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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906184/1-methyl-tryptophan-attenuates-regulatory-t-cells-differentiation-due-to-the-inhibition-of-estrogen-ido1-mrc2-axis-in-endometriosis
#1
Chunyan Wei, Jie Mei, Lingli Tang, Yukai Liu, Dajin Li, Mingqing Li, Xiaoyong Zhu
Foxp3(+) regulatory T (Treg) cells contribute to the local dysfunctional immune environment in endometriosis, an estrogen-dependent gynecological disease, which affects the function of ectopic endometrial tissue clearance by the immune system. The reason for the high percentage of peritoneal Treg in endometriosis patients is unknown. Here, we show that the proportion of peritoneal Treg cells increases as endometriosis progresses. To determine the probable mechanism, we established a naive T cell-macrophage-endometrial stromal cell (ESC) co-culture system to mimic the peritoneal cavity microenvironment...
December 1, 2016: Cell Death & Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903704/semantic-congruence-accelerates-the-onset-of-the-neural-signals-of-successful-memory-encoding
#2
P A Packard, A Rodríguez-Fornells, N Bunzeck, B Nicolás, R de Diego-Balaguer, L Fuentemilla
: As the stream of experience unfolds, our memory system rapidly transforms current inputs into long-lasting meaningful memories. A putative neural mechanism that strongly influences how input elements are transformed into meaningful memory codes relies on the ability to integrate them with existing structures of knowledge or schemas. However, it is not yet clear whether schema-related integration neural mechanisms occur during online encoding. In the current investigation, we examined the encoding-dependent nature of this phenomenon in humans...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898802/nutrient-cycling-in-grassed-roadside-ditches-and-lawns-in-a-suburban-watershed
#3
Lauren E McPhillips, Peter M Groffman, Rebecca L Schneider, M Todd Walter
Roadside ditches are ubiquitous in developed landscapes. They are designed to route water from roads for safety, with little consideration of water quality or biogeochemical implications in ditch design and minimal data on environmental impacts. We hypothesize that periodic saturation and nutrient influxes may make roadside ditches hotspots for nitrogen (N) removal via denitrification as well as biological production of the greenhouse gases (GHGs) nitrous oxide (NO), methane (CH), and carbon dioxide (CO). Research sites included 12 grassed ditches and adjacent lawns with varying fertilization in a suburban watershed in central New York, where lawns represented a reference with similar soils as ditches but differing hydrology...
November 2016: Journal of Environmental Quality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895283/food-waste-prevention-in-athens-greece-the-effect-of-family-characteristics
#4
Konstadinos Abeliotis, Katia Lasaridi, Christina Chroni
Food waste is a stream that becomes increasingly important in terms of its prevention potential. There is a large number of behaviours that can be associated with food waste generation and the efforts towards food waste prevention. A questionnaire study was carried in order to study consumer behaviour related to food provision and wastage in Greece. Proper practices of the respondents that can prevent the generation of food waste were investigated using nine behavioural scales, which were defined on the basis of similar studies in other countries...
December 2016: Waste Management & Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27890416/larix-decidua-%C3%AE-18-o-tree-ring-cellulose-mainly-reflects-the-isotopic-signature-of-winter-snow-in-a-high-altitude-glacial-valley-of-the-european-alps
#5
Giovanni Leonelli, Giovanna Battipaglia, Paolo Cherubini, Matthias Saurer, Rolf T W Siegwolf, Maurizio Maugeri, Barbara Stenni, Stella Fusco, Valter Maggi, Manuela Pelfini
We analyzed the chronologies of cellulose stable isotopes (δ(13)C and δ(18)O) and tree-ring widths from European larch (Larix decidua) in a high-altitude site (2190ma.s.l.) at the bottom of a glacial valley in the Italian Alps, and investigated their dependence on monthly meteorological variables and δ(18)O precipitation values. The δ(18)O of tree-ring cellulose appears to be strongly driven by the δ(18)O of winter snowfall (November to March), which suggests that larch trees mostly use the snow-melt water of the previous winter during the growing season...
