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Colorectal Malignancy

Hanna Grauers Wiktorin, Malin S Nilsson, Roberta Kiffin, Frida Ewald Sander, Brianna Lenox, Anna Rydström, Kristoffer Hellstrand, Anna Martner
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are immature monocytes and granulocytes that impede immune-mediated clearance of malignant cells by multiple mechanisms, including the formation of immunosuppressive reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the myeloid cell NADPH oxidase (NOX2). Histamine dihydrochloride (HDC), a NOX2 inhibitor, exerts anti-cancer efficacy in experimental tumor models but the detailed mechanisms are insufficiently understood. To determine effects of HDC on the MDSC compartment we utilized three murine cancer models known to entail accumulation of MDSC, i...
October 12, 2018: Cancer Immunology, Immunotherapy: CII
Sona Vodenkova, Katerina Jiraskova, Marketa Urbanova, Michal Kroupa, Jana Slyskova, Michaela Schneiderova, Miroslav Levy, Tomas Buchler, Vaclav Liska, Ludmila Vodickova, Veronika Vymetalkova, Andrew Collins, Alena Opattova, Pavel Vodicka
The DNA-damaging agent 5-fluorouracil represents the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for colorectal cancer patients. DNA lesions associated with 5-fluorouracil therapy are primarily repaired by base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Published evidence suggests that the individual DNA repair capacity (DRC) may affect a patient's prognosis and response to chemotherapy. With this in mind, we designed a prospective study of which the main aim was to investigate BER-DRC in relation to 5-fluorouracil response as potential predictive and/or prognostic biomarker...
October 1, 2018: DNA Repair
Tomonori Hirashima, Yoshitaka Tamura, Yuki Han, Shoji Hashimoto, Ayako Tanaka, Takayuki Shiroyama, Naoko Morishita, Hidekazu Suzuki, Norio Okamoto, Shinobu Akada, Makoto Fujishima, Yoshihisa Kadota, Kazuya Sakata, Akiko Nishitani, Satoru Miyazaki, Takayuki Nagai
BACKGROUND: In our previous study, colorectal cancer (CRC) patients with active Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) tolerated concurrent anti-cancer chemotherapy (anti-CCT) and anti-MTB chemotherapy. In this study, we retrospectively confirmed the efficacy and safety of concurrent chemotherapy in a greater number of patients with different types of malignancies. METHODS: We enrolled 30 patients who were treated concurrently with anti-CCT and anti-MTB regimens between January 2006 and February 2016...
October 12, 2018: BMC Cancer
Yang Luo, Jian-Jun Chen, Qiang Lv, Jun Qin, Yi-Zhou Huang, Min-Hao Yu, Ming Zhong
In recent years, accumulating evidence has indicated that long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) are powerful factors influencing the progression of multiple malignancies. Although a relationship between the lncRNA NEAT1 (nuclear enriched abundant transcript 1) and colorectal cancer has previously been reported, the functional mechanism underlying the involvement of NEAT1 in colorectal cancer remains unknown. In this study, we report that NEAT1 expression is up-regulated in colorectal cancer tissues, which correlates with advanced clinical features, poor overall survival and disease free survival...
October 9, 2018: Cancer Letters
Nafisseh S Warner, Eleanor R Trousdale, Tim J Lamer
Celiac plexus neurolysis has been shown to be an effective analgesic option for patients with visceral pain related to intraabdominal malignancies. In the setting of significant tumor burden, the celiac plexus may be inaccessible, limiting the efficacy of the transcrural approach. This case report describes a novel single-needle approach to retrocrural celiac plexus blockade, allowing for rapid blockade with a needle trajectory contralateral to the aorta in a 73-year-old woman with altered anatomy secondary to advanced metastatic colorectal cancer...
October 11, 2018: A&A practice
Su Hooi Teo, Kian-Guan Lee, Gek Hsiang Lim, Si Xuan Koo, Maria Erika Ramirez, Khuan Yew Chow, Terence Kee
INTRODUCTION: Data on post-kidney transplantation (KTX) malignancy is limited in our region, leading to challenges in the care of renal allograft recipients. We aimed to examine the epidemiology, risk factors and outcomes of post-KTX patients. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was conducted of 491 patients who underwent KTX from 1 January 2000 to 31 December 2011. Data linkage analysis was done between our centre and the National Registry of Disease Office to determine the standardised incidence ratio (SIR), standardised mortality ratio (SMR) and risk factors for malignancy after KTX...
October 10, 2018: Singapore Medical Journal
Robert Damm, Shahen El-Sanosy, Jazan Omari, Romy Damm, Peter Hass, Maciej Pech, Maciej Powerski
PURPOSE:  To evaluate the safety and feasibility of sonographically-assisted catheter placement in interstitial high-dose-rate brachytherapy of abdominal malignancies. MATERIALS AND METHODS:  In an initial cohort of 12 patients and 16 abdominal tumors (colorectal liver metastases n = 9; renal cell cancer n = 3; hepatocellular carcinoma n = 2; cholangiocellular carcinoma n = 2), initial puncture and catheter placement for CT-guided brachytherapy were performed under sonographic assistance when possible...
