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Climate climatic

Myriam Forster, Gower L Amy, Eunice Areba, Barbara J McMorris
INTRODUCTION: Research has demonstrated a robust relationship between psychosocial risk factors (e.g., perceptions of health risk, peer and parent influences, and school climate) and adolescent tobacco use. However, whether internal assets (IAs), factors that promote healthy youth development, can mitigate the adverse effects of psychosocial risks on tobacco use has not been well researched. METHOD: Using a population-based sample of middle and high school students (N = 112,364), multilevel logistic and negative binomial regression models estimated the direct effects of cumulative psychosocial risks and IAs on student tobacco use (e...
October 11, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
Nils Borchard, Michael Schirrmann, Maria Luz Cayuela, Claudia Kammann, Nicole Wrage-Mönnig, Jose M Estavillo, Teresa Fuertes-Mendizábal, Gilbert Sigua, Kurt Spokas, James A Ippolito, Jeff Novak
Biochar can reduce both nitrous oxide (N2 O) emissions and nitrate (NO3 - ) leaching, but refining biochar's use for estimating these types of losses remains elusive. For example, biochar properties such as ash content and labile organic compounds may induce transient effects that alter N-based losses. Thus, the aim of this meta-analysis was to assess interactions between biochar-induced effects on N2 O emissions and NO3 - retention, regarding the duration of experiments as well as soil and land use properties...
October 9, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Lingyu Li, Haomeng Yang, Peng Liu, Weibo Ren, Xinhong Wu, Fang Huang
Global climate warming has a crucial impact on many terrestrial ecosystems, including temperate steppe. In addition, phosphate deficiency is known to be the common deficiency in soils worldwide due to the low availability of the phosphate nutrient in the form of inorganic phosphate anions (Pi). Consequently, in the future, land plants are likely to simultaneously encounter heat stress and phosphate deficiency more frequently. Sheepgrass 〔Leymus chinensis (Trin.) Tzvel〕is a dominant perennial forage plant highly significant to grass productivity of Eurasian temperate grasslands...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Plant Physiology
Grant Dickey, Brian M Preziosi, Charles T Clark, Timothy J Bowden
Blue mussel (Mytilus edulis) produce byssal threads to anchor themselves to the substrate. These threads are always exposed to the surrounding environmental conditions. Understanding how environmental pH affects these threads is crucial in understanding how climate change can affect mussels. This work examines three factors (load at failure, thread extensibility, and total thread counts) that indicate the performance of byssal threads as well as condition index to assess impacts on the physiological condition of mussels held in artificial seawater acidified by the addition of CO2...
2018: PloS One
Yao Zhang, Feng-Xiang Lyu, Quan Kang, Zi-Xing Dong, Tian-Xin Zhao, Sheng-Nan Xie, Qing Luo
Acute appendicitis (AA) affects between 7% and 8% of the world population and is one of the most common general surgical emergencies. The concept of seasonal patterns in the incidence of AA remains controversial. Thus, this study aimed to investigate whether meteorological factors are related to variations in the rate of pediatric AA cases at the Children's Hospital in Chongqing, China.In total, in this retrospective survey, 3436 children younger than 18 years who had been hospitalized with AA from January 1, 2008 to December 31, 2013 were enrolled, and the meteorological factors during this period were collected...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alina Smirnova, Onyebuchi A Arah, Renée E Stalmeijer, Kiki M J M H Lombarts, Cees P M van der Vleuten
PURPOSE: To examine the association between residency learning climate and inpatient care experience. METHOD: The authors analyzed 1,201 evaluations of the residency learning climate (using the Dutch Residency Educational Climate Test questionnaire) and 6,689 evaluations of inpatient care experience (using the Consumer Quality Index Inpatient Hospital Care questionnaire) from 86 departments across 15 specialties in 18 hospitals in the Netherlands between 2013 and 2014...
