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Hormone sensitive prostate cancer

Louise M Emmett, Charlotte Yin, Megan Crumbaker, George Hruby, Andrew Kneebone, Richard Epstein, Quco Nguyen, Adam Hickey, Noah Ihsheish, Gordon O'Neill, Lisa Hovarth, Venu Chalasani, Phillip Stricker, Anthony Joshua
Prostate specific membrane antigen (PSMA) may be targeted for both diagnostic and therapeutic purposes in the management of prostate cancer (PCa). In pre-clinical models, androgen blockade (AB) increases expression of PSMA in both hormone sensitive and castrate resistant xenotypes. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of AB treatment on Ga68PSMA-11 PET imaging in hormone naive (Luteinising hormone-releasing hormone (LHRH) ± bicalutamide), and in castrate resistant men (enzalutamide or abiraterone) with metastatic PCa...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Harsh Shah, Ulka Vaishampayan
With the decrease in PSA screening based on the 2011 United States Preventive Services Task Force guidelines and the potential approval of highly sensitive imaging techniques over the next few years, we are likely to see an increasing trend of metastatic prostate cancer diagnosis. Traditional therapy for nonmetastatic prostate cancer (nmPC) has consisted of androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) followed by other hormonal therapy maneuvers, such as anti-androgen withdrawal, herbal preparations, low dose steroids, or ketoconazole...
December 7, 2018: Targeted Oncology
Ismet Sarikaya, Ali Sarikaya, Abdelhamid H Elgazzar, Vuslat Yurut Caloglu, Prem Sharma, Ali Baqer, Murat Caloglu, Mahmoud Alfeeli
The use of F-18 sodium fluoride (NaF) positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) bone scan is increasing because of its higher sensitivity and specificity over standard bone scintigraphy (BS). Studies previously reported a prostate-specific antigen (PSA) cutoff value for ordering standard BS. However, this has not been determined for NaF PET yet. In this study, our goal was to determine a PSA cutoff level for ordering NaF PET/CT bone scan. Newly diagnosed and previously treated prostate cancer patients who had NaF PET/CT scan and PSA measurements within 2 mos of PET study were selected for analysis...
October 2018: World Journal of Nuclear Medicine
Hyun-Kyung Woo, Juhee Park, Ja Yoon Ku, Chan Ho Lee, Vijaya Sunkara, Hong Koo Ha, Yoon-Kyoung Cho
Androgen-receptor splice variant 7 (AR-V7) is associated with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) and resistance to anti-androgen therapy. Despite its clinical importance, the lack of efficient methods for AR-V7 analysis remains a challenge for broader use of this biomarker in routine clinical practice. Herein, we suggest a practical and non-invasive liquid biopsy method for analysis of AR-V7 in the RNA of urine-derived extracellular vesicles (EVs) without the need for blood withdrawal. Urine-derived EVs were isolated by a lab-on-a-disc integrated with six independent nanofiltration units (Exo-Hexa) allowing simultaneous processing of six individual samples...
November 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Oliver Sartor
The management of advanced prostate cancer today follows a multidisciplinary approach and involves multi-target treatments. The paradigm has shifted from traditional hormonal therapy, surgery and radiation, to the use of chemotherapy, and until recently the development of various immunotherapies and radiopharmaceuticals. Recent advances turn to molecular medicine combining the expertise of molecular pathology and genetics. In this review, germline genetics, advances in castrate-sensitive metastatic disease, androgen receptor alterations, potential new targeted therapy and novel radiopharmaceuticals will be discussed as the newest perspectives for treating prostate cancer...
November 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Jeremy Yuen-Chun Teoh, Chi-Fai Ng, Darren Ming-Chun Poon
The treatment of metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer (mHSPC) has been rapidly evolving. In the past, the use of chemotherapy was reserved for metastatic prostate cancer patients who developed castration resistance. Subsequently, there were three well-designed randomized controlled trials investigating the use of chemotherapy together with androgen deprivation therapy as the first-line treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. The GETUG-AFU 15 study was a negative trial, but the subsequent CHAARTED and STAMPEDE studies demonstrated magnificent survival benefit in the mHSPC setting...
