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Colorectal Malignancy

Qiongrong Chen, Manxiang Wang, Zhigao Xu, Mingwei Wang, Su Jin, Sufang Tian, Shuyuan Xiao
Muir-Torre syndrome is a rare subtype of Lynch syndrome characterized by coincidence of skin neoplasm and visceral malignancies. Here, we report a case of this rare disease, whose diagnosis of the syndrome was first suspected by the pathologist. This was a 60-yr-old woman who presented with an axillary skin nodule, which was diagnosed as basal cell carcinoma. Further inquiry revealed that she was hospitalized for evaluation of a recurrent vaginal stump endometrial carcinoma. Histologic workup and immunohistochemistry for mismatch repair proteins of both the skin and vaginal tumor suggested the possibility of Muir-Torre syndrome...
December 3, 2018: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
Pouria Samadi, Saeid Afshar, Razieh Amini, Rezvan Najafi, Ali Mahdavinezhad, Abdolazim Sedighi Pashaki, Mohammad Hadi Gholami, Massoud Saidijam
Abnormal expression of various microRNAs (miRNAs), as regulators of biological signaling pathways, has a strong association with cancer resistance to chemotherapy and radiotherapy. The let-7 family of miRNAs as tumor suppressors have shown to be downregulated in different types of human malignancies including colorectal cancer (CRC). However, the biological function of let-7 members in the processes of resistance to radiation in CRC has not yet been completely elucidated. Insulin-like growth factor 1 receptor (IGF-1R) signaling pathway is amplified in CRC and leads to its progression, development, and also radiation resistance...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Belal A Al-Husein, Bara' Dawah, Saleem Bani-Hani, Samir M Al Bashir, Khaled M Al-Sawalmeh, Nehad M Ayoub
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a public health problem worldwide and in Jordan. Statins are cholesterol lowering agents. Beyond their effects, statins use has been reported to reduced risk of several malignances, including CRC. This study aimed to assess the effect of statins on CRC by studying cellular infiltration of Regulatory T Lymphocytes (Tregs) into CRC tissues and their effect on Transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1 ) level and on angiogenesis. Fourty seven specimens (25 statins users vs. 22 non-users) were used...
November 6, 2018: Oncotarget
Diarmuid Patrick O'Donoghue, Kieran Sheahan, Padraic MacMathuna, Richard B Stephens, Helen Fenlon, Martina Morrin, Jenny Mooney, Lorraine Fahy, Therese Mooney, Alan Smith
Colorectal Cancer (CRC) accounts for 11% of all cancer deaths in Ireland. With the aim of diagnosing these cancers at an earlier stage, and detecting pre-malignant lesions, the National Screening Service offered a Faecal Immunochemical Test (FIT) to all individuals aged 60-69. All individuals in the age range were contacted by post and invited to participate in the programme. Those with a positive FIT result were offered a colonoscopy in an internationally accredited unit. From an eligible population of 488,628, 196,238 individuals participated giving an uptake of 40...
December 4, 2018: Cancer Prevention Research
Ya-Ping Ye, Hong-Li Jiao, Shu-Yang Wang, Zhi-Yuan Xiao, Dan Zhang, Jun-Feng Qiu, Ling-Jie Zhang, Ya-Li Zhao, Ting-Ting Li, Li-Liang, Wen-Ting Liao, Yan-Qing Ding
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common digestive malignant tumors, and DMTN is a transcriptionally differentially expressed gene that was identified using CRC mRNA sequencing data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA). Our preliminary work suggested that the expression of DMTN was downregulated in CRC, and the Rac1 signaling pathway was significantly enriched in CRC tissues with low DMTN expression. However, the specific functions and underlying molecular mechanisms of DMTN in the progression of CRC and the upstream factors regulating the downregulation of the gene remain unclear...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Toshiharu Sakurai, Yoriaki Komeda, Tomoyuki Nagai, Ken Kamata, Kosuke Minaga, Kentarou Yamao, Mamoru Takenaka, Satoru Hagiwara, Tomohiro Watanabe, Naoshi Nishida, Hiroshi Kashida, Kazuhiko Nakagawa, Masatoshi Kudo
BACKGROUND: Although Gankyrin is overexpressed in many malignancies, the role of Gankyrin for tumorigenesis and chemoresistance remains to be elucidated in sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC). AIMS: We investigate whether Gankyrin affects Adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) inactivation-induced tumorigenesis and therapeutic response to anti-angiogenic agents. METHODS: Epithelial cell-specific APC and/or Gankyrin-deficient mice were used. The patients with metastatic CRC (n = 53) who were enrolled in this study underwent resection of primary cancer followed by systemic chemotherapy containing bevacizumab...
