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Yumei Li, Chen Li, Shuxian Li, Qi Peng, Ni A An, Aibin He, Chuan-Yun Li
Nucleosomal modifications have been implicated in fundamental epigenetic regulation, but the roles of nucleosome occupancy in shaping changes through evolution remain to be addressed. Here we present high-resolution nucleosome occupancy profiles for multiple tissues derived from human, macaque, tree shrew, mouse, and pig. Genome-wide comparison reveals conserved nucleosome occupancy profiles across both different species and tissue types. Notably, we found significantly higher levels of nucleosome occupancy in exons than in introns, a pattern correlated with the different exon-intron GC content...
August 13, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Huanbin Xu, Widade Ziani, Jiasheng Shao, Lara A Doyle-Meyers, Kasi E Russell-Lodrigue, Marion S Ratterree, Ronald S Veazey, Xiaolei Wang
Germinal center (GC) CD4+ follicular Th (Tfh) cells are critical for cognate B cell help in humoral immune responses to pathogenic infections. Although Tfh cells are expanded or depleted in HIV/SIV-infected adults, the effects of pediatric HIV/SIV infection on Tfh cells remain unclear. In this study, we examined changes in lymphoid follicle formation in lymph nodes focusing on GC Tfh cells, B cell development, and differentiation in SIV-infected neonatal rhesus macaques ( Macaca mulatta ) compared with age-matched cohorts...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Erin L Kinnally, Mireille N Gonzalez, John P Capitanio
The effects of early stress may not be limited to the exposed generation, but are sometimes passed on to subsequent generations. Such non-genetic transgenerational inheritance is a potentially important developmental and evolutionary force. We compared the transgenerational effects of maternal and paternal line early stress on anxiety- and health-related traits in three non-exposed generations (F1, F2 and F3) of semi-naturalistically raised rhesus macaques. As infants, F0 macaques were exposed to nursery rearing (NR) or semi-naturalistic social conditions (CONTROL)...
August 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Josefin Koehn, Jennifer F Iwamoto, John C Kraft, Lisa A McCONNACHIE, Ann C Collier, Rodney J Y Ho
OBJECTIVE: To characterize a drug-combination nanoparticle (DcNP) containing water-insoluble lopinavir (LPV) and efavirenz (EFV), and water-soluble tenofovir (TFV), for its potential as a long-acting combination HIV treatment. DESIGN: Three HIV drugs (LPV, EFV, TFV) with well-established efficacy and safety were co-formulated into a single DcNP suspension. Two macaques were administered one subcutaneous injection and drug concentrations in plasma and mononuclear cells (in peripheral blood and lymph nodes) were analyzed over two weeks...
August 9, 2018: AIDS
Jacob A Macdonald, Philip A Corrado, Sydney M Nguyen, Kevin M Johnson, Christopher J Francois, Ronald R Magness, Dinesh M Shah, Thaddeus G Golos, Oliver Wieben
BACKGROUND: Pregnancy complications are often associated with poor uteroplacental vascular adaptation and standard diagnostics are unable to reliably quantify flow in all uteroplacental vessels and have poor sensitivity early in gestation. PURPOSE: To investigate the feasibility of using 4D flow MRI to assess total uteroplacental blood flow in pregnant rhesus macaques as a precursor to human studies. STUDY TYPE: Retrospective feasibility study...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
(no author information available yet)
Keiko SHIMIZU and Keiko MOURI Vol. 80, No. 7 (2018), p. 1139, the number of the Plate preparation section should have been as follows:I ErrorI Plate preparation. Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) goat serum (Rockland Immunochemicals Inc., Limerick, PA, U.S.A.) was diluted to 0.15 μg/ml in pH 9.6, 0.05 M carbonate buffer, and 50 μl was added to microtiter plates (Maxisorp flat-bottom, Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA, U.S.A.) for the E1C, PdG and E3G assays.II CorrectionI Plate preparation. Anti-rabbit IgG (H+L) goat serum (Rockland Immunochemicals Inc...
