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Colorectal Malignancy

Hongjian Wang, Hui Li, Lei Zhang, Desheng Yang
The existence of drug resistance is the main reason for chemotherapeutic failure in malignancies. Long non-coding RNA (lncRNA) maternally expressed gene 3 (MEG3) is implicated with tumorigenesis and chemoresistance. In the present study, we aimed to identify the role of MEG3 in oxaliplatin-resistant colorectal cancer (CRC) and its potential mechanisms. MEG3 was down-regulated in oxaliplatin-resistant CRC tissues and cell lines. Low MEG3 expression was correlated with poor prognosis of CRC patients. Overexpression of MEG3 improved oxaliplatin sensitivity of HT29/OXA and HCT116/OXA cells...
July 27, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Jamil Shah, Abul Shahidullah
Colorectal polyps are growths that form on the epithelium of the colon and rectum. While their prevalence varies considerably from region to region, they are common in adults. In fact, among asymptomatic, average-risk individuals at 50 years of age, the prevalence of colorectal polyps averages roughly 10% in sigmoidoscopy studies and more than 25% in colonoscopy studies. Approximately two-thirds of all colorectal polyps are adenomatous precancerous lesions that have the potential to become malignant. Usually, they are discovered and resected during colonoscopy...
August 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Yonghua Bao, Yongchen Guo, Yiqiong Yang, Xiaonan Wei, Shanshan Zhang, Yongmeng Zhang, Kai Li, Ming Yuan, Dongli Guo, Virgilia Macias, Xiangdong Zhu, Wei Zhang, Wancai Yang
The serine protease PRSS8 has shown important physiological and pathological functions, but its roles in cancer initiation and progression are unclear. We developed and dynamically characterized a conditional knockout Prss8fl/fl , p-Villin-Cre+ mouse model. We found that genetic deficiency of the Prss8 gene caused spontaneous colitis and an inflamed rectum at an early age and caused intestinal tumors at a late age, which were linked to increased intestinal cell proliferation and migration but decreased cell differentiation...
August 16, 2018: Oncogene
Vladimir G Bespalov, Valerij A Alexandrov, Alexander L Semenov, Galina I Vysochina, Vera A Kostikova, Denis A Baranenko
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Meadowsweet (Filipendula ulmaria (L.) Maxim.) is a medicinal plant with a variety of therapeutic properties, traditionally used in various diseases including treatment and prevention of tumors. The aim of this study was to present an ethnomedicinal justification that a meadowsweet decoction is able to inhibit colorectal carcinogenesis induced by the methylnitrosourea (MNU) in rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The chemical composition of meadowsweet extracts was studied by traditional methods...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Toshio Kuwai, Toshiki Yamaguchi, Hiroki Imagawa, Shuntaro Yoshida, Hiroyuki Isayama, Takeaki Matsuzawa, Tomonori Yamada, Shuji Saito, Mamoru Shimada, Nobuto Hirata, Takashi Sasaki, Koichi Koizumi, Iruru Maetani, Yoshihisa Saida
OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer patients often present with large bowel obstruction. Elective placement of a self-expandable metallic stent (SEMS) can relieve obstruction, but can be challenging. Previous studies have only compared cases by outcomes, but the present study investigated only successful cases to identify factors related to prolonged and difficult SEMS placement in patients with malignant colonic obstruction. METHODS: A post hoc analysis of a multicenter clinical trial conducted between March 2012 and October 2013 at 46 facilities across Japan (UMIN000007953) was performed; 511 patients who required SEMS placement for acute colorectal obstruction or symptomatic stricture secondary to malignant neoplasm were enrolled...
August 16, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Dora Huang, Surena F Matin, Nathan Lawrentschuk, Morgan Roupret
Background: Lynch syndrome is an autosomal dominant disorder that predisposes individuals affected to certain malignancies. Colon and endometrial cancers are the malignancies most highly associated with Lynch syndrome. However, growing body of evidence links Lynch syndrome to urological cancers. Objective: This review aims to clarify the type of urological malignancies that fall under the Lynch-associated cancer spectrum. Methods: Using PRISMA guidelines, a systematic search between January 1990 to February 2018, was conducted using the MEDLINE database with the application of the following MESH terms: colorectal neoplasms, hereditary nonpolyposis; DNA mismatch repair; urologic neoplasms; kidney pelvis; ureteral neoplasms; urinary bladder; carcinoma, transitional cell; prostatic neoplasms; testicular neoplasms...
