiffness and subclinical cardiovascular and brain disease, increasing dementia risk. Aortic stiffness, measured by carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (cfPWV), reduces the buffering of pulsatile blood flow, exposing cerebral small arteries to microvascular damage. High cfPWV is related to white matter hyperintensities and brain amyloid deposition, and to cognitive decline, but it is unclear whether cfPWV independently predicts incident dementia...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Nicholas G Jendzjowsky, Arijit Roy, Nicole O Barioni, Margaret M Kelly, Francis H Y Green, Christopher N Wyatt, Richard L Pye, Luana Tenorio-Lopes, Richard J A Wilson
Asthma accounts for 380,000 deaths a year. Carotid body denervation has been shown to have a profound effect on airway hyper-responsiveness in animal models but a mechanistic explanation is lacking. Here we demonstrate, using a rat model of asthma (OVA-sensitized), that carotid body activation during airborne allergic provocation is caused by systemic release of lysophosphatidic acid (LPA). Carotid body activation by LPA involves TRPV1 and LPA-specific receptors, and induces parasympathetic (vagal) activity...
October 2, 2018: Nature Communications
Christoph Reinhardt
There is emerging evidence for the participation of toll-like receptor-2 (TLR2) expressed on platelets and endothelial cells in the setting of arterial thrombosis. In isolated human platelets, TLR2/1 activation was demonstrated to induce platelet activation, secretion, aggregation, adhesion to collagen coatings and the formation of platelet-leukocyte conjugates, whereas murine platelets were less sensitive to TLR2/1 stimulation. Also, endothelial cells can be activated by stimulation with TLR2 agonists, resulting in increased expression of adhesion molecules, synthesis of inflammatory mediators and Weibel-Palade body exocytosis...
September 27, 2018: Hämostaseologie
Matthew C Tattersall, Michael D Evans, Claudia E Korcarz, Carol Mitchell, Elizabeth Anderson, Douglas F DaSilva, Lisa P Salazar, James E Gern, Daniel J Jackson, Robert F Lemanske, James H Stein
BACKGROUND: Asthma is associated with an increased cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults, but the impact of asthma and atopic conditions on CVD risk in children is less well established. We hypothesized that children in the Childhood Origins of Asthma (COAST) Cohort with asthma and atopic conditions would have early carotid arterial injury. METHODS: The COAST study is a longitudinal birth cohort of children at increased risk of developing asthma. Children underwent ultrasonography measuring far wall right carotid bifurcation (RCB) and common carotid artery (RCCA) intima-media thickness (IMT; a measure of arterial injury)...
2018: PloS One
Constantino Tomas-Sanchez, Victor-Manuel Blanco-Alvarez, Daniel Martinez-Fong, Juan-Antonio Gonzalez-Barrios, Alejandro Gonzalez-Vazquez, Ana-Karina Aguilar-Peralta, Maricela Torres-Soto, Guadalupe Soto-Rodriguez, Ilhuicamina Daniel Limón, Eduardo Brambila, Lourdes Millán-Pérez-Peña, Jorge Cebada, Carlos E Orozco-Barrios, Bertha Alicia Leon-Chavez
In the cerebral hypoxia-ischemia rat model, the prophylactic administration of zinc can cause either cytotoxicity or preconditioning effect, whereas the therapeutic administration of selenium decreases the ischemic damage. Herein, we aimed to explore whether supplementation of low doses of prophylactic zinc and therapeutic selenium could protect from a transient hypoxic-ischemic event. We administrated zinc (0.2 mg/kg of body weight; ip) daily for 14 days before a 10 min common carotid artery occlusion (CCAO)...
2018: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Stanisław Tubek, Piotr Niewiński, Bartłomiej Paleczny, Anna Langner, Waldemar Banasiak, Piotr Ponikowski
From the physiological point of view carotid bodies are mainly responsible for the ventilatory response to hypoxia; however, they also take part in the regulation of sympathetic tone. According to pre-clinical data these structures likely contribute to the development and progression of sympathetically mediated diseases. Moreover, carotid bodies deactivation in animal models, apart from the reduction in sympathetic activity, improved blood pressure control in hypertension and reduced mortality in heart failure...
September 25, 2018: Kardiologia Polska
Jing Zhang, Philip J Chowienczyk, Tim D Spector, Benyu Jiang
BACKGROUND: Interactions between the left ventricular (LV) and the arterial system, (ventricular-arterial coupling) are key determinants of cardiovascular function. However, most of studies covered multiple cardiovascular risk factors, which also contributed to the morphological and functional changes of LV. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between arterial stiffness and LV structure and function in healthy women with a low burden of risk factors. METHODS: Healthy women from the Twins UK cohort (n = 147, mean age was 54...
September 25, 2018: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
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