2018: Journal of Veterinary Medical Science
Miao Wei, Meng Feng, Yue Guan, Ce Guo, Hang Zhou, Yongfeng Fu, Hiroshi Tachibana, Xunjia Cheng
Entamoeba nuttalli infection is prevalent in captive and wild macaques. Recent studies have suggested that genotypes of E. nuttalli isolates are correlated with the geographical distribution of host macaques. Correlation of amoebic genotypes with genetic diversity of host macaques was analyzed in present study. Sixty fresh stool samples were obtained from wild Tibetan macaques living in Mount Huang (HS) of the An-hui Province in China. PCR analysis revealed that the most prevalent Entamoeba species was E. chattoni (E...
August 10, 2018: Bioscience Trends
Ken-Ichi Amemori, Satoko Amemori, Daniel J Gibson, Ann M Graybiel
Persistent thoughts inducing irrationally pessimistic and repetitive decisions are often symptoms of mood and anxiety disorders. Regional neural hyperactivities have been associated with these disorders, but it remains unclear whether there is a specific brain region causally involved in these persistent valuations. Here, we identified potential sources of such persistent states by microstimulating the striatum of macaques performing a task by which we could quantitatively estimate their subjective pessimistic states using their choices to accept or reject conflicting offers...
August 8, 2018: Neuron
James K Rilling, Martijn P van den Heuvel
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections of a species nervous system. While recent work has begun comparing connectomes across a wide breadth of species, we present here a more detailed and specific comparison of connectomes across the primate order. Long-range connections are thought to improve communication efficiency and thus brain function but are costly in terms of energy and space utilization. Methods for measuring connectivity in the brain include measuring white matter volume, histological cell counting, anatomical tract tracing, diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and functional connectivity in MRI...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Jennifer J Coppola, Anita A Disney
INTRODUCTION: Release of the neuromodulator acetylcholine into cortical circuits supports cognition, although its precise role and mechanisms of action are not well understood. Little is known about functional differences in cholinergic modulatory effects across cortical model systems, but anatomical evidence suggests that such differences likely exist because, for example, the expression of cholinergic receptors differs profoundly both within and between species. METHODS: In the primary visual cortex (V1) of macaque monkeys, cholinergic receptors are strongly expressed by inhibitory interneurons...
August 9, 2018: Brain and Behavior
Toru Yamada, Hiroshi Kawaguchi, Junpei Kato, Keiji Matsuda, Noriyuki Higo
We developed an fNIRS system for monitoring macaque cerebral motor activity during voluntary movements without head fixation. fNIRS data at 27 channels in 7.5 mm spatial interval were calibrated by simulating light propagation through the macaque cranial tissues. The subject was instructed to repeatedly (75 times) retrieve a food pellet with alternating left or right hands from a food well for each session. We detected significant increases in oxygenated hemoglobin (Hb) and decrease in deoxygenated Hb in the primary motor area (M1) contralateral to the hand used...
August 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Charles D Holmes, Charalampos Papadimitriou, Lawrence H Snyder
Working memory, the ability to maintain and manipulate information in the brain, is critical for cognition. During the memory period of spatial memory tasks, neurons in the prefrontal cortex code for memorized locations via persistent, spatially-tuned increases in activity. Local field potentials (LFPs) are understood to reflect summed synaptic activity of local neuron populations and may offer a window into network-level processing. We recorded LFPs from areas 8A and 9/46 while two male cynomolgus macaques ( Macaca fascicularis ) performed a long duration (5...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Mila C Kundu, Liz R Gore, Sean Maguire, Aidan G Gilmartin
Hydroxyurea induces production of fetal hemoglobin (HbF), a tetramer of α and γ globin proteins and corresponding hememolecules, normally found in less than 1% of adult RBC. Increases in circulating HbF are correlated with clinical improvementof patients with hemoglobinopathies, and hydroxyurea, as a daily medication, is the standard treatment for sickle cell anemia.Although olive baboons (Papio anubis) are considered a key model species for HbF induction, cynomolgus macaques (Macacafasicularis) are another species that conserves the ability to produce HbF into maturity...
August 9, 2018: Comparative Medicine
Corrine Ying Xuan Chua, Priya Jain, Andrea Ballerini, Giacomo Bruno, R Lyle Hood, Manas Gupte, Song Gao, Nicola Di Trani, Antonia Susnjar, Kathryn Shelton, Lane R Bushman, Marco Folci, Carly S Filgueira, Mark A Marzinke, Peter L Anderson, Ming Hu, Pramod Nehete, Roberto C Arduino, Jagannadha K Sastry, Alessandro Grattoni
Pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with antiretroviral (ARV) drugs are effective at preventing human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) transmission. However, implementation of PrEP presents significant challenges due to poor user adherence, low accessibility to ARVs and multiple routes of HIV exposure. To address these challenges, we developed the nanochannel delivery implant (NDI), a subcutaneously implantable device for sustained and constant delivery of tenofovir alafenamide (TAF) and emtricitabine (FTC) for HIV PrEP...