July 30, 2018: Bladder Cancer
S F McGee, W AlGhareeb, C H Ahmad, D Armstrong, S Babak, S Berry, J Biagi, C Booth, D Bossé, P Champion, B Colwell, N Finn, R Goel, S Gray, J Green, M Harb, A Hyde, A Jeyakumar, D Jonker, S Kanagaratnam, P Kavan, A MacMillan, A Muinuddin, N Patil, G Porter, E Powell, R Ramjeesingh, M Raza, S Rorke, M Seal, F Servidio-Italiano, J Siddiqui, J Simms, L Smithson, S Snow, E St-Hilaire, T Stuckless, A Tate, M Tehfe, M Thirlwell, E Tsvetkova, M Valdes, M Vickers, K Virik, S Welch, C Marginean, T Asmis
The annual Eastern Canadian Gastrointestinal Cancer Consensus Conference 2017 was held in St. John's, Newfoundland and Labrador, 28-30 September. Experts in radiation oncology, medical oncology, surgical oncology, and cancer genetics who are involved in the management of patients with gastrointestinal malignancies participated in presentations and discussion sessions for the purpose of developing the recommendations presented here. This consensus statement addresses multiple topics in the management of gastric, rectal, and colon cancer, including ■ identification and management of hereditary gastric and colorectal cancer (crc);■ palliative systemic therapy for metastatic gastric cancer;■ optimum duration of preoperative radiation in rectal cancer-that is, short- compared with long-course radiation;■ management options for peritoneal carcinomatosis in crc;■ implications of tumour location for treatment and prognosis in crc; and■ new molecular markers in crc...
August 2018: Current Oncology
Liliana R Loureiro, Diana P Sousa, Dylan Ferreira, Wengang Chai, Luís Lima, Carina Pereira, Carla B Lopes, Viviana G Correia, Lisete M Silva, Chunxia Li, Lúcio Lara Santos, José Alexandre Ferreira, Ana Barbas, Angelina S Palma, Carlos Novo, Paula A Videira
Incomplete O-glycosylation is a feature associated with malignancy resulting in the expression of truncated glycans such as the sialyl-Tn (STn) antigen. Despite all the progress in the development of potential anti-cancer antibodies, their application is frequently hindered by low specificities and cross-reactivity. In this study, a novel anti-STn monoclonal antibody named L2A5 was developed by hybridoma technology. Flow cytometry analysis showed that L2A5 specifically binds to sialylated structures on the cell surface of STn-expressing breast and bladder cancer cell lines...
August 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Riccardo Inchingolo, Stavros Spiliopoulos, Massimiliano Nestola, Michele Nardella
Background Distinction between benign and malignant biliary obstruction is always challenging. Purpose To evaluate outcomes of percutaneous transluminal biopsy of biliary strictures using a dedicated forceps system. Material and Methods This prospective, single-center, single-arm study, included 29 consecutive patients (17 men [56.6%]; mean age = 60 ± 9 years), who underwent 30 transluminal biopsies during percutaneous transhepatic biliary drainage (PTBD) due to obstructive jaundice, between September 2014 and January 2017, using a transluminal biliary access and biopsy forceps set...
August 15, 2018: Acta Radiologica
Lining Huang, Xingming Jiang, Zhidong Wang, Xiangyu Zhong, Sheng Tai, Yunfu Cui
OBJECTIVES: Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs), a group of transcripts with length greater than 200 nucleotides, have been involved in multiple pathophysiological processes of the human body, especially in tumorigenesis and progression of cancers. The aberrant expression of lncRNAs processes crucial functions involved in proliferation, apoptosis and metastatic capacity of cancers. Recent studies have revealed that small nucleolar RNA host gene 1 (SNHG1), a long non-coding RNA transcribed from UHG, was located in chromosome 11...
August 2, 2018: Pathology, Research and Practice
Pengfei Qiao, Shenglong Li, Haogang Zhang, Lei Yao, Fujing Wang
Colorectal cancer (CRC) is among the most common malignancies of the digestive system. Dysregulation of miRNAs and the farnesoid X receptor (FXR) are involved in the progression of CRC. In the present study, the effects of FXR and miR‑135A1 in CRC were evaluated. Reverse transcription quantitative‑polymerase chain reaction (RT‑qPCR) was used to examine the expression of miR‑135A1 in patient CRC tissues and adjacent non‑tumor tissues, as well as cell lines. The association between miR‑135A1 and clinical characteristics of patients with CRC was also investigated...
August 7, 2018: Oncology Reports
Pukkavadee Netsirisawan, Parunya Chaiyawat, Daranee Chokchaichamnankit, Kriengsak Lirdprapamongkol, Chantragan Srisomsap, Jisnuson Svasti, Voraratt Champattanachai
O-GlcNAcylation is a dynamic posttranslational modification of nucleoplasmic proteins. Previously, we reported that the O-GlcNAcylation level was increased in primary breast and colorectal cancer tissues. However, its precise roles in cancer development and progression are still largely unexplored. The aim of the present study was to investigate the roles of O-GlcNAcylation in the malignant transformation of cancer cell lines. O-GlcNAcylation level was examined in six cancer cell lines including breast (MCF-7 and MDA-MB-231), colorectal (SW480 and SW620), and liver (SK-Hep1 and HepG2)...