November 24, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889363/new-tools-for-the-hydromorphological-assessment-and-monitoring-of-european-streams
#6
M Rinaldi, B Belletti, M Bussettini, F Comiti, B Golfieri, B Lastoria, E Marchese, L Nardi, N Surian
Hydromorphological stream assessment has significantly expanded over the last years, but a need has emerged from recent reviews for more comprehensive, process-based methods that consider the character and dynamics of the river with greater accuracy. With this as a focus, a series of hydromorphological tools have been developed and/or further extended in Europe within the context of the REFORM (REstoring rivers FOR effective catchment Management) project. The aim of this paper is to present the set of REFORM hydromorphological assessment methods and, based on some examples of their application, to illustrate and discuss their synergic use, specific features, limitations and strengths...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887836/modelling-white-water-rafting-suitability-in-a-hydropower-regulated-alpine-river
#7
Mauro Carolli, Guido Zolezzi, Davide Geneletti, Annunziato Siviglia, Fabiano Carolli, Oscar Cainelli
Cultural and recreational river ecosystem services and their relations with the flow regime are still poorly investigated. We develop a modelling-based approach to assess recreational flow requirements and the spatially distributed river suitability for white-water rafting, a typical service offered by mountain streams, with potential conflicts of interest with hydropower regulation. The approach is based on the principles of habitat suitability modelling using water depth as the main attribute, with preference curves defined through interviews with local rafting guides...
November 22, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885655/a-landscape-scale-field-experiment-reveals-the-importance-of-dispersal-in-a-resource-limited-metacommunity
#8
Jill Lancaster, Barbara J Downes
Dispersal may play a strong role in driving species diversity across landscapes. Theoretically, dispersal permits species to remain extant within a metacommunity, even if they are periodically excluded from some local communities. Field tests of dispersal effects are difficult, and most non-experimental data suggest that environmental conditions play the predominant role in setting species diversity. However, most such studies cannot differentiate between patterns caused primarily by dispersal constraints vs abiotic factors vs biotic constraints (e...
November 25, 2016: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27885582/biotransformation-of-herbicides-by-aquatic-microbial-communities-associated-to-submerged-leaves
#9
Louis Carles, Florent Rossi, Muriel Joly, Pascale Besse-Hoggan, Isabelle Batisson, Joan Artigas
Leaf microbial communities possess a large panel of enzymes permitting the breakdown of leaf polymers as well as the transformation of organic xenobiotic compounds present in stream waters. This study aims to assess the potential of leaf microbial communities, exhibiting different exposure histories to pesticides (upstream versus downstream), to biotransform three maize herbicides (mesotrione, S-metolachlor, and nicosulfuron) in single and cocktail molecule exposures. The results showed a high dissipation of nicosulfuron (sulfonylurea herbicide) (from 29...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883232/primary-sources-and-toxicity-of-pahs-in-milwaukee-area-streambed-sediment
#10
Austin K Baldwin, Steven R Corsi, Michelle A Lutz, Christopher G Ingersoll, Rebecca Dorman, Christopher Magruder, Matthew Magruder
High concentrations of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in streams can be a significant stressor to aquatic organisms. To understand the likely sources and toxicity of PAHs in Milwaukee-area streams, streambed sediment samples from 40 sites and parking lot dust samples from 6 sites were analyzed for 38 parent PAHs and 25 alkylated PAHs. Diagnostic ratios, profile correlations, principal components analysis, source-receptor modeling, and mass fractions analysis were used to identify potential PAH sources to streambed sediment samples, and land-use analysis was used to relate streambed sediment PAH concentrations to different urban-related land uses...
