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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110667/towards-a-new-model-for-the-governance-of-the-weerribben-wieden-national-park
#1
Lordkipanidze Maia, Lulofs Kris, Bressers Hans
The paper focuses on the governance of the Dutch national park Weerribben-Wieden and its ability to foster ecological resilience in the face of climate change and human disturbances. The study highlights the role of various characteristics of the institutional context of governance in which resilience-relevant decisions are prepared, taken and implemented as referenced by an assessment of the governance context. The relevance of such an assessment is found in the frequent institutional changes in nature policy...
August 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110451/a-new-terrestrial-palaeoenvironmental-record-from-the-bering-land-bridge-and-context-for-human-dispersal
#2
Matthew J Wooller, Émilie Saulnier-Talbot, Ben A Potter, Soumaya Belmecheri, Nancy Bigelow, Kyungcheol Choy, Les C Cwynar, Kimberley Davies, Russell W Graham, Joshua Kurek, Peter Langdon, Andrew Medeiros, Ruth Rawcliffe, Yue Wang, John W Williams
Palaeoenvironmental records from the now-submerged Bering Land Bridge (BLB) covering the Last Glacial Maximum (LGM) to the present are needed to document changing environments and connections with the dispersal of humans into North America. Moreover, terrestrially based records of environmental changes are needed in close proximity to the re-establishment of circulation between Pacific and Atlantic Oceans following the end of the last glaciation to test palaeo-climate models for the high latitudes. We present the first terrestrial temperature and hydrologic reconstructions from the LGM to the present from the BLB's south-central margin...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110435/cracking-the-egg-the-use-of-modern-and-fossil-eggs-for-ecological-environmental-and-biological-interpretation
#3
REVIEW
Shaena Montanari
A myriad of extant and extinct vertebrates produce eggs. Eggs and eggshells provide a useful substrate for reconstructing environment, ecology and biology over a range of time scales from deep time to the present. In this review, methods for analysing and understanding records of diet, climate, environment and biology preserved in eggshells are presented. Topics covered include eggshell structure, assessing diagenesis, stable isotope geochemistry and morphological investigations of eggshell characteristics...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110431/a-periodic-markov-model-to-formalize-animal-migration-on-a-network
#4
Andrea Kölzsch, Erik Kleyheeg, Helmut Kruckenberg, Michael Kaatz, Bernd Blasius
Regular, long-distance migrations of thousands of animal species have consequences for the ecosystems that they visit, modifying trophic interactions and transporting many non-pathogenic and pathogenic organisms. The spatial structure and dynamic properties of animal migrations and population flyways largely determine those trophic and transport effects, but are yet poorly studied. As a basis, we propose a periodic Markov model on the spatial migration network of breeding, stopover and wintering sites to formally describe the process of animal migration on the population level...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110422/climate-structuring-of-batrachochytrium-dendrobatidis-infection-in-the-threatened-amphibians-of-the-northern-western-ghats-india
#5
Christopher J Thorpe, Todd R Lewis, Matthew C Fisher, Claudia J Wierzbicki, Siddharth Kulkarni, David Pryce, Lewis Davies, Aparna Watve, Mairi E Knight
Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis ( Bd ) is a pathogen killing amphibians worldwide. Its impact across much of Asia is poorly characterized. This study systematically surveyed amphibians for Bd across rocky plateaus in the northern section of the Western Ghats biodiversity hotspot, India, including the first surveys of the plateaus in the coastal region. These ecosystems offer an epidemiological model system since they are characterized by differing levels of connectivity, edaphic and climatic conditions, and anthropogenic stressors...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110413/analysis-of-the-regulation-networks-in-grapevine-reveals-response-to-waterlogging-stress-and-candidate-gene-marker-selection-for-damage-severity
#6
Xudong Zhu, Xiaopeng Li, Songtao Jiu, Kekun Zhang, Chen Wang, Jinggui Fang
Owing to the climate change impacts, waterlogging is one of the most hazardous abiotic stresses to crops, which also can result in a serious reduction in the quantity and quality of grape berry and wine production during the rainy season. Therefore, the exploration of the response mechanism of grape to waterlogging is necessary, for which the analysis of the transcriptomic regulation networks of grapevine leaves in response to waterlogging stress was carried out. In this study, 12 634 genes were detected in both waterlogging stress and control grapevine plants, out of which 6837 genes were differentially expressed...
June 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110393/correction-pioneer-farming-in-southeast-europe-during-the-early-sixth-millennium-bc-climate-related-adaptations-in-the-exploitation-of-plants-and-animals
#7
Maria Ivanova, Bea De Cupere, Jonathan Ethier, Elena Marinova
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0197225.].
