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Farshad A Mansouri, Mark J Buckley
Psychophysical studies in humans indicate that the performance in various tasks is affected by contextual factors such as conflict level and error commission. It is generally believed that contextual factors influence the executive control processes and consequently modulate ongoing behaviour. Imaging studies suggest that dorsolateral prefrontal cortex and anterior cingulate cortex play crucial roles in mediating these context-dependent adjustments in executive control of behaviour. However, the underlying neuronal processes are to a great extent unknown...
2018: Advances in Neurobiology
Ming Lo, Jia Zhu, Scott G Hansen, Timothy Carroll, Christina Farr Zuend, Laura Nöel-Romas, Zhong-Min Ma, Linda Fritts, Meei-Li Huang, Sijie Sun, Ying Huang, David Koelle, Louis J Picker, Adam Burgener, Lawrence Corey, Christopher J Miller
Herpes simplex virus-2 (HSV-2) is a common sexually transmitted infection with a highly variable clinical course. Many infections quickly become subclinical, with episodes of spontaneous virus reactivation. To study the host/HSV-2 interactions an animal model of subclinical HSV-2 infection is needed. In an effort to develop a relevant model, rhesus macaques (RM) were inoculated intravaginally with two or three HSV-2 strains (186, 333 and/or G); total dose 1x107 pfu HSV-2 per animal. Infectious HSV-2 and HSV-2 DNA was consistently shed in vaginal swabs for the first 7-14 days after each inoculation...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Virology
Nicola Palomero-Gallagher, Karl Zilles
Areas 44 and 45 have been identified in non-human primates as homologs of the human Broca region. Distribution of large and smaller pyramids and the ventro-lateral localization in the posterior frontal lobe enable their identification in non-human primates. Since only humans hold the ability of language, it has been hypothesized that differences in microstructure may, together with other anatomical factors, e.g., white matter tract connectivity, volumes of cortical areas and their molecular differentiation, be responsible for the lack (non-human primates) or ability (humans) of language...
September 24, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
C D Eiber, A S Rahman, A N J Pietersen, N Zeater, B Dreher, S G Solomon, P R Martin
The koniocellular (K) layers of the primate dorsal lateral geniculate nucleus house a variety of visual receptive field types, not all of which have been fully characterized. Here we made single cell recordings targeted to the K layers of diurnal New World monkeys (marmosets). A subset of recorded cells was excited by both increments and decrements of light intensity (on/off-cells). Histological reconstruction of the location of these cells confirmed that they are segregated to K layers; we therefore refer to these cells as K-on/off cells...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Miaomiao Zhang, Zhuotao Fu, Jiantao Chen, Boqiang Zhu, Ye Cheng, Linchun Fu
BACKGROUND: Abnormally increased immune activation is one of the main pathological features of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This study aimed to determine whether long-term nonprogression (LTNP) suppresses the upregulation of immune activation and to elucidate the mechanisms whereby the LTNP state is maintained. METHODS: For this study we selected 4 rhesus macaques(RMs) infected with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) that were long-term nonprogressors (LTNP); for comparison we chose 4 healthy RMs that were seronegative for SIV (hereafter referred to as the Control group), and 4 progressing infection (Progressive group) SIV RMs...
October 16, 2018: Virology Journal
Nachiket A Nadkarni, Salma Bougacha, Clément Garin, Marc Dhenain, Jean-Luc Picq
The gray mouse lemur (Microcebus murinus) is a small prosimian of growing interest for studies of primate biology and evolution, and notably as a model organism of brain aging. As brain atlases are essential tools for brain investigation, the objective of the current work was to create the first 3D digital atlas of the mouse lemur brain. For this, a template image was constructed from in vivo magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data of 34 animals. This template was then manually segmented into 40 cortical, 74 subcortical and 6 cerebro-spinal fluid (CSF) regions...