August 1, 2018: Oncology Reports
Amy M B McCorry, Maurice B Loughrey, Daniel B Longley, Mark Lawler, Philip D Dunne
The process of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in cancer is a well-described process whereby epithelial tumour cells undergo molecular/phenotypic changes and transition to a mesenchymal biology. To aid in transcriptional characterisation of this process, gene expression signatures have been developed which attribute a relative EMT score to samples in a given cohort. We demonstrate how such EMT signatures can identify epithelial cell line models with high levels of transition, but also highlight that, unsurprisingly, fibroblast cell lines, which are inherently mesenchymal, have a higher EMT score relative to any epithelial cell line studied...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Pathology
Henry H Nguyen, Robert Bechara, William G Paterson, Lawrence C Hookey
Background and aims:  Rectal bleeding affects ~15 % of the general population and is a common reason for referral to gastroenterologists by primary care physicians. Direct to procedure flexible sigmoidoscopy is an appealing modality to investigate rectal bleeding due its diagnostic yield, safety profile, and accessibility. Patients referred on a routine basis for direct to procedure clinic by primary care physicians with the sole complaint of rectal bleeding have not previously been studied...
August 2018: Endoscopy International Open
Oluwaseun Adebayo Bamodu, Ching-Kuo Yang, Wei-Hong Cheng, David T W Tzeng, Kuang-Tai Kuo, Chun-Chih Huang, Li Deng, Michael Hsiao, Wei-Hwa Lee, Chi-Tai Yeh
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) remains a leading cause of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in both sexes globally. This is not unconnected with the heterogeneity and plasticity of CRC stem cells (CRC-SCs) which stealthily exploit the niche-related and (epi)genetic factors to facilitate metastasis, chemoresistance, tumor recurrence, and disease progression. Despite the accumulating evidence of the role of dysregulated microRNAs in malignancies, the therapeutic efficacy of pharmacological-targeting of CRC-SC-associated microRNAs is relatively under-explored...
August 10, 2018: Cancers
Omar Toumi, Badii Hamida, Manel Njima, Amal Bouchrika, Houssem Ammar, Amira Daldoul, Sonia Zaied, Sadok Ben Jabra, Rahul Gupta, Faouzi Noomen, Khadija Zouari
INTRODUCTION: Adenosquamous carcinoma is a rare colorectal tumor with both an adenocarcinoma and a squamous cell carcinoma component. To the best of our knowledge, only few cases have been reported in the literature. CASE PRESENTATION: We report a case of a 46-year-old woman, hospitalized for large bowel obstruction syndrome. Computed tomography scan showed an irregular mass of the right colic angle, responsible for an occlusive syndrome with distension of the right colon, the appendix and the terminal ileum...
July 11, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
Rasha Kamal, Soha Hamed, Sahar Mahmoud Mansour, Yasmine Mounir, Sahar Abdel Sallam
Although ovarian cancer (OC) is the most lethal of all female malignancies, debate still exists concerning the benefits and harms of the screening programs and their impact on long term survival and mortality from the disease. The most widely tested screening strategies have focused on trans-vaginal ultrasound (TVU) and on algorithms that measure serum levels or interval changes of cancer antigen -125 (CA-125) either individually or in combination. TVU can identify size and morphology changes of the ovary that may signal a developing malignancy; yet, it is still accused of having a low specificity...
August 13, 2018: British Journal of Radiology
Xiaoqian Jing, Haoxuan Wu, Xi Cheng, Xianze Chen, Yaqi Zhang, Minmin Shi, Tao Zhang, Xiongjun Wang, Ren Zhao
OBJECTIVES: Colorectal cancer (CRC), one of the most aggressive gastrointestinal malignancies, is a frequently diagnosed life-threatening cancer worldwide. Most CRC patients have poor prognosis mainly because of frequent metastasis and recurrence. Thus, it is crucial to find out some new biomarkers and to show deeper insights into the mechanisms of CRC. MLLT10, Myeloid/lymphoid or mixed-lineage leukemia translocated to 10, also known as AF10, a recurrent MLL partner. In this study, we found that MLLT10 promotes CRC tumor invasion and metastasis both in vitro and in vivo...
August 13, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
Anna Paspala, Nikolaos Machairas, Anastasia Prodromidou, Eleftherios Spartalis, Argyrios Ioannidis, Ioannis D Kostakis, Dimetrios Papaconstantinou, Nikolaos Nikiteas
Mixed adeno-neuroendocrine carcinoma (MANEC) is a rare pathological diagnosis recently acknowledged by the World Health Organization in 2010. MANEC is a neoplasm characterized by significant histological heterogeneity and is characterized by the simultaneous presence of both adenocarcinomatous and neuroendocrine differentiation; their definition includes each component found in at least 30% of the tumor. Colorectal MANEC constitutes an uncommon type of malignant tumor. The true prevalence of colorectal MANEC has not been precisely defined and published studies are limited to case reports and small case series...
August 2018: Molecular and Clinical Oncology
Megan Greally, Ciara M Kelly, Andrea Cercek
Despite advances in the treatment of metastatic colorectal cancer (CRC) the 5-year survival of patients with this disease remains low. A small proportion of CRCs overexpress the HER2 oncogene and the effective targeting of this pathway in other malignancies such as breast and gastric cancer has led to efforts to determine if it can also be exploited as a target in CRC. Activation of the HER2 pathway as a bypass signalling pathway has been identified as a mechanism of resistance for antiepidermal growth factor receptor antibody therapy in both the first line and salvage settings...
July 19, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
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