December 4, 2018: Digestion
Anna La Salvia, Victoria Lopez-Gomez, Rocio Garcia-Carbonero
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors; it is a focus of research globally, but the identification of clinically actionable oncogenic drivers remains elusive. HER2 activation is present in approximately 5% of CRC and has acquired resistance to EGFR-targeted therapy. Early clinical trials suggest an emerging role for personalized HER2-targeted therapy in a subset of metastatic CRC. Areas covered: This manuscript reviews the relevance of HER2 activation in CRC and its potential role as a target for therapy...
December 4, 2018: Expert Opinion on Investigational Drugs
Hemant Goyal, Abhilash Perisetti, M Rubayat Rahman, Avi Levin, Giuseppe Lippi
Calcitriol (1,25(OH)2 D3 ) performs various activities throughout the body. Although low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] levels are associated with several disease processes such as risk of fractures and falls, hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and diabetes mellitus, recent evidence attests that this important hormone also regulates several cellular pathways involved in cancer development and progression. Calcitriol modulates several genes controlling gut physiology and calcium homeostasis and also maintains the integrity of epithelial barriers, regulates the absorption of phosphate and calcium, and modulates host defense against pathogens and inflammatory response by interplaying with several types of secretory and immune cells...
December 3, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
A Tzivanakis, S P Dayal, S J Arnold, F Mohamed, T D Cecil, A K Venkatasubramaniam, B J Moran
Background: Patients with peritoneal malignancy often have multiple laparotomies before referral for cytoreductive surgery (CRS). Some have substantial abdominal wall herniation and tumour infiltration of abdominal incisions. CRS involves complete macroscopic tumour removal and hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC). Abdominal wall reconstruction is problematic in these patients. The aim of this study was to establish immediate and long-term outcomes of abdominal wall reconstruction with biological mesh in a single centre...
December 2018: BJS open
Yuhui Wu, Junlin Yao, Jiansheng Xie, Zhen Liu, Yubin Zhou, Hongming Pan, Weidong Han
Autophagy is an evolutionarily conserved catabolic process that eliminates harmful components through lysosomal degradation. In addition to its role in maintaining cellular homeostasis, autophagy is critical to pathological processes, such as inflammation and cancer. Colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) is a specific type of colorectal cancer that develops from long-standing colitis in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients. Accumulating evidence indicates that autophagy of microenvironmental cells plays different but vital roles during tumorigenesis and CAC development...
2018: Signal Transduction and Targeted Therapy
Sunny Dhadlie, Daniel Mehanna
Introduction: Acute appendicitis in older adults is relatively uncommon and could be the first presentation of an underlying colorectal carcinoma. Colonoscopy in these individuals affords the opportunity for earlier diagnosis and treatment. The finding of increased rates of colorectal cancer (CRC) with older patients who have had appendicitis was supported by a number of small studies and case reports in the early 1980s.With the advent of CT scanning and laparoscopic appendicectomy, increased ability to visualize the caecum has been achieved...
December 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Yi Zhang, Xianjin Yang
Background: Numerous studies have reported the prognostic significance of serum apolipoprotein A-I (ApoA-I) in various cancers, but the results have been inconsistent. The current meta-analysis was performed to investigate the association between ApoA-I level and prognosis in human malignancies. Methods: A literature search was performed using the electronic platforms of the PubMed, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Embase, Wanfang, and China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI) databases to obtain eligible articles published up to May 20, 2018...
2018: Disease Markers
Xuning Wang, Jianguo Zhou, Maolin Xu, Yongfeng Yan, Liang Huang, Yanshen Kuang, Yuansheng Liu, Peng Li, Wei Zheng, Hongyi Liu, Baoqing Jia
Purpose: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors worldwide. This study aimed to explore the prognostic value of lncRNAs in CRC. Material and methods: We performed gene expression profiling to identify differentially expressed lncRNAs between 51 normal and 646 tumor tissues from The Cancer Genome Atlas database. Cox regression and robust likelihood-based survival models were used to find prognosis-related lncRNAs. A lncRNA signature was developed to predict the overall survival of patients with CRC...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
W Zhang, X Han
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a common malignant tumor with the high increase and mortality worldwide. Skullcapflavone I has been reported to exert anti-tumor effect in several cancers. Recent studies demonstrated that microRNA-107 and tropomyosin alpha-1 (TPM1) are important regulator in cell proliferation of different cancer cells. However, the role of Skullcapflavone I in CRC has not been investigated. Moreover, whether miR-107 and TPM1 are involved in regulating the effect of Skullcapflavone on CRC cells remains unclear...