October 13, 2018: NeuroImage
Youkyung Choi, Xiugen Zhang, Brianna Skinner
Background: Secondary spread of hepatitis E virus (HEV) infection occurs often in endemic settings in developing countries. The host immune signatures contributing to protection against subsequent HEV reinfection are unknown. Methods: Twelve seroconverted rhesus macaques were re-inoculated with homologous HEV genotype 1 (gt1, Sar-55) and followed for 115 days. HEV RNA, HEV-specific T-cell responses, IgG anti-HEV antibody, and the IgG anti-HEV avidity index were tested...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Måns Ekelöf, Kenneth P Garrard, Rika Judd, Elias P Rosen, De-Yu Xie, Angela D M Kashuba, David C Muddiman
Analyzing mass spectrometry imaging data can be laborious and time consuming, and as the size and complexity of datasets grow, so does the need for robust automated processing methods. We here present a method for comprehensive, semi-targeted discovery of molecular distributions of interest from mass spectrometry imaging data, using widely available image similarity scoring algorithms to rank images by spatial correlation. A fast and powerful batch search method using a MATLAB implementation of structural similarity (SSIM) index scoring with a pre-selected reference distribution is demonstrated for two sample imaging datasets, a plant metabolite study using Artemisia annua leaf, and a drug distribution study using maraviroc-dosed macaque tissue...
October 15, 2018: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Amarender R Bogadhi, Anil Bollimunta, David A Leopold, Richard J Krauzlis
Neurophysiological studies of covert visual attention in monkeys have emphasized the modulation of sensory neural responses in the visual cortex. At the same time, electrophysiological correlates of attention have been reported in other cortical and subcortical structures, and recent fMRI studies have identified regions across the brain modulated by attention. Here we used fMRI in two monkeys performing covert attention tasks to reproduce and extend these findings in order to help establish a more complete list of brain structures involved in the control of attention...
October 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jonas Knöll, Jonathan W Pillow, Alexander C Huk
Much study of the visual system has focused on how humans and monkeys integrate moving stimuli over space and time. Such assessments of spatiotemporal integration provide fundamental grounding for the interpretation of neurophysiological data, as well as how the resulting neural signals support perceptual decisions and behavior. However, the insights supported by classical characterizations of integration performed in humans and rhesus monkeys are potentially limited with respect to both generality and detail: Standard tasks require extensive amounts of training, involve abstract stimulus-response mappings, and depend on combining data across many trials and/or sessions...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Sophie Bernadette Sébille, Anne-Sophie Rolland, Marie-Laure Welter, Eric Bardinet, Mathieu David Santin
BACKGROUND: Diffusion weighted imaging (DWI) is the only in vivo technique allowing for the mapping of tissue fiber architecture. Post mortem DWI is an increasingly popular method, since longer acquisition times (compared to in vivo) allow higher spatial and angular resolutions to be achieved. However, DWI protocols must be adapted to post mortem tissue (e.g., tuning acquisition parameters to account for changes in T1/T2). NEW METHOD: In this work, we developed a framework to obtain high quality diffusion weighted images on post mortem large samples by using a combination of fast imaging with 3D diffusion-weighted segmented EPI (3D-DW seg-EPI), Gadolinium soaking and data denoising...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Andrey Tokarev, Matthew Creegan, Michael A Eller, Mario Roederer, Diane L Bolton
Single-cell analysis is an important tool for dissecting heterogeneous populations of cells. The identification and isolation of rare cells can be difficult. To overcome this challenge, a methodology combining indexed flow cytometry and high-throughput multiplexed quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was developed. The objective was to identify and characterize simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)-infected cells present within rhesus macaques. Through quantitation of surface protein by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) and mRNA by qPCR, virus-infected cells are identified by viral gene expression, which is combined with host gene and protein measurements to create a multidimensional profile...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Longlong Wang, Wei Zhang, Liya Lin, Xiao Li, Nitin K Saksena, Jinghua Wu, Shiyu Wang, Joseph G Joyce, Xiuqing Zhang, Huanming Yang, Jian Wang, I-Ming Wang, Xiao Liu
The exploitation of various human immunodeficiency virus type-1 (HIV-1) vaccines has posed great challenges for the researchers in precisely evaluating the vaccine-induced immune responses, however, the understanding of vaccination response suffers from the lack of unbiased characterization of the immune landscape. The rapid development of high throughput sequencing (HTS) makes it possible to scrutinize the extremely complicated immunological responses during vaccination. In the current study, three vaccines, namely N36, N51, and 5-Helix based on the HIV-1 gp41 pre-hairpin fusion intermediate were applied in rhesus macaques...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Nicole Paschek, Nadine Müller, Michael Heistermann, Julia Ostner, Oliver Schülke
Human aggression can be differentiated into reactive aggression (RA), displayed in face of a real or perceived threat and associated with high levels of anxiety, and proactive aggression (PA), displayed to achieve a certain goal and linked to lower anxiety levels. To study the origins of these aggression subtypes and their relation to anxiety, we tested if both subtypes can be distinguished in a nonhuman primate species, characterized their occurrence within the study group, and examined the link between aggression subtype and anxiety...
