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Streaming potential

Andrew J Veale, Michael A Russello
Mechanisms underlying adaptive evolution can best be explored using paired populations displaying similar phenotypic divergence, illuminating the genomic changes associated with specific life history traits. Here we used paired migratory [anadromous vs. resident (kokanee)] and reproductive [shore- vs. stream-spawning] ecotypes of sockeye salmon (Oncorhynchus nerka) sampled from seven lakes and two rivers spanning three catchments (Columbia, Fraser, and Skeena) in British Columbia, Canada to investigate the patterns and processes underlying their divergence...
October 13, 2017: Genome Biology and Evolution
Alessandro Devigili, John L Fitzpatrick, Clelia Gasparini, Indar W Ramnarine, Andrea Pilastro, Jonathan P Evans
Identifying mechanisms of reproductive isolation is key to understanding speciation. Among the putative mechanisms underlying reproductive isolation, sperm-female interactions (postmating-prezygotic barriers) are arguably the hardest to identify, not least because these are likely to operate at the cellular or molecular level. Yet sperm-female interactions offer great potential to prevent the transfer of genetic information between different populations at the initial stages of speciation. Here we provide a preliminary test for the presence of a putative postmating-prezygotic barrier operating between three populations of Trinidadian guppies (Poecilia reticulata), an internally fertilizing fish that inhabits streams with different levels of connectivity across Trinidad...
October 17, 2017: Journal of Evolutionary Biology
Elizabeth Nicol, Jamie R Stevens, Susan Jobling
Understanding the environmental factors driving species-genetic diversity correlations (SGDCs) is critical for designing appropriate conservation and management strategies to protect biodiversity. Yet, few studies have explored the impact of changing land use patterns on SGDCs specifically in aquatic communities. This study examined patterns of genetic diversity in roach (Rutilus rutilus L.) together with fish species composition across 19 locations in a large river catchment, spanning a gradient in land use...
October 2017: Ecology and Evolution
Bo Yao, Shuwen Yan, Lushi Lian, Xin Yang, Chunli Wan, Hengtao Dong, Weihua Song
Pharmaceutically active compounds (PhACs) are excreted by humans and animals and released into the aquatic environment through wastewater, which can have potential negative impacts on ecological systems. To conduct a nationwide investigation of the occurrence of PhACs in water resources in China, an analytical procedure based on solid-phase extraction (SPE) and LC-MS/MS was used to measure 45 PhACs in surface water samples from a network of 29 rivers across 31 provinces in China in 2014 and 2015. PhACs were prevalent in all sampled streams...
October 14, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Prateek Sehgal, Brian J Kirby
Separation of particles on the order of 100 nm with acoustophoresis has been challenging to date because of the competing natures of acoustic radiation force and acoustic streaming on the particles. In this work, we present a surface acoustic wave (SAW)-based device that integrates a Fabry-Perot type acoustic resonator into a microfluidic channel to separate submicron particles. This configuration enhances the overall acoustic radiation force on the particles and thereby offers controlled manipulation of particles as small as 300 nm...
October 17, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
Sidney D'Mello, Ed Dieterle, Angela Duckworth
It is generally acknowledged that engagement plays a critical role in learning. Unfortunately, the study of engagement has been stymied by a lack of valid and efficient measures. We introduce the advanced, analytic, and automated (AAA) approach to measure engagement at fine-grained temporal resolutions. The AAA measurement approach is grounded in embodied theories of cognition and affect, which advocate a close coupling between thought and action. It uses machine-learned computational models to automatically infer mental states associated with engagement (e...
2017: Educational Psychologist
Grant E Haines, S Laurie Sanderson
Ram suspension-feeding fishes swim with an open mouth to force water through the oral cavity and extract prey items that are too small to be pursued individually. Recent research has indicated that, rather than using a dead-end mechanical sieve, American paddlefish (Polyodon spathula Walbaum) employ vortical cross-step filtration. In this filtration mechanism, vortical flow that is generated posterior to the branchial arches organizes crossflow filtration processes into a spatial structure across the gill rakers...