October 11, 2018: RöFo: Fortschritte Auf Dem Gebiete der Röntgenstrahlen und der Nuklearmedizin
Alessandro Capo, Romina Sepe, Gianluca Pellino, Marco Milone, Umberto Malapelle, Simona Pellecchia, Francesco Pepe, Nunzio Antonio Cacciola, Michele Manigrasso, Sara Bruzzaniti, Guido Sciaudone, Giovanni Domenico De Palma, Mario Galgani, Francesco Selvaggi, Giancarlo Troncone, Alfredo Fusco, Sabato D'Auria, Pierlorenzo Pallante
Even if cancer specific biomarkers are present in peripheral blood of cancer patients, it is very difficult to detect them with conventional technology because of their low concentration. A potential cancer biomarker is the HMGA1b protein, whose overexpression is a feature of several human malignant neoplasias. By taking advantage of the surface plasmon resonance (SPR) phenomenon, we realized a specific nano/technology-based assay for cancer detection. More in details, anti-HMGA1b monoclonal antibodies, whose affinity was previously defined by ELISA, were immobilized onto metallic surfaces to develop a direct SPR-based assay...
October 8, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Yuzhu Hu, Cong Wu, Changhui Zhu, Qingyu Fu, Jiajun Guo, Lihong Deng, Yihong He, Daoke Yang, Yongzhong Cheng, Xiang Gao
Colorectal cancer (CRC) exhibited high incidence rate worldwide and the advanced CRC had a poor prognosis. Thereupon, seeking efficient treatment for CRC is critical. Apatinib is a novel vascular epithelial growth factor receptor (VEGFR) inhibitor with inspiring therapeutic effect in some malignant cancers. In our study, doxorubicin was mixed in fibrin gel and apatinib was encapsulated with self-synthesized liposome. The results showed liposomal apatinib (Lipo-Apatinib) could enhance the intracellular uptake of doxorubicin in vitro...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Sanghee Kang, Bo Ram Kim, Myoung-Hee Kang, Dae-Young Kim, Dae-Hee Lee, Sang Cheul Oh, Byung Wook Min, Jun Won Um
Metformin, a first-line drug used to treat type 2 diabetes, has also been shown to have anticancer effects against a variety of malignancies, including colorectal cancer. Although inhibition of the mTOR pathway is known to be the most important mechanism for the antitumor effects of metformin, other mechanisms remain unclear. The purpose of this study was to identify the antitumor mechanism of metformin in colorectal cancer using high-throughput data, and then test the mechanism experimentally. We identified the gene signature of metformin-treated colon cancer cells...
2018: PloS One
Dyuti Shah, Govind K Makharia, Uday C Ghoshal, Sanskriti Varma, Vineet Ahuja, Susan Hutfless
There is no comprehensive report on the burden of gastrointestinal (GI) and liver diseases in India. In this study, we estimated the age-standardized prevalence, mortality, and disability adjusted life years (DALY) rates of GI and liver diseases in India from 1990 to 2016 using data from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) Study, which systematically reviews literature and reports for international disease burden trends. Despite a decrease in the overall burden from GI infectious disorders since 1990, they still accounted for the majority of DALYs in 2016...
October 10, 2018: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
Ting Yu, Cong Wu, Changhui Zhu, Yihong He, Daoke Yang, Yongzhong Cheng, Xiang Gao
Colorectal cancer is one of the most common and malignant cancer in the world wide. Recently, combination of target therapy and chemotherapy has generated new promise for colorectal cancer. Apatinib mesylate is a novel and highly selective VEGFR-2 inhibitor, presented with an outstanding activity of anti-angiogensis, which has the potential for treating various tumors. As a traditional chemotherapeutic drug, docetaxel (Taxotere) is a widely used semisynthetic taxoid in solid tumors. In this study, Liposome and Methoxy poly(ethylene glycol)-poly( ε -caprolactone) (MPEG-PCL) were constructed as drug delivery system for the delivery of apatinib (Lipo-Apa) and docetaxel (DOC/M), respectively...
December 1, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology
M Haroon A Choudry, Yongli Shuai, Heather L Jones, Reetesh K Pai, James F Pingpank, Steven S Ahrendt, Matthew P Holtzman, Herbert J Zeh, David L Bartlett
BACKGROUND: The authors hypothesized that postoperative complications after cytoreductive surgery-hyperthermic intraperitoneal chemoperfusion (CRS-HIPEC) have a negative impact on perioperative and oncologic outcomes and that the novel Comprehensive Comorbidity Index (CCI) would be a better predictor of such outcomes than the traditional Clavien-Dindo classification (CDC). METHODS: The study used a prospective database of 1296 patients with peritoneal metastases (PM) undergoing CRS-HIPEC between 2001 and 2016...