September 16, 2018: Neoplasma
Y Y Gu, J Yu, J F Zhang, C Wang
Oxaliplatin is commonly used in managing malignancy, including colorectal cancer. While treatment often fails due to decreased drug sensitivity, the mechanisms involved are not clear. In this study, we investigate how exosomal miR-19b participates in oxaliplatin sensitivity and then prove that miR-19b down-regulates oxaliplatin sensitivity of sw480 cells. We found that suppressing the secretion of exosomal miR-19b with gw4869 promotes sw480 cell oxaliplatin sensitivity. Our combined results demonstrate for the first time that miR-19b regulates the oxaliplatin sensitivity of sw480 cells and provides a unique mechanism mediated by gw4869 to modulate oxaliplatin sensitivity by suppressing exosomal miR-19b release...
August 9, 2018: Neoplasma
Yuhong Dai, Hong Qiu
Malignant acute abdomen is a emergency with abrupt onset, rapid progress and often a complex etiology, presenting difficulties for treatment and high mortality. Therefore, multidisciplinary team (MDT) treatment modality is required. Compared with single-discipline diagnosis and treatment modality, diagnosis made from MDT discussion is more accurate, where specialists can improve efficiency and quality of the treatment through better communication. A good MDT can cover all stages from the diagnosis to the assessment and treatment of the disease, and combine them into a more coherent process...
November 25, 2018: Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke za Zhi, Chinese Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery
David H Ballard, Mahati Mokkarala, Horacio B D'Agostino
PURPOSE: The purpose of the study was to evaluate the efficacy and safety of percutaneous drainage for palliation of symptoms and sepsis in patients with cystic or necrotic tumors in the abdomen and pelvis. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a single center retrospective study of 36 patients (18 men, mean age = 51.1 years) who underwent percutaneous drainage for management of cystic or necrotic tumors in the non-postoperative setting over an 11-year period. Nineteen patients with intraabdominal fluid collections associated with primary malignancies included: cervical (n = 7), colorectal (n = 3), urothelial (n = 3), and others (n = 6)...
November 30, 2018: Abdominal Radiology
Ian Nora, Ravi Shridhar, Jamie Huston, Kenneth Meredith
Background: Accurate predictors of locally advanced and recurrence disease in patients with gastrointestinal cancer are currently lacking. Neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio (NLR) and platelet to lymphocyte ratio (PLR) have emerged as possible markers for predicting recurrence in these patients. In this study, we sought to evaluate the utility of NLR and PLR in predicting the presence of regional nodal disease, metastasis and systemic recurrence in patients with gastrointestinal malignancies...
October 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Samira Mousavi, Reza Safaralizadeh, Mohammadali Hosseinpour-Feizi, Arash Azimzadeh-Isfanjani, Shahryar Hashemzadeh
Background: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most prevalent malignancies worldwide. Cofilin is a key regulatory protein in the dynamics of actin filaments. Previous studies have shown cofilin 1's major role in cell migration process and its role in tumor cell migration and invasion. Therefore, cofilin 1 may have the potential as a novel diagnostic tumor marker in various cancers. In this study, differential expression of CFL1 in CRC tissues in comparison with adjacent non-tumor tissues was investigated and the diagnostic value of this protein in CRC was evaluated...
October 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Oncology
Su Yeon Yeon, Seung-Hyun Jung, Yun Sol Jo, Eun Ji Choi, Min Sung Kim, Yeun-Jun Chung, Sug Hyung Lee
β2-microglobulin (B2M), a component of major histocompatibility complex class I, plays an important role in host immune reaction to tumor, and inactivation of B2M is known to contribute to resistance to immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) treatment. To further characterize the B2M alterations in tumors, we analyzed B2M hotspot mutations in 2765 benign and malignant tumor tissues by Sanger sequencing and found B2M mutations in 9 (7.5%) microsatellite-unstable (MSU) colorectal cancers (CRCs) and 3 leukemias (0...
November 24, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
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