November 2018: Asia-Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology
Alexander Kretschmer, Tilman Todenhöfer
Combinations of conventional androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) with docetaxel or abiraterone have shown encouraging results in several phase 3 randomized trials and were consequently implemented in current clinical guidelines. However, to date it is still not clear which patients benefit the most from combination therapy and whether there are still patients who are candidates for ADT monotherapy. Here we highlight evidence that indications for conventional ADT have been significantly reduced over the past years and should only be offered to highly selected patients...
November 24, 2018: European Urology Focus
Rodopi Emfietzoglou, Nikolaos Spyrou, Christos S Mantzoros, Maria Dalamaga
Bisphenol-A (BPA), a prototype endocrine disrupting molecule, has been associated with many disease entities such as diabetes mellitus, obesity, polycystic ovarian disease, cardiovascular disease, reproductive and neurodevelopmental disorders. BPA has also been associated mainly with hormone sensitive cancers such as breast, prostate, endometrial, ovarian, testicular and thyroid cancers but also non-hormonal sensitive cancers such as cervical and lung cancers, osteosarcoma and meningioma. Recent research has investigated the sources of contamination which are responsible for higher BPA concentrations in the oral cavity and oropharyngeal space, representing the first site of BPA exposure after ingestion...
November 17, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Ye Yuan, Amar U Kishan, Nicholas G Nickols
The cornerstone of treatment for metastatic prostate cancer patients has been conventional androgen deprivation therapy, with additional systemic therapy initiated only after castration resistance, and local therapy reserved for palliation. Compelling results from modern trials challenge this paradigm, arguing for initiating escalated hormone therapy and/or chemotherapy during the castration-sensitive disease state for many patients. Furthermore, modern radiotherapy techniques allow for local control of disease with low risk of toxicity...
November 19, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Jeremy Y C Teoh, Darren M C Poon, Daisy Lam, Tim Chan, Michelle F T Chan, Eric K C Lee, Snow Law, Kuen Chan, Nicole M Cheng, Kai-Man Lai, Chi-Ho Leung, Chi-Fai Ng
BACKGROUND: There is a lack of real-world data regarding the treatment outcomes of chemohormonal therapy versus hormonal therapy alone in Chinese men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: We conducted a territory-wide, multicenter, age- and prostate-specific antigen (PSA)-matched cohort study comparing chemohormonal therapy and hormonal therapy alone in Chinese men with metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. Patient and disease characteristics were reviewed...
October 27, 2018: Clinical Genitourinary Cancer
Takayuki Arai, Satoko Kojima, Yasutaka Yamada, Sho Sugawara, Mayuko Kato, Kazuto Yamazaki, Yukio Naya, Tomohiko Ichikawa, Naohiko Seki
Androgen deprivation therapy is frequently used to treat prostate cancer (PCa) but resistance can occur, a condition known as castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, novel approaches for identification of CRPC are important for designing effective prostate cancer (PCa) treatments. Analysis of microRNA (miRNA) expression signatures by RNA sequencing showed that both passenger and guide strands of the miR-455 duplex (miR-455-5p and miR-455-3p, respectively) acted as anti-tumor miRNAs in PCa cells. The involvement of miRNA passenger strands in cancer pathogenesis is a novel concept for miRNA functionality...
November 15, 2018: Molecular Oncology
Ken Chow, Patrick McCoy, Ryan Stuchbery, Niall M Corcoran, Christopher M Hovens
PURPOSE: To review the current understanding and recent developments regarding the concept of oligometastases in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. METHODS: A comprehensive literature search of electronic databases, including PubMed and Embase was conducted for the search term 'oligometastases' in combinations with 'prostate cancer', 'hormone sensitive', 'genetics', and 'molecular'. All articles relating to these search terms have been taken into account. RESULTS: Prostate cancer remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide...
October 31, 2018: World Journal of Urology
Kamila Domińska, Piotr Okła, Karolina Kowalska, Dominika Ewa Habrowska-Górczyńska, Kinga Anna Urbanek, Tomasz Ochędalski, Agnieszka Wanda Piastowska-Ciesielska
Angiotensin 1-7 (Ang1-7) is an endogenous bioactive component of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS). In addition to its cardiovascular properties, its anti-proliferative and anti-angiogenic traits are believed to play important roles in carcinogenesis. The present study examines the influence of Ang1-7 on processes associated with development and progression of prostate cancer cells. Our findings indicate that while Ang1-7 (1 nM; 48 h) can effectively reduce cell proliferation in DU-145, it can induce a significant decrease in the expression of MKI67 in LNCaP...