October 9, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Bas van der Spek, Krijn Haasnoot, Christof Meischl, Dmitri Heine
Background and study aims  Endoscopic full-thickness resection (eFTR) allows en-bloc and transmural resection of colorectal lesions for which other advanced endoscopic techniques are unsuitable. We present our experience with a novel "clip first, cut later" eFTR-device and evaluate its indications, efficacy and safety. Patients and methods  From July 2015 through October 2017, 51 eFTR-procedures were performed in 48 patients. Technical success and R0-resection rates were prospectively recorded and retrospectively analyzed...
October 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Magdalena Krakowska, Sylwia Dębska-Szmich, Rafał Czyżykowski, Anna Zadrożna-Nowak, Piotr Potemski
Introduction: Colorectal cancer is the second most frequently diagnosed malignancy and one of the leading causes of cancer-related death in Poland. Many reports of different types of cancer have indicated that blood count parameters may serve as a source of prognostic or predictive information. Aim: To assess the association between these parameters and clinical outcome in patients with advanced colorectal cancer. Material and methods: We retrospectively analysed a database of 295 patients with advanced colorectal cancer treated with first-line palliative chemotherapy at our institution from January 2008 to December 2012...
2018: Przegla̜d Gastroenterologiczny
Young-Hoon Jeong, Jun Lee, Sang-Wook Kim, Geom-Seog Seo, Hyun-Soo Kim, Young-Eun Joo
Background/Aims: Endoscopic submucosal dissection (ESD) is an advanced technique that can be used to treat precancerous and early colorectal neoplasms by facilitating en bloc resection regardless of tumor size. In our study, we investigated the clinicopathological feature and the treatment outcome of patients with colorectal laterally spreading tumors (LSTs) that were treated by ESD. Methods: The study enrolled all of 210 patients with colorectal LSTs who underwent ESD...
October 10, 2018: Intestinal Research
Jeong Hwan Park, Jung Ho Kim
The liver is one of the most common sites to which malignancies preferentially metastasize. Although a substantial number of liver malignancies are primary tumors, including hepatocellular carcinoma and intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, the metastasis of carcinomas to the liver is relatively common and frequently encountered in clinical settings. Representative carcinomas that frequently metastasize to the liver include colorectal carcinoma, breast carcinoma, neuroendocrine tumors, lung carcinoma, and gastric carcinoma...
October 5, 2018: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
Antonietta Lamazza, Enrico Fiori, Alberto Schillaci, Antonio V Sterpetti
PURPOSE: Endoscopic placement of self-expandable metal stents (SEMSs) to relieve malignant colorectal obstruction has been widely accepted in clinical practice. Despite increasing experience, early and late complications occur with an incidence ranging from 4% to 20%. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We have adopted a modification in the technique. A pediatric nasogastroscope (4.8 mm in diameter) has been used to pass the obstruction. It is possible to have a direct vision of the anatomy and pathology, and to pass the guidewire above the obstruction, through the nasogastroscope, under direct vision...
October 8, 2018: Surgical Laparoscopy, Endoscopy & Percutaneous Techniques
Lorena Losi, Cesare Lancellotti, Sandra Parenti, Letizia Scurani BSc, Tommaso Zanocco-Marani, Federico Buffoli, Roberto Grassia, Sergio Ferrari, Alexis Grande
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a neoplastic disease in which normal mucosa undergoes a process of malignant transformation due to the progressive accumulation of molecular alterations affecting proto-oncogenes and onco-suppressor genes. Some of these modifications exert their carcinogenic potential by promoting a constitutive activation of the β-catenin signaling proliferation pathway and, when present, loss of cadherin expression also significantly contributes to the same effect. Using a combined approach of molecular and immunohistochemical analysis, we have previously demonstrated that the majority of sporadic CRCs exhibit a down-regulated expression of a cadherin, named μ-protocadherin, that is generally observed in association with a higher proliferation rate and a worst prognosis...
October 5, 2018: Human Pathology
Yingxin Yu, Bart R J Blokhuis, Mara A P Diks, Ali Keshavarzian, Johan Garssen, Frank A Redegeld
Mast cells (MC) accumulate in colorectal cancer (CRC) and the relationship between MC density and cancer progression has been well recognized. MC can be either pro-tumor or anti-tumor players, depending on the local factors present in the tumor microenvironment. Upon malignant transformation, cancer cells express high levels of sialic acids on cell membrane or by secretion. Siglecs are a family of immunoglobulin-like receptors that bind sialic acids and each subtype has a distinct pattern of expression on immune cells...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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