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Streaming potential

Maria Fernanda Campa, Stephen M Techtmann, Caleb Gibson, Xiaojuan Zhu, Megan Patterson, Amanda Garcia de Matos Amaral, Nikea Ulrich, Shawn R Campagna, Christopher J Grant, Regina Lamendella, Terry C Hazen
The environmental impacts of hydraulic fracturing, particularly those of surface spills in aquatic ecosystems, are not fully understood. The goals of this study were to: (1) understand the effect of previous exposure to hydraulic fracturing fluids on aquatic microbial community structure and (2) examine the impacts exposure has on biodegradation potential of the biocide glutaraldehyde. Microcosms were constructed from hydraulic fracturing-impacted and non-hydraulic fracturing-impacted stream water within the Marcellus shale region in Pennsylvania...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ruud Hp Wilbers, Lotte B Westerhof, Debbie R van Raaij, Jaap Bakker, Geert Smant, Arjen Schots
Aim: Treatment of inflammatory disorders relies on the intervention in immune responses thereby restoring homeostasis. IL-10 is a cytokine with therapeutic potential, but until now has not been as successful as previously anticipated. A reason for this may be that IL-10 responsiveness depends on the environment of the inflamed tissue. In this study we investigated whether GM-CSF is able to influence IL-10-mediated responses. Methodology: Dendritic cells and macrophages were differentiated from mouse bone marrow and treated or depleted from GM-CSF prior to analyze their response to IL-10...
April 2018: Future Science OA
J R Brooks, D M Mushet, M K Vanderhoof, S G Leibowitz, J R Christensen, B P Neff, D O Rosenberry, W D Rugh, L C Alexander
Understanding hydrologic connectivity between wetlands and perennial streams is critical to understanding the reliance of stream flow on inputs from wetlands. We used the isotopic evaporation signal in water and remote sensing to examine wetland-stream hydrologic connectivity within the Pipestem Creek watershed, North Dakota, a watershed dominated by prairie-pothole wetlands. Pipestem Creek exhibited an evaporated-water signal that had approximately half the isotopic-enrichment signal found in most evaporatively enriched prairie-pothole wetlands...
March 9, 2018: Water Resources Research
Debabrata Sarkar, Swades Pal
Avulsion is a natural fluvial process but considered it as a hazard in the populated region due to the chance of immense failure of lives and properties. So, early warning indicates that the zone of avulsion can facilitate the people living there. About 317 numbers of local and regional historical imprints of channel cutoff along river Kulik claim the need of this work. The present study tried to identify avulsion potential zone (APZ) of Kulik river of Indo-Bangladesh using multi-parametric weighted combination approach...
April 21, 2018: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Suren Wijeyekoon, Carlo R Carere, Mark West, Shresta Nath, Daniel Gapes
Organic waste residues can be hydrothermally treated to produce organic acid rich liquors. These hydrothermal liquors are a potential feedstock for polyhydroxyalkanoate (PHA) production. We investigated the effect of dissolved oxygen concentration and substrate feeding regimes on PHA accumulation and yield using two hydrothermal liquors derived from a mixture of primary and secondary municipal wastewater treatment sludge and food waste. The enriched culture accumulated a maximum of 41% PHA of cell dry weight within 7 h; which is among the highest reported for N and P rich hydrothermal liquors...
April 12, 2018: Water Research
Genevieve L Quek, Joan Liu-Shuang, Valérie Goffaux, Bruno Rossion
Effective human interaction depends on our ability to rapidly detect faces in dynamic visual environments. Here we asked how basic units of visual information (spatial frequencies, or SF) contribute to this fundamental brain function. Human observers viewed initially blurry, unrecognizable natural object images presented at a fast 12 Hz rate and parametrically increasing in SF content over the course of 1 min. By inserting highly variable natural face images as every 8th stimulus we captured an objective neural index of face detection in participants' electroencephalogram (EEG) at exactly 1...
April 17, 2018: NeuroImage
Virginia Ruiz-Villanueva, Andrés Díez-Herrero, Juan Antonio García, Alfredo Ollero, Hervé Piégay, Markus Stoffel
Instream large wood (LW) is widely perceived as a source of hazard that should be avoided. This is also the case of Spain, where wood has been systematically removed from rivers for decades. Consequently, people are accustomed to rivers with minimal or no LW at all. However, the presence and transport of wood is natural and has positive ecological effects. Previous studies reported that the general negative perception towards LW in rivers is related to the lack of background knowledge about stream ecology or fluvial dynamics...