October 16, 2018: Academic Medicine: Journal of the Association of American Medical Colleges
Jerome B Taxy, Harry M Goldin, Sara Dickie, Thomas Cibull
The ulcerated papules of cutaneous leishmaniasis represent an unusual form of granulomatous dermatitis caused by Leishmania species, a protozoan transmitted by sandfly bites. As the disease is not native to North America, clinical suspicion is partially based on a compatible travel history and may result in a biopsy. The key role of standard morphology is the identification of Leishmania organisms, supplemented by Giemsa and/or CD1a immunostaining. Histologically, the organism may be confused with Histoplasma species, which is resolved by staining with methenamine silver or PAS...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Aritra Dasgupta, Jorge Poco, Bernice Rogowitz, Kyungsik Han, Enrico Bertini, Claudio T Silva
Geographical maps encoded with rainbow color scales are widely used for spatial data analysis in climate science, despite evidence from the visualization literature that they are not perceptually optimal. We present a controlled user study that compares the effect of color scales on performance accuracy for climate-modeling tasks using pairs of continuous geographical maps generated using climatological metrics. For each pair of maps, 39 scientist-observers judged: i) the magnitude of their difference, ii) their degree of spatial similarity, and iii) the region of greatest dissimilarity between them...
October 17, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Zhengqing Liu, Ziyang Lu, Michel Bosman, Na Li, Terry J Frankcombe, Guohua Jia, Antonio Tricoli, Yun Liu, Yaping Du, Zongyou Yin
Durability is still one of the key obstacles for the further development of photocatalytic energy-conversion systems, especially low-dimensional ones. Encouragingly, recent studies show that nanoinsulators such as SiO2 and MgO exhibit substantially enhanced photocatalytic durability than the typical semiconductor p25 TiO2 . Extending this knowledge, MgO-Au plasmonic defect nanosystems are developed that combine the stable photoactivity from MgO surface defects with energy-focusing plasmonics from Au nanoparticles (NPs), where Au NPs are anchored onto monodispersed MgO nanotemplates...
October 17, 2018: Small
Yosef Kiat, Ido Izhaki, Nir Sapir
Although feathers are the unifying characteristic of all birds, our understanding of the causes, mechanisms, patterns and consequences of the feather moult process lags behind that of other major avian life-history phenomena such as reproduction and long-distance migration. Migration, which evolved in many species of the temperate and arctic zones, requires high energy expenditure to endure long-distance journeys. About a third of Western-Palearctic passerines perform long-distance migrations of thousands of kilometres each year using various morphological, physiological, biomechanical, behavioural and life-history adaptations...
October 18, 2018: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
Rubén D Piacentini, Lara Sofía Della Ceca, Adriana Ipiña
Climate change is affecting both the environment and human behaviour. One significant impact is related to health, as detailed in the IPCC 2014 report. In the present work, and as a contribution to this commemorative special issue to Prof. Dr Jan van der Leun, we present the results of the squamous (SCC) and basal-cell carcinoma (BCC) incidence change in relation to the ambient temperature increase. This increase is produced by global warming, mainly induced by anthropogenic atmospheric emissions of greenhouse gases...
October 18, 2018: Photochemical & Photobiological Sciences
Sebastian Berger, Christian Bärtsch, Christina Schmidt, Fabian Christandl, Annika M Wyss
A key challenge for climate change mitigation on the consumer side is to break habits that excessively lead to carbon emission. One of the culturally most robust human routines is the heavy reliance of the Western societies on conventional meat sources such as beef, pork, and poultry, which were recently accused of causing particularly high climate costs. In this light, the UN (FAO) has suggested the increasing use of insects as an alternative source of animal protein intended for human diets. Yet, insects have not reached the mainstream of Western cuisine...
2018: Frontiers in Nutrition
Steinar Andresen, Prativa Baral, Steven J Hoffman, Patrick Fafard
Scientific advisory committees (SACs) are a critically important part of global environmental policy. This commentary reviews the role of SACs in six global and regional environmental regimes, defined here as the set of rules, norms, and procedures that are developed by states and international organizations out of their common concerns and used to organize common activities. First, SACs play a critical role in putting issues on the political agenda and the creation of an overarching regime. Second, the effectiveness of a given SAC and the associated regime is highly variable...