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110352/warming-in-the-arctic-captured-by-productivity-variability-at-an-arctic-fjord-over-the-past-two-centuries
#8
Vikash Kumar, Manish Tiwari, R Rengarajan
Arctic fjords feature among some of the most climate-sensitive regions on the planet. The site of this study-Kongsfjorden-is one such fjord in which sedimentation and sediment geochemistry reflect climate-mediated changes in glacial melt and marine primary productivity. Here, we have shown that the fjord is particularly sensitive to the changing melt dynamics of the surrounding glaciers which are a direct consequence of warming/cooling in the region and is reflected in the productivity at the fjord. Warming increases meltwater influx into the fjord leading to enhanced turbidity which results in lower productivity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30110329/the-effect-of-temperature-increase-on-the-development-of-rhodnius-prolixus-and-the-course-of-trypanosoma-cruzi-metacyclogenesis
#9
Laura D Tamayo, Felipe Guhl, Gustavo A Vallejo, Juan David Ramírez
The increase in the global land temperature, expected under predictions of climate change, can directly affect the transmission of some infectious diseases, including Chagas disease, an anthropozoonosis caused by Trypanosoma cruzi and transmitted by arthropod vectors of the subfamily Triatominae. This work seeks to study the effects of temperature on the development of the life cycle, fertility and fecundity of the insect vector Rhodnius prolixus and on the metacyclogenesis of T. cruzi. All of the variables were subjected to 3 temperatures: 26°C, 28°C and 30°C...
August 15, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109872/moose-at-their-bioclimatic-edge-alter-their-behavior-based-on-weather-landscape-and-predators
#10
Mark A Ditmer, Ron A Moen, Steve K Windels, James D Forester, Thomas E Ness, Tara R Harris
Populations inhabiting the bioclimatic edges of a species' geographic range face an increasing amount of stress from alterations to their environment associated with climate change. Moose Alces alces are large-bodied ungulates that are sensitive to heat stress and have exhibited population declines and range contractions along their southern geographic extent. Using a hidden Markov model to analyze movement and accelerometer data, we assigned behaviors (rest, forage, or travel) to all locations of global positioning system-collared moose ( n =  13, moose-years = 19) living near the southern edge of the species' range in and around Voyageurs National Park, MN, USA...
August 2018: Current Zoology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109682/thylacospermum-caespitosum-population-structure-and-cushion-species-community-diversity-along-an-altitudinal-gradient
#11
Rui-Ming Zhao, Hua Zhang, Li-Zhe An
As alpine plants, cushion species are particularly susceptible to environment changes. Thus, understanding population structure and community diversity variation of cushion plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their response to predicted climate changes. In this study, Thylacospermum caespitosum populations from three elevations (low, medium, and high) in three climate zones of China (the Kunlun, Qilian, and Tianshan Mountains) were selected to evaluate the effect of elevation on the structure of T...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109681/forecasting-co-2-emissions-in-hebei-china-through-moth-flame-optimization-based-on-the-random-forest-and-extreme-learning-machine
#12
Sun Wei, Wang Yuwei, Zhang Chongchong
The surge of carbon dioxide emission plays a dominant role in global warming and climate change, posing an enormous threat to the development of human being and a profound impact on the global ecosystem. Thus, it is essential to analyze the carbon dioxide emission change trend through an accurate prediction to inform reasonable energy-saving emission reduction measures and effectively control the carbon dioxide emission from the source. This paper proposed a hybrid model by combining the random forest and extreme learning machine together for the carbon dioxide emission forecasting in this paper; the random forest is applied for influential factors analysis and the extreme learning machine for the prediction...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109679/the-impact-of-wetland-on-neutral-mine-drainage-from-mining-wastes-at-luanshya-in-the-zambian-copperbelt-in-the-framework-of-climate-change
#13
Ondra Sracek, Bohdan Kříbek, Martin Mihaljevič, Vojtěch Ettler, Aleš Vaněk, Vít Penížek, Jan Filip, František Veselovský, Imasiku Nyambe
The impact of a natural wetland ("dambo" in Zambia) on neutral mine drainage at Luanshya in the Zambian Copperbelt has been investigated during an intermediate discharge period (July) using a multi-method characterization of solid phase samples, sequential extraction analysis, X-ray diffraction, Mössbauer spectroscopy, and scanning electron microscopy combined with water analyses, isotopic analyses, and geochemical modeling. In the wetland, the principal identified solid phases in sediments were carbonates, gypsum, and ferric oxyhydroxides...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109518/evolving-connectionist-systems-ecoss-a-new-approach-for-modeling-daily-reference-evapotranspiration-et-0
#14
Salim Heddam, Michael J Watts, Larbi Houichi, Lakhdar Djemili, Abderrazek Sebbar
Over the last few years, the uses of artificial intelligence techniques (AI) for modeling daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0 ) have become more popular and a considerable amount of models were successfully applied to the problem. Therefore, in the present paper, we propose a new evolving connectionist (ECoS) approaches for modeling daily reference evapotranspiration (ET0 ) in the Mediterranean region of Algeria. Three ECoS models, namely, (i) the off-line dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system called DEFNIS_OF, (ii) the on-line dynamic evolving neural-fuzzy inference system called DEFNIS_ON, and (iii) the evolving fuzzy neural network called (EFuNN), were statistically compared using the root mean square error (RMSE), the mean absolute error (MAE), the coefficient of correlation (R), and the Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency (NSE) indexes...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109457/hiv-testing-risk-behaviors-and-fear-a-comparison-of-documented-and-undocumented-latino-immigrants
#15
Jane J Lee, Gary Yu
Latino immigrants in the United States are at elevated risk for HIV infection and delayed HIV diagnosis. Immigration documentation status and its contribution to fears are important barriers to accessing health services including HIV testing. A currently changing political climate within the United States may have increased the complexity of the intersection of documentation status and health care access. This study used an anonymous survey conducted in March and April 2017 in New York City to compare: sociodemographic characteristics, HIV testing behaviors, HIV risk behaviors, and perceptions of fear around HIV testing among documented and undocumented Latino immigrants (N = 301)...