April 16, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Melissa Bergmann, Olimpia Sobral, João Pratas, Manuel A S Graça
Uranium mining is an environmental concern because of runoff and the potential for toxic effects on the biota. To investigate uranium toxicity to freshwater invertebrates, we conducted a 96-h acute toxicity test to determine lethal concentrations (testing concentrations up to 262 mg L-1 ) for three stream invertebrates: a shredder caddisfly, Schizopelex festiva Rambur (Trichoptera, Sericostomatidae); a detritivorous isopod, Proasellus sp. (Isopoda, Asellidae); and a scraper gastropod, Theodoxus fluviatilis (Gastropoda, Neritidae)...
April 16, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Christian K Feld, Maria Rosário Fernandes, Maria Teresa Ferreira, Daniel Hering, Steve J Ormerod, Markus Venohr, Cayetano Gutiérrez-Cánovas
Rivers are among the most sensitive of all ecosystems to the effects of global change, but options to prevent, mitigate or restore ecosystem damage are still inadequately understood. Riparian buffers are widely advocated as a cost-effective option to manage impacts, but empirical evidence is yet to identify ideal riparian features (e.g. width, length and density) which enhance ecological integrity and protect ecosystem services in the face of catchment-scale stressors. Here, we use an extensive literature review to synthesise evidence on riparian buffer and catchment management effects on instream environmental conditions (e...
April 8, 2018: Water Research
Brian J Kerr, Steven L Trabue, Mark B van Weelden, Daniel S Andersen, Laura M Pepple
An experiment was conducted to determine the effect of feeding finishing pigs a corn-soybean (CSBM) diet or a CSBM diet supplemented with 30% dried distillers grains with solubles (DDGS), in combination with or without a growth-promoting ionophore (0 or 30 mg narasin/kg of diet), has on manure composition, microbial ecology, and gas emissions. Two separate groups of 24 gilts (initial BW = 145.1 kg, SD = 7.8 kg) were allotted to individual metabolism crates that allowed for total but separate collection of feces and urine during the 48-d collection period...
April 14, 2018: Journal of Animal Science
Jamey Bower, Dushyant Barpaga, Sebastian Prodinger, Rajamani Krishna, Herbert Todd Schaef, B Peter McGrail, Miroslaw A Derewinski, Radha Kishan Motkuri
Alkali exchanged SSZ-13 adsorbents were investigated for their applicability in separating N2 from CO2 in flue gas streams using a dynamic breakthrough method. In contrast to IAST calculations based on equilibrium isotherms, K+ exchanged SSZ-13 was found to yield the best N2 productivity, comparable to Ni-MOF-74, under dynamic conditions where diffusion properties play a significant role. This was attributed to the selective, partial blockage of access to the chabazite cavities, enhancing the separation potential in a 15/85 CO2/N2 binary gas mixture...
April 17, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Heikki Mykrä, Romain Sarremejane, Tiina Laamanen, Satu Maaria Karjalainen, Annamari Markkola, Sirkku Lehtinen, Kaisa Lehosmaa, Timo Muotka
We examined how short-term (19 days) nutrient enrichment influences stream fungal and diatom communities, and rates of leaf decomposition and algal biomass accrual. We conducted a field experiment using slow-releasing nutrient pellets to increase nitrate (NO3 -N) and phosphate (PO4 -P) concentrations in a riffle section of six naturally acidic (naturally low pH due to catchment geology) and six circumneutral streams. Nutrient enrichment increased microbial decomposition rate on average by 14%, but the effect was significant only in naturally acidic streams...
April 16, 2018: Ambio
Xingxuan Chen, Xiahui Wang, Yiyun Xue, Tian-Ao Zhang, Jiajun Hu, Yiu Fai Tsang, Min-Tian Gao
In this study, it was found that the residual stream from pretreatments of rice straw exhibited high antioxidant activity. Assays based on the Folin-Ciocalteu colorimetric method confirmed that the residual stream contained large amounts of phenolic compounds. Three antioxidant assays were employed to evaluate the bioactivity of the residual stream. Strong linear correlations existed among the release of phenolic compounds, saccharification efficiency, and antioxidant activity. The alkaline pretreatment provided a much greater release of phenolic compounds, especially phenolic acids, compared to the acid pretreatment, and consequently, it had stronger linear correlations than the acid pretreatment...