October 16, 2017: Journal of Experimental Biology
E García-Cruz, A Bretonnet, A Alcaraz
OBJECTIVES: We aimed to explore the potential benefits of using smart glasses - wearable computer optical devices with touch-less command features - in the surgery room and in outpatient care settings in urology. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Between April and November 2015, 80 urologists were invited to use Google Glass in their daily surgical and clinical practice, and to share them with other urologists. Participants rated the usefulness of smart glasses on a 10-point scale, and provided insights on their potential benefits in a telephone interview...
October 13, 2017: Actas Urologicas Españolas
Emel Yilmaz, Pelin Onsekizoglu Bagci
An integrated membrane process for the recovery and concentration of phytotherapeutics in broccoli juice was investigated to develop a natural product that could be of interest for food and/or pharmaceutical industry. Following a pretreatment step to remove suspended solids, the juice was ultrafiltered through a 50kDa MWCO polyethersulfone membrane. The permeate stream was further concentrated by osmotic distillation up to 42.6°Brix. During ultrafiltration, a complete recovery of sulforaphane, malic acid and citric acid was achieved, where total phenolic content and ascorbic acid were recovered at a ratio of 94...
March 1, 2018: Food Chemistry
Jin Hee Park, Bong-Soo Kim, Chul-Min Chon
Different environmental conditions such as pH and dissolved elements of mine stream induce precipitation of different minerals and their associated microbial community may vary. Therefore, mine precipitates from various environmental conditions were collected and their associated microbiota were analyzed through metagenomic DNA sequencing. Various Fe and Mn minerals including ferrihydrite, schwertmannite, goethite, birnessite, and Mn-substituted δ-FeOOH (δ-(Fe1-x, Mnx)OOH) were found in the different environmental conditions...
October 9, 2017: Chemosphere
Donata Dubber, Laurence W Gill
Rural river catchments are impacted by diffuse pollution sources from agricultural practices and on-site domestic wastewater treatment systems (DWWTS), mainly septic tanks. Methods that can distinguish between contamination sources will significantly increase water management efficiency as they will allow for the development and application of targeted remediation measures. Fluorescent whitening compounds (FWC), are used as optical brighteners in laundry detergents and enter the environment through the discharge of domestic wastewater effluents...
October 4, 2017: Water Research
Paul C Kusnierz, Christopher M Holbrook
Bed stability is an important stream habitat attribute because it affects geomorphology and biotic communities. Natural resource managers desire indices of bed stability that can be used under a wide range of geomorphic conditions, are biologically meaningful, and are easily incorporated into sampling protocols. To eliminate potential bias due to presence of instream wood and increase precision of stability values, we modified a stream bed instability index (ISI) to include measurements of bankfull depth (d bf) and median particle diameter (D 50) only in riffles and increased the pebble count to decrease variability (i...
October 16, 2017: Environmental Monitoring and Assessment
Maria Tou, Ronald Michalsky, Aldo Steinfeld
Splitting CO2 with a thermochemical redox cycle utilizes the entire solar spectrum and provides a favorable path to the synthesis of solar fuels at high rates and efficiencies. However, the temperature/pressure swing commonly applied between reduction and oxidation steps incurs irreversible energy losses and severe material stresses. Here, we experimentally demonstrate for the first time the single-step continuous splitting of CO2 into separate streams of CO and O2 under steady-state isothermal/isobaric conditions...
September 6, 2017: Joule
Sneha Shanbhag, Yousuf Bootwala, Jay F Whitacre, Meagan S Mauter
We evaluate the efficiency and capacity of electrochemically reversible insertion electrodes for use in targeted ion removal applications in aqueous solutions. The relative attributes of insertion material chemistry are evaluated by comparing the performance of two different sodium insertion materials NaTi2(PO4)3 and Na4Mn9O18 in different electrolyte environments. We performed experiments over a range of solution chemistries compositions containing both sodium and other non-inserting ions, and we then developed mechanistic insight into the effects of solution concentration and composition on overpotential losses and round trip coulombic efficiency...