October 14, 2018: Aggressive Behavior
Gustavo Rohenkohl, Conrado Arturo Bosman, Pascal Fries
Behavior is often driven by visual stimuli, relying on feedforward communication from lower to higher visual areas. Effective communication depends on enhanced interareal coherence, but it remains unclear whether this coherence occurs at an optimal phase relation that actually improves stimulus transmission to behavioral report. We recorded local field potentials from V1 and V4 of macaques performing an attention task during which they reported changes in the attended stimulus. V1-V4 gamma synchronization immediately preceding the stimulus change partly predicted subsequent reaction times (RTs)...
October 4, 2018: Neuron
Jonathan F O'Rawe, Jaime S Ide, Hoi-Chung Leung
In accordance with the concept of topographic organization of neuroanatomical structures, there is an increased interest in estimating and delineating continuous changes in the functional connectivity patterns across neighboring voxels within a region of interest using resting-state fMRI data. Fundamental to this functional connectivity gradient analysis is the assumption that the functional organization is stable and uniform across the region of interest. To evaluate this assumption, we developed a statistical model testing procedure to arbitrate between overlapping, shifted, or different topographic connectivity gradients across subdivisions of a structure...
October 10, 2018: NeuroImage
Mehdi Sanayei, Xing Chen, Daniel Chicharro, Claudia Distler, Stefano Panzeri, Alexander Thiele
Perceptual learning, the improvement in perceptual abilities with training, is thought to be mediated by an alteration of neuronal tuning. It remains poorly understood how tuning properties change as training progresses, whether improved stimulus tuning directly links to increased behavioural readout of sensory information, or how population coding mechanisms change with training. Here, we recorded continuously from multiple neuronal clusters in area V4 while macaque monkeys learned a fine contrast categorization task...
October 12, 2018: Nature Communications
Jing Li, Zhenxin Fan, Tianlin Sun, Changjun Peng, Bisong Yue, Jing Li
Macaca is of great importance in evolutionary and biomedical research. Aiming at elucidating genetic diversity patterns and potential biomedical applications of macaques, we characterized single nucleotide variations (SNVs) of six Macaca species based on the reference genome of Macaca mulatta. Using eight whole-genome sequences, representing the most comprehensive genomic SNV study in Macaca to date, we focused on discovery and comparison of nonsynonymous SNVs (nsSNVs) with bioinformatic tools. We observed that SNV distribution patterns were generally congruent among the eight individuals...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Elizabeth C Stahl, Ryan W Bonvillain, Clint D Skillen, Brandon L Burger, Hidetaka Hara, Whayoung Lee, Cynthia B Trygg, Peter J Didier, Brooke F Grasperge, Nicholas C Pashos, Bruce A Bunnell, John Bianchi, David L Ayares, Kelly I Guthrie, Bryan N Brown, Thomas H Petersen
Whole organ tissue engineering is a promising approach to address organ shortages in many applications, including lung transplantation for patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Engineered lungs may be derived from animal sources after removing cellular content, exposing the extracellular matrix to serve as a scaffold for recellularization with human cells. However, the use of xenogeneic tissue sources in human transplantation raises concerns due to the presence of the antigenic Gal epitope. In the present study, lungs from wild type or α-Gal knockout pigs were harvested, decellularized, and implanted subcutaneously in a non-human primate model to evaluate the host immune response...
September 28, 2018: Biomaterials
Luci Ann P Kohn, Gabriele R Lubach
Skeletal morphology is important in evolutionary, genetic, developmental, physiological and functional studies. While samples from free-ranging individuals may be preferable, constraints of sample size, demography, or conservation status may necessitate the inclusion of captive-born individuals. Captivity may be associated with physical, physiological or behavioral differences that may affect skeletal form. This study assesses differences in postcranial skeletal form between free-range and captive-born Macaca mulatta and Saguinus oedipus...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
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