August 6, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
April R Giles, Lakshmanan Govindasamy, Suryanarayan Somanathan, James M Wilson
Recent clinical trials have demonstrated the potential of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-based vectors for treating rare diseases. However, significant barriers remain for the translation of these vectors into widely available therapies. In particular, exposure to the AAV capsid can generate an immune response of neutralizing antibodies. One approach to overcome this response is to map the AAV-specific neutralizing epitopes and rationally design an AAV capsid able to evade neutralization. To accomplish this, we isolated a monoclonal antibody against AAV9 following immunization of Balb/c mice and hybridoma screening...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virology
Bonnie Phillips, Koen K A Van Rompay, Jennifer Rodriguez-Nieves, Clarisse Lorin, Marguerite Koutsoukos, Mark Tomai, Christopher B Fox, Josh Eudailey, Maria Dennis, S Munir Alam, Michael Hudgens, Genevieve Fouda, Justin Pollara, Anthony Moody, Xiaoying Shen, Guido Ferrari, Sallie Permar, Kristina De Paris
Towards the goal of developing an effective HIV vaccine that can be administered in infancy to protect against postnatal and life-long sexual HIV transmission risks, the current pilot study was designed to compare the effect of novel adjuvants on the induction of HIV Env-specific antibody responses in infant macaques. Aligning our studies with the adjuvanted proteins evaluated in a prime-boost schedule with ALVAC in the ongoing HVTN 702 efficacy trial, we selected the bivalent clade C Env immunogens gp120 C...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Virology
Matthew C O'Neill, Brigitte Demes, Nathan E Thompson, Brian R Umberger
Humans are unique among apes and other primates in the musculoskeletal design of their lower back and pelvis. While the last common ancestor of the Pan-Homo lineages has long been thought to be 'African ape-like', including in its lower back and ilia design, recent descriptions of early hominin and Miocene ape fossils have led to the proposal that its lower back and ilia were more similar to those of some Old World monkeys, such as macaques. Here, we compared three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind/lower limbs of bipedal macaques, chimpanzees and humans walking at similar dimensionless speeds to test the effects of lower back and ilia design on gait...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Niansheng Ju, Rundong Jiang, Stephen L Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde, Shiming Tang
Whereas optogenetic techniques have proven successful in their ability to manipulate neuronal populations-with high spatial and temporal fidelity-in species ranging from insects to rodents, significant obstacles remain in their application to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Robust optogenetics-activated behavior and long-term monitoring of target neurons have been challenging in NHPs. Here, we present a method for all-optical interrogation (AOI), integrating optical stimulation and simultaneous two-photon (2P) imaging of neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake rhesus macaques...
August 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Huiyi Harriet Chang, Una J Lee, Timothy Vu, Victor Pikov, Jaime H Nieto, Kari L Christe, Leif A Havton
The external anal sphincter (EAS) is important for the maintenance of bowel continence and may be compromised by a variety of neuropathic conditions. However, large animal models for the study of EAS functions have been sparse. The EAS guarding reflex was examined by electromyography (EMG) in neurologically intact rhesus macaques (n=6) and at 4-6 weeks after a unilateral EAS denervation from an L6-S3 ventral root avulsion (VRA) injury (n=6). Baseline EAS EMG recordings were quiescent in all subjects, and evoked responses showed an initial large amplitude EMG activity, which gradually returned to baseline within 1-2 minutes...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Chih-Yang Chen, Ziad M Hafed
The primate superior colliculus is traditionally studied from the perspectives of gaze control, target selection, and selective attention. However, this structure is also visually responsive, and it is the primary visual structure in several species. Thus, understanding the visual tuning properties of the primate superior colliculus is important, especially given that the superior colliculus is part of an alternative visual pathway running in parallel to the predominant geniculo-cortical pathway. In recent previous studies, we have characterized receptive field organization and spatial frequency tuning properties in the primate (rhesus macaque) superior colliculus...
2018: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
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