October 13, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Matan M Winer, Adel Zeidan, Daniella Yeheskely-Hayon, Lior Golan, Limor Minai, Eldad J Dann, Dvir Yelin
Leucocytes play a key role in our immune system, protecting the body against infections using a wide range of biological mechanisms. Effective imaging and identification of leucocytes within the blood stream in patients is challenging, however, because of their low volume fraction in the blood, the high tissue scattering and the rapid blood flow. Spectrally encoded flow cytometry (SEFC) has recently been demonstrated effective for label-free high-resolution in vivo imaging of blood cells using an optical probe that does not require mechanical scanning...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ana M Chará-Serna, John S Richardson
Chlorpyrifos is one of the most widely used agricultural insecticides in the world, but to date there is limited empirical information about its potential to interact with other common agricultural stressors. We conducted a 15-day, community-level microcosm experiment evaluating individual and combined effects of chlorpyrifos, nutrient enrichment, and sedimentation on stream invertebrate communities (abundance, biomass, richness, size structure, composition) and ecosystem processes (primary productivity and leaf decomposition)...
October 10, 2017: Ecological Applications: a Publication of the Ecological Society of America
Anthony P Straub, Menachem Elimelech
Low-grade heat energy from sources below 100 C is available in massive quantities around the world, but cannot be converted to electricity effectively using existing technologies due to variability in the heat output and the small temperature difference between the source and environment. The recently developed thermo-osmotic energy conversion (TOEC) process has the potential to harvest energy from low-grade heat sources by using a temperature difference to create a pressurized liquid flux across a membrane, which can be converted to mechanical work via a turbine...
October 12, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
Xiao L Tan, Ju L Chen, Giovanni Benelli, Nicolas Desneux, Xue Q Yang, Tong X Liu, Feng Ge
Herbivory defense systems in plants are largely regulated by jasmonate-(JA) and salicylate-(SA) signaling pathways. Such defense mechanisms may impact insect feeding dynamic, may also affect the transmission-acquisition relationship among virus, plants and vectoring insects. In the context of the tomato - whitefly - Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (TYLCV) biological model, we tested the impact of pre-infesting plants with a non-vector insect (aphid Myzus persicae) on feeding dynamics of a vector insect (whitefly Bemisia tabaci) as well as virus transmission-acquisition...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
Sita M Damaraju, Yueyang Shen, Ezinwa Elele, Boris Khusid, Ahmad Eshghinejad, Jiangyu Li, Michael Jaffe, Treena Livingston Arinzeh
The discovery of electric fields in biological tissues has led to efforts in developing technologies utilizing electrical stimulation for therapeutic applications. Native tissues, such as cartilage and bone, exhibit piezoelectric behavior, wherein electrical activity can be generated due to mechanical deformation. Yet, the use of piezoelectric materials have largely been unexplored as a potential strategy in tissue engineering, wherein a piezoelectric biomaterial acts as a scaffold to promote cell behavior and the formation of large tissues...
September 19, 2017: Biomaterials
Remi Valois, Yohann Cousquer, Myriam Schmutz, Alexandre Pryet, Célestine Delbart, Alain Dupuy
Characterizing the interactions between streams and aquifers is a major challenge in hydrology. Electrical self-potential (SP) is sensitive to groundwater flow through the electrokinetic effect, which is proportional to Darcy velocity. SP surveys have been extensively used for the characterization of seepage flow in a variety of contexts. But to our knowledge, a model coupling SP and groundwater flow has never been implemented for the study of stream-aquifer interactions. To address the issue, we first implemented a two-dimensional model to a synthetic stream-aquifer cross section...
October 9, 2017: Ground Water
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