October 25, 2018: Scientific Reports
Chad Ritch, Michael Cookson
Advanced prostate cancer includes a wide spectrum of disease ranging from hormone naïve or hormone sensitive to castration resistant, both containing populations of men who have demonstrable metastatic and non-metastatic states. The mainstay of treatment for metastatic hormone-sensitive prostate cancer is androgen deprivation therapy (ADT). However, recent level 1 evidence demonstrates that the addition of chemotherapy or abiraterone acetate to ADT results in significant survival advantage as compared with ADT alone...
2018: F1000Research
Emmanuel S Antonarakis, Farah Shaukat, Pedro Isaacsson Velho, Harsimar Kaur, Eugene Shenderov, Drew M Pardoll, Tamara L Lotan
Mismatch repair (MMR) gene mutations are rare in prostate cancer, and their histological and clinical characteristics are largely unknown. We conducted a retrospective study to explore disease characteristics and treatment outcomes of men with metastatic prostate cancer harboring germline and/or somatic MMR mutations detected using clinical-grade genomic assays. Thirteen patients with a deleterious MMR gene mutation were identified. Median age was 64 yr, 75% had grade group 5 (Gleason sum 9 or 10), 23% had intraductal histology, 46% had metastatic disease at initial diagnosis, and 31% had visceral metastases...
October 15, 2018: European Urology
Niranjan J Sathianathen, Yiannis A Philippou, Gretchen M Kuntz, Badrinath R Konety, Shilpa Gupta, Alastair D Lamb, Philipp Dahm
BACKGROUND: There has been considerable development in the treatment of advanced prostate cancer over the last decade. A number of agents, including docetaxel, cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate, enzalutamide and sipuleucel-T, have been reported to improve outcomes in men with castration-resistant disease and their use is being explored in hormone-sensitive prostate cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of early taxane-based chemohormonal therapy for newly diagnosed, metastatic, hormone-sensitive prostate cancer...
October 15, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Bogdan Mitran, Ken Gösta Andersson, Elin Lindström, Javad Garousi, Maria Rosestedt, Vladimir Tolmachev, Stefan Ståhl, Anna Orlova, John Löfblom
The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) is often overexpressed during prostate cancer (PCa) progression towards androgen‑independence after hormone therapy, but the overexpression is lower than in other types of cancers. Despite the low expression, EGFR has emerged as a promising therapeutic target for patients with castration‑resistant PCa. Non‑invasive methods for determination of EGFR expression in PCa can serve for patient stratification and therapy response monitoring. Radionuclide imaging probes based on affibody molecules (7 kDa) provide high contrast imaging of cancer‑associated molecular targets...
October 15, 2018: Oncology Reports
Dipti Gupta, Katherine Lee Chuy, Ji Can Yang, Megan Bates, Marissa Lombardo, Richard M Steingart
Androgen-deprivation therapy (ADT) entails lowering serum testosterone levels to castrate levels and forms a cornerstone of the management of hormone-sensitive advanced prostate cancer; however, the benefit of ADT is partially offset by its detrimental metabolic and cardiovascular adverse effects. ADT decreases insulin sensitivity while promoting dyslipidemia and sarcopenic obesity, which leads to an increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity and potentially mortality. The risk seems to be highest in elderly patients who have had recent cardiovascular events before starting ADT...
October 2018: Journal of Oncology Practice
Giulia Baciarello, Marco Gizzi, Karim Fizazi
Prostate cancer is the second most common cause of cancer worldwide and is the most frequently detected cancer in the European Union in men over 50 years of age. Androgen deprivation therapy remains the cornerstone of treatment for recurrent or metastatic disease. Unfortunately, nearly all patients will develop resistance to androgen blockade leading to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Over the last 10 years, new treatments have dramatically improved overall survival of men with mCRPC. Current therapies are based on AR-axis inhibitors and taxane-based chemotherapies, as well as radiopharmaceuticals and Sipuleucel T...
November 2018: Expert Opinion on Pharmacotherapy
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