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Climate climatic

Maria-Alexandra Petre, Lisa Bahrey, Mark Levine, Adriaan van Rensburg, Mark Crawford, Clyde Matava
BACKGROUND: Anesthesia-related activities produce 25% of all operating room (OR) waste and contribute to environmental pollution and climate change. The aim of this study was to document Canadian anesthesiologists' current practice, attitudes towards, and perceived barriers regarding recycling of OR waste and environmental sustainability efforts. METHODS: With Research Ethics Board approval, members of the Canadian Anesthesiologists' Society (CAS) completed an online survey consisting of 25 questions assessing current environmentally sustainable practices in anesthesiology and gaps, barriers, and interest in gaining further knowledge on this topic...
December 13, 2018: Canadian Journal of Anaesthesia, Journal Canadien D'anesthésie
Aude Valade, Sebastiaan Luyssaert, Patrick Vallet, Sylvestre Njakou Djomo, Ingride Jesus Van Der Kellen, Valentin Bellassen
BACKGROUND: Concern about climate change has motivated France to reduce its reliance on fossil fuel by setting targets for increased biomass-based renewable energy production. This study quantifies the carbon costs and benefits for the French forestry sector in meeting these targets. A forest growth and harvest simulator was developed for French forests using recent forest inventory data, and the wood-use chain was reconstructed from national wood product statistics. We then projected wood production, bioenergy production, and carbon balance for three realistic intensification scenarios and a business-as-usual scenario...
December 13, 2018: Carbon Balance and Management
Katrianne Lehtipalo, Chao Yan, Lubna Dada, Federico Bianchi, Mao Xiao, Robert Wagner, Dominik Stolzenburg, Lauri R Ahonen, Antonio Amorim, Andrea Baccarini, Paulus S Bauer, Bernhard Baumgartner, Anton Bergen, Anne-Kathrin Bernhammer, Martin Breitenlechner, Sophia Brilke, Angela Buchholz, Stephany Buenrostro Mazon, Dexian Chen, Xuemeng Chen, Antonio Dias, Josef Dommen, Danielle C Draper, Jonathan Duplissy, Mikael Ehn, Henning Finkenzeller, Lukas Fischer, Carla Frege, Claudia Fuchs, Olga Garmash, Hamish Gordon, Jani Hakala, Xucheng He, Liine Heikkinen, Martin Heinritzi, Johanna C Helm, Victoria Hofbauer, Christopher R Hoyle, Tuija Jokinen, Juha Kangasluoma, Veli-Matti Kerminen, Changhyuk Kim, Jasper Kirkby, Jenni Kontkanen, Andreas Kürten, Michael J Lawler, Huajun Mai, Serge Mathot, Roy L Mauldin, Ugo Molteni, Leonid Nichman, Wei Nie, Tuomo Nieminen, Andrea Ojdanic, Antti Onnela, Monica Passananti, Tuukka Petäjä, Felix Piel, Veronika Pospisilova, Lauriane L J Quéléver, Matti P Rissanen, Clémence Rose, Nina Sarnela, Simon Schallhart, Simone Schuchmann, Kamalika Sengupta, Mario Simon, Mikko Sipilä, Christian Tauber, António Tomé, Jasmin Tröstl, Olli Väisänen, Alexander L Vogel, Rainer Volkamer, Andrea C Wagner, Mingyi Wang, Lena Weitz, Daniela Wimmer, Penglin Ye, Arttu Ylisirniö, Qiaozhi Zha, Kenneth S Carslaw, Joachim Curtius, Neil M Donahue, Richard C Flagan, Armin Hansel, Ilona Riipinen, Annele Virtanen, Paul M Winkler, Urs Baltensperger, Markku Kulmala, Douglas R Worsnop
A major fraction of atmospheric aerosol particles, which affect both air quality and climate, form from gaseous precursors in the atmosphere. Highly oxygenated organic molecules (HOMs), formed by oxidation of biogenic volatile organic compounds, are known to participate in particle formation and growth. However, it is not well understood how they interact with atmospheric pollutants, such as nitrogen oxides (NO x ) and sulfur oxides (SO x ) from fossil fuel combustion, as well as ammonia (NH3 ) from livestock and fertilizers...
December 2018: Science Advances
Pedro N DiNezio, Jessica E Tierney, Bette L Otto-Bliesner, Axel Timmermann, Tripti Bhattacharya, Nan Rosenbloom, Esther Brady
The mechanisms driving glacial-interglacial changes in the climate of the Indo-Pacific warm pool are poorly understood. Here, we address this question by combining paleoclimate proxies with model simulations of the Last Glacial Maximum climate. We find evidence of two mechanisms explaining key patterns of ocean cooling and rainfall change interpreted from proxy data. Exposure of the Sahul shelf excites a positive ocean-atmosphere feedback involving a stronger surface temperature gradient along the equatorial Indian Ocean and a weaker Walker circulation-a response explaining the drier/wetter dipole across the basin...