August 14, 2018: AIDS and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109434/evaluation-of-thermal-indices-for-their-applicability-in-obstacle-resolving-meteorology-models
#16
Jana Fischereit, K Heinke Schlünzen
A thermally comfortable design of outdoor spaces favors social interaction and outdoor activities and thus contributes to the overall well-being of urban dwellers. To assess such a design, obstacle-resolving models (ORM) combined with thermal indices may be used. This paper reviews existing thermal indices to identify those suitable for thermal comfort assessment with ORMs. For the identification, 11 criteria and six index features are derived from literature analysis focusing on the characteristics of human environmental heat exchange, of outdoor urban environments, and of ORMs...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Biometeorology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109114/decomposing-the-effects-of-ocean-environments-on-predator-prey-body-size-relationships-in-food-webs
#17
Tomoya Dobashi, Midori Iida, Kazuhiro Takemoto
Body-size relationships between predators and their prey are important in ecological studies because they reflect the structure and function of food webs. Inspired by studies on the impact of global warming on food webs, the effects of temperature on body-size relationships have been widely investigated; however, the impact of environmental factors on body-size relationships has not been fully evaluated because climate warming affects various ocean environments. Thus, here, we comprehensively investigated the effects of ocean environments and predator-prey body-size relationships by integrating a large-scale dataset of predator-prey body-size relationships in marine food webs with global oceanographic data...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109048/compilation-and-evaluation-of-gas-phase-diffusion-coefficients-of-halogenated-organic-compounds
#18
Wenjun Gu, Peng Cheng, Mingjin Tang
Organic halogens are of great environmental and climatic concern. In this work, we have compiled their gas phase diffusivities (pressure-normalized diffusion coefficients) in a variety of bath gases experimentally measured by previous studies. It is found that diffusivities estimated using Fuller's semi-empirical method agree very well with measured values for organic halogens. In addition, we find that at a given temperature and pressure, different molecules exhibit very similar mean free paths in the same bath gas, and then propose a method to estimate mean free paths in different bath gases...
July 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30109013/phenotypic-plasticity-in-response-to-temperature-fluctuations-is-genetically-variable-and-relates-to-climatic-variability-of-origin-in-arabidopsis-thaliana
#19
J F Scheepens, Ying Deng, Oliver Bossdorf
Under current climate change, increasing mean temperatures are not only causing hotter summers, but temperature variability is increasing as well. Phenotypic plasticity can help plants to overcome negative effects of temperature variability and allow them to rapidly adjust traits to adverse conditions. Moreover, genetic variation in such plasticity could provide potential for adaptive evolution in response to changing climate variability. Here, we conducted an experiment with 11 Arabidopsis thaliana genotypes to investigate intraspecific variation in plant responses to two aspects of variable temperature stress: timing and frequency...
August 2018: AoB Plants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30108605/snowmelt-timing-regulates-community-composition-phenology-and-physiological-performance-of-alpine-plants
#20
Daniel E Winkler, Ramona J Butz, Matthew J Germino, Keith Reinhardt, Lara M Kueppers
The spatial patterning of alpine plant communities is strongly influenced by the variation in physical factors such as temperature and moisture, which are strongly affected by snow depth and snowmelt patterns. Earlier snowmelt timing and greater soil-moisture limitations may favor wide-ranging species adapted to a broader set of ecohydrological conditions than alpine-restricted species. We asked how plant community composition, phenology, plant water relations, and photosynthetic gas exchange of alpine-restricted and wide-ranging species differ in their responses to a ca...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
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