April 16, 2018: Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology
Woo Jin Kim, Chihiro Hayashi, Yuichiro Yamazaki
INTRODUCTION: One of the goals of hypospadias repair is to create a neourethra with normal urinary stream and normal growth. Several studies have reported that dorsal inlay graft urethroplasty (DIG) has wide indications for various clinical phenotypes of hypospadias, with good short-term outcomes and few complications. However, there have been no reports that evaluated both short-term and long-term functional outcomes using uroflowmetry in patients with DIG. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether uroflowmetry parameters change with time following DIG for hypospadias in early childhood...
March 23, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Urology
Wei Chen, Hui Li, Enke Hou, Shengquan Wang, Guirong Wang, Mahdi Panahi, Tao Li, Tao Peng, Chen Guo, Chao Niu, Lele Xiao, Jiale Wang, Xiaoshen Xie, Baharin Bin Ahmad
The aim of the current study was to produce groundwater spring potential maps using novel ensemble weights-of-evidence (WoE) with logistic regression (LR) and functional tree (FT) models. First, a total of 66 springs were identified by field surveys, out of which 70% of the spring locations were used for training the models and 30% of the spring locations were employed for the validation process. Second, a total of 14 affecting factors including aspect, altitude, slope, plan curvature, profile curvature, stream power index (SPI), topographic wetness index (TWI), sediment transport index (STI), lithology, normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), land use, soil, distance to roads, and distance to streams was used to analyze the spatial relationship between these affecting factors and spring occurrences...
April 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Cécile Barbet, Guillaume Thierry
Some studies in experimental pragmatics have concluded that scalar inferences (e.g., 'some X are Y' implicates 'not all X are Y') are context-dependent pragmatic computations delayed relative to semantic computations. However, it remains unclear whether strong contextual support is necessary to trigger such inferences. Here we tested if the scalar inference 'not all' triggered by some can be evoked in a maximally neutral context. We investigated event-related potential (ERP) amplitude modulations elicited by Stroop-like conflicts in participants instructed to indicate whether strings of letters were printed with all their letters in upper case or otherwise...
April 10, 2018: Cognition
Pablo Alvarez-Zaldívar, Sylvain Payraudeau, Fatima Meite, Jeremy Masbou, Gwenaël Imfeld
Although pesticides undergo degradation tests prior to use, determining their export, degradation and persistence under field conditions remains a challenge for water resource management. Compound specific isotope analysis (CSIA) can provide evidence of contaminant degradation extent, as it is generally independent of non-destructive dissipation (e.g., dilution, sorption, volatilization) regulating environmental concentrations. While this approach has been successfully implemented in subsurface environments, its application to pesticides in near-surface hydrological contexts at catchment scale is lacking...
March 29, 2018: Water Research
Tricia Kleidon, Amanda J Ullman, Li Zhang, Gabor Mihala, Brett Chaseling, Jason Schoutrop, Claire M Rickard
BACKGROUND: Despite the popularity of peripherally inserted central catheters (PICCs), recent literature highlights their potential injurious complications. Innovative PICC materials have been developed to prevent thrombosis and infection formation (Endexo®) and antireflux valves to prevent occlusion (pressure-activated safety valve®). No large randomized controlled trial has assessed these technologies. Our primary aim was to evaluate the feasibility of a large randomized controlled efficacy trial of PICC materials and design to reduce PICC complication in pediatrics...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Hospital Medicine: An Official Publication of the Society of Hospital Medicine
Josep Mas-Pla, Anna Menció
Climate change will affect the dynamics of the hydrogeological systems and their water resources quality; in particular nitrate, which is herein taken as a paradigmatic pollutant to illustrate the effects of climate change on groundwater quality. Based on climatic predictions of temperature and precipitation for the horizon of 2021 and 2050, as well as on land use distribution, water balances are recalculated for the hydrological basins of distinct aquifer systems in a western Mediterranean region as Catalonia (NE Spain) in order to determine the reduction of available water resources...
April 11, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Xiaojuan Wang, Jie Gu, Hua Gao, Xun Qian, Haichao Li
The spread of antibiotic resistance genes in river systems is an emerging environmental issue due to their potential threat to aquatic ecosystems and public health. In this study, we used droplet digital polymerase chain reaction (ddPCR) to evaluate pollution with clinically relevant antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) at 13 monitoring sites along the main stream of the Weihe River in China. Six clinically relevant ARGs and a class I integron-integrase ( intI1 ) gene were analyzed using ddPCR, and the bacterial community was evaluated based on the bacterial 16S rRNA V3-V4 regions using MiSeq sequencing...
April 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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