December 2018: Science Advances
Ariel Ortiz-Bobea, Erwin Knippenberg, Robert G Chambers
A pressing question for climate change adaptation is whether ongoing transformations of the agricultural sector affect its ability to cope with climatic variations. We examine this question in the United States, where major increases in productivity have fueled most of agricultural production growth over the past half-century. To quantify the evolving climate sensitivity of the sector and identify its sources, we combine state-level measures of agricultural productivity with detailed climate data for 1960-2004...
December 2018: Science Advances
Tsuyoshi Mukaihata
Objective: For nursing students, career maturity -an individual's readiness to cope with career development tasks and make age-appropriate career decisions- is an essential factor influencing their desire to continue the job after qualifying as a nurse. Although job security as motivation to become a nurse might influence the career maturity of nursing students, it has not been demonstrated. In this study I aimed to elucidate the correlation between job security as motivation and career maturity among Japanese nursing students...
November 2018: Journal of Rural Medicine: JRM
Thomas Elmqvist, José Siri, Erik Andersson, Pippin Anderson, Xuemei Bai, Pranab Kishore Das, Tatu Gatere, Andrew Gonzalez, Julie Goodness, Steven N Handel, Ellika Hermansson Török, Jessica Kavonic, Jakub Kronenberg, Elisabet Lindgren, David Maddox, Raymond Maher, Cheikh Mbow, Timon McPhearson, Joe Mulligan, Guy Nordenson, Meggan Spires, Ulrika Stenkula, Kazuhiko Takeuchi, Coleen Vogel
Cities are currently experiencing serious, multifaceted impacts from global environmental change, especially climate change, and the degree to which they will need to cope with and adapt to such challenges will continue to increase. A complex systems approach inspired by evolutionary theory can inform strategies for policies and interventions to deal with growing urban vulnerabilities. Such an approach would guide the design of new (and redesign of existing) urban structures, while promoting innovative integration of grey, green and blue infrastructure in service of environmental and health objectives...
2018: Sustainability science
Elisabet Lindgren, Francesca Harris, Alan D Dangour, Alexandros Gasparatos, Michikazu Hiramatsu, Firouzeh Javadi, Brent Loken, Takahiro Murakami, Pauline Scheelbeek, Andy Haines
Malnutrition in all forms, ranging from undernourishment to obesity and associated diet-related diseases, is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, while food systems often have major environmental impacts. Rapid global population growth and increases in demands for food and changes in dietary habits create challenges to provide universal access to healthy food without creating negative environmental, economic, and social impacts. This article discusses opportunities for and challenges to sustainable food systems from a human health perspective by making the case for avoiding the transition to unhealthy less sustainable diets (using India as an exemplar), reducing food waste by changing consumer behaviour (with examples from Japan), and using innovations and new technologies to reduce the environmental impact of healthy food production...
2018: Sustainability science
Steven A McAlpine, Jeremy R Porter
Sea-Level Rise (SLR) Projections from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and the U.S. Army Corp of Engineers (USACE) indicate increasing, and imminent, risk to coastal communities from tidal flooding and hurricane storm surge. Building on recent research related to the potential demographic impacts of such changes (Hauer et al. 2016, in Nat Clim Chang 3:802-806, 2017; Neumann et al. 2015; Curtis and Schneider in Popul Environ 33:28-54, 2011), localized flooding projections in the Miami Beach area (Wdowinski et al...
2018: Population Research and Policy Review
Richard M Cook
This essay describes the eminent Americanist, critic, and New York intellectual, Alfred Kazin's creation of a Lionel Trilling "character" in his 1978 autobiography, New York Jew , and his use of that character to critique significant features of the country's Cold War literary culture. Among these are: the narrowing and hardening of intellectual discourse in a cultural-political climate dominated by the "liberal consensus," the discrediting of the progressive impulse in American writing, the subordination of "class" to "culture" in evaluations of American writers, and the changing status of Jews and Jewish writers in post-war America...
2018: Society
Dimitris A Herrera, Toby R Ault, John T Fasullo, Sloan J Coats, Carlos M Carrillo, Benjamin I Cook, A Park Williams
The Caribbean islands are expected to see more frequent and severe droughts from reduced precipitation and increased evaporative demand due to anthropogenic climate change. Between 2013 and 2016, the Caribbean experienced a widespread drought due in part to El Niño in 2015-2016, but it is unknown whether its severity was exacerbated by anthropogenic warming. This work examines the role of recent warming on this drought, using a recently developed high-resolution self-calibrating Palmer Drought Severity Index data set...
October 16, 2018: Geophysical Research Letters
Hugo Saiz, Yoann Le Bagousse-Pinguet, Nicolas Gross, Fernando T Maestre
1. Biotic interactions are key determinants of plant community structure. Indirect interactions such as intransitivity ( i.e. in the absence of competitive hierarchies among species) have been hypothesized to benefit diversity within plant communities. However, their effect on functional diversity remains scarcely explored in real communities. Here we develop a novel approach to infer intransitivity from plant spatial patterns and functional traits (height and specific leaf area), and quantify its effect on different components of plant diversity along environmental gradients in 100 drylands from all continents except Antarctica...