September 2018: Global Challenges
Jarmo K Holopainen, Virpi Virjamo, Rajendra P Ghimire, James D Blande, Riitta Julkunen-Tiitto, Minna Kivimäenpää
Plant secondary compounds (PSCs), also called secondary metabolites, have high chemical and structural diversity and appear as non-volatile or volatile compounds. These compounds may have evolved to have specific physiological and ecological functions in the adaptation of plants to their growth environment. PSCs are produced by several metabolic pathways and many PSCs are specific for a few plant genera or families. In forest ecosystems, full-grown trees constitute the majority of plant biomass and are thus capable of producing significant amounts of PSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
F Bonetti, C McInnes
A low-order 3-box energy balance model for the climate system is employed with a multivariable control scheme for the evaluation of new robust and adaptive climate engineering strategies using solar radiation management. The climate engineering measures are deployed in three boxes thus representing northern, southern and central bands. It is shown that, through heat transport between the boxes, it is possible to effect a degree of latitudinal control through the reduction of insolation. The approach employed consists of a closed-loop system with an adaptive controller, where the required control intervention is estimated under the RCP 4...
September 2018: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Denise Felix da Silva, Carolina Itoda, Cassia Inês Lourenzi Franco Rosa, Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Letícia Naomi Yamamoto, Lilian Yukari Yamamoto, Renato Vasconcelos Botelho, Paula Toshimi Matumoto-Pintro
Beneficial health effects are attributed to the wide array of polyphenols such as anthocyanins present in berries. Blackberries have been improved genetically to be cultivated in different climate such as Brazil. Thus, distinctive cultivars were created. However, antioxidant properties of these have not been evaluated. This study aimed to investigate the availability of phenolic compounds in Brazilian cultivar blackberries (cv. Xavante) after processing into purées, coulis and jam changes during storage. Physicochemical, total phenolic compounds (TPC), anthocyanins and antioxidant activity of frozen and processed food products were evaluated...
November 2018: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Ian G Brennan, J Scott Keogh
On deep time scales, changing climatic trends can have a predictable influence on macroevolution. From evidence of mass extinctions, we know that rapid climatic oscillations can indirectly open niche space and precipitate adaptive radiation, changing the course of ecological diversification. These dramatic shifts in the global climate, however, are rare events relative to extended periods of protracted climate change and biome turnover. It remains unclear whether during gradually changing periods, shifting habitats may instead promote non-adaptive speciation by facilitating allopatry and phenotypic conservatism...
October 17, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Nadir Jeevanjee, David M Romps
Global climate models robustly predict that global mean precipitation should increase at roughly 2-3% [Formula: see text], but the origin of these values is not well understood. Here we develop a simple theory to help explain these values. This theory combines the well-known radiative constraint on precipitation, which says that condensation heating from precipitation is balanced by the net radiative cooling of the free troposphere, with an invariance of radiative cooling profiles when expressed in temperature coordinates...
October 17, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Leif Inge K Sørskår, Eirik B Abrahamsen, Espen Olsen, Stephen J M Sollid, Håkon B Abrahamsen
BACKGROUND: To develop a culture of patient safety in a regime that strongly focuses on saving patients from emergencies may seem counter-intuitive and challenging. Little research exists on patient safety culture in the context of Emergency Medical Services (EMS), and the use of survey tools represents an appropriate approach to improve patient safety. Research indicates that safety climate studies may predict safety behavior and safety-related outcomes. In this study we apply the Norwegian versions of Hospital Survey on Patient Safety Culture (HSOPSC) and assess the psychometric properties when tested on a national sample from the EMS...
October 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Hendry Susila, Zeeshan Nasim, Ji Hoon Ahn
In plants, environmental conditions such as temperature affect survival, growth, and fitness, particularly during key stages such as seedling growth and reproduction. To survive and thrive in changing conditions, plants have evolved adaptive responses that tightly regulate developmental processes such as hypocotyl elongation and flowering time in response to environmental temperature changes. Increases in temperature, coupled with increasing fluctuations in local climate and weather, severely affect our agricultural systems; therefore, understanding the mechanisms by which plants perceive and respond to temperature is critical for agricultural sustainability...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
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