January 2019: Journal of Ecology
Aaron F Howard
The consequences of altered flowering dates due to climate change can be severe, especially for plants that rely on coordinated flower and pollinator emergence for reproduction. The plant Asclepias syriaca (Common Milkweed) relies on pollinators for movement of its pollen and evidence suggests that it has recently been declining. Given these factors and this plant's importance as a host species for the declining Danaus plexippus (Monarch Butterfly), it is critical to determine if its flowering is being modified by climate change...
December 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hai Cheng, R Lawrence Edwards, John Southon, Katsumi Matsumoto, Joshua M Feinberg, Ashish Sinha, Weijian Zhou, Hanying Li, Xianglei Li, Yao Xu, Shitao Chen, Ming Tan, Quan Wang, Yongjin Wang, Youfeng Ning
Paired measurements of 14 C/12 C and 230 Th ages from two Hulu Cave stalagmites complete a precise record of atmospheric 14 C covering the full range of the 14 C dating method (~54,000 years). Over the last glacial period, atmospheric 14 C/12 C ranges from values similar to modern values to values 1.70 times higher (42,000 to 39,000 years ago). The latter correspond to 14 C ages 5200 years less than calibrated ages and correlate with the Laschamp geomagnetic excursion followed by Heinrich Stadial 4. Millennial-scale variations are largely attributable to Earth's magnetic field changes and in part to climate-related changes in the oceanic carbon cycle...
December 14, 2018: Science
Scott Barrett
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 14, 2018: Science
Philip B Duffy, Christopher B Field, Noah S Diffenbaugh, Scott C Doney, Zoe Dutton, Sherri Goodman, Lisa Heinzerling, Solomon Hsiang, David B Lobell, Loretta J Mickley, Samuel Myers, Susan M Natali, Camille Parmesan, Susan Tierney, A Park Williams
We assess scientific evidence that has emerged since the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's 2009 Endangerment Finding for six well-mixed greenhouse gases, and find that this new evidence lends increased support to the conclusion that these gases pose a danger to public health and welfare. Newly available evidence about a wide range of observed and projected impacts strengthens the association between risk of some of these impacts and anthropogenic climate change; indicates that some impacts or combinations of impacts have the potential to be more severe than previously understood; and identifies substantial risk of additional impacts through processes and pathways not considered in the endangerment finding...
December 13, 2018: Science
Wissanupong Kliengchuay, Aronrag Cooper Meeyai, Suwalee Worakhunpiset, Kraichat Tantrakarnapa
Meteorological parameters play an important role in determining the prevalence of ambient particulate matter (PM) in the upper north of Thailand. Mae Hong Son is a province located in this region and which borders Myanmar. This study aimed to determine the relationships between meteorological parameters and ambient concentrations of particulate matter less than 10 µm in diameter (PM10 ) in Mae Hong Son. Parameters were measured at an air quality monitoring station, and consisted of PM10 , carbon monoxide (CO), ozone (O₃), and meteorological factors, including temperature, rainfall, pressure, wind speed, wind direction, and relative humidity (RH)...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Eduard Kostetsky, Natalia Chopenko, Maria Barkina, Peter Velansky, Nina Sanina
Increasing global temperatures are expected to increase the risk of extinction of various species due to acceleration in the pace of shifting climate zones. Nevertheless, there is no information on the physicochemical properties of membrane lipids that enable the adaptation of the algae to different climatic zones. The present work aimed to compare fatty acid composition and thermal transitions of membrane lipids from green macroalgae Ulva lactuca harvested in the Sea of Japan and the Adriatic Sea in summer...
December 7, 2018: Marine Drugs
Pratap Pragna, Surinder S Chauhan, Veerasamy Sejian, Brian J Leury, Frank R Dunshea
The ability of an animal to cope and adapt itself to the changing climate virtually depends on the function of rumen and rumen inhabitants such as bacteria, protozoa, fungi, virus and archaea. Elevated ambient temperature during the summer months can have a significant influence on the basic physiology of the rumen, thereby affecting the nutritional status of the animals. Rumen volatile fatty acid (VFA) production decreases under conditions of extreme heat. Growing recent evidence suggests there are genetic variations among breeds of goats in the impact of heat stress on rumen fermentation pattern and VFA production...
December 7, 2018: Animals: An Open Access Journal From MDPI
Sylviane Bailly, Anwar El Mahgubi, Amaranta Carvajal-Campos, Sophie Lorber, Olivier Puel, Isabelle P Oswald, Jean-Denis Bailly, Béatrice Orlando
Aflatoxins (AFs) are secondary metabolites produced by Aspergillus section Flavi during their development, particularly in maize. It is widely accepted that AFB1 is a major contaminant in regions where hot climate conditions favor the development of aflatoxigenic species. Global warming could lead to the appearance of AFs in maize produced in Europe. This was the case in 2015, in France, when the exceptionally hot and dry climatic conditions were favorable for AF production. Our survey revealed AF contamination of 6% ( n = 114) of maize field samples and of 15% ( n = 81) of maize silo samples analyzed...
December 7, 2018: Toxins
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