November 24, 2016: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878146/acoustofluidic-particle-trapping-manipulation-and-release-using-dynamic-mode-cantilever-sensors
#11
Blake N Johnson, Raj Mutharasan
We show here that dynamic-mode cantilever sensors enable acoustofluidic fluid mixing and trapping of suspended particles as well as the rapid manipulation and release of trapped micro-particles via mode switching in liquid. Resonant modes of piezoelectric cantilever sensors over the 0 to 8 MHz frequency range are investigated. Sensor impedance response, flow visualization studies using dye and micro-particle tracers (100 μm diameter), and finite element simulations of cantilever modal mechanics and acoustic streaming show fluid mixing and particle trapping configurations depend on the resonant mode shape...
November 23, 2016: Analyst
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876894/ddit4-regulates-mesenchymal-stem-cell-fate-by-mediating-between-hif1%C3%AE-and-mtor-signalling
#12
Borzo Gharibi, Mandeep Ghuman, Francis J Hughes
Stem cell fate decisions to remain quiescent, self-renew or differentiate are largely governed by the interplay between extracellular signals from the niche and the cell intrinsic signal cascades and transcriptional programs. Here we demonstrate that DNA Damage Inducible Transcript 4 (DDIT4) acts as a link between HIF1α and mTOR signalling and regulation of adult stem cell fate. Global gene expression analysis of mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) derived from single clones and live RNA cell sorting showed a direct correlation between DDIT4 and differentiation potentials of MSC...
November 23, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876233/role-of-platelets-in-neutrophil-extracellular-trap-net-production-and-tissue-injury
#13
REVIEW
Seok-Joo Kim, Craig N Jenne
In addition to their well-known role as the cellular mediator of thrombosis, numerous studies have identified key roles for platelets during various disease processes. Importantly, platelets play a critical role in the host immune response, directly interacting with, and eliminating pathogens, from the blood stream. In addition to pathogen clearance, platelets also contribute to leukocyte recruitment at sites of infection and inflammation, and modulate leukocyte activity. Platelet interaction with activated neutrophils is a potent inducer of neutrophil extracellular trap (NET)...
November 18, 2016: Seminars in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875129/dynamic-estimation-of-the-auditory-temporal-response-function-from-meg-in-competing-speaker-environments
#14
Sahar Akram, Jonathan Z Simon, Behtash Babadi
OBJECTIVE: A central problem in computational neuroscience is to characterize brain function using neural activity recorded from the brain in response to sensory inputs with statistical confidence. Most of existing estimation techniques, such as those based on reverse correlation, exhibit two main limitations: first, they are unable to produce dynamic estimates of the neural activity at a resolution comparable with that of the recorded data, and second, they often require heavy averaging across time as well as multiple trials in order to construct statistical confidence intervals for a precise interpretation of data...
November 15, 2016: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872375/tracx2-a-connectionist-autoencoder-using-graded-chunks-to-model-infant-visual-statistical-learning
#15
Denis Mareschal, Robert M French
Even newborn infants are able to extract structure from a stream of sensory inputs; yet how this is achieved remains largely a mystery. We present a connectionist autoencoder model, TRACX2, that learns to extract sequence structure by gradually constructing chunks, storing these chunks in a distributed manner across its synaptic weights and recognizing these chunks when they re-occur in the input stream. Chunks are graded rather than all-or-nothing in nature. As chunks are learnt their component parts become more and more tightly bound together...
January 5, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870676/bundled-payments-for-care-improvement-lessons-learned-in-the-first-year
#16
Peter L Althausen, Lisa Mead
The Bundled Payments for Care Improvement (BPCI) initiative is the latest cost-saving program developed by the Center for Medicare and Medicaid Innovation. This model is intended to create a system for higher quality and more coordinated care at a lower cost to Medicare. It is currently an optional program for physician groups, hospitals and post-acute care providers to benefit financially from improved care models and cost containment measures. Under the initiative, organizations enter into payment arrangements that include financial and performance accountability for episodes of care...
December 2016: Journal of Orthopaedic Trauma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869730/context-aware-fusion-of-rgb-and-thermal-imagery-for-traffic-monitoring
#17
Thiemo Alldieck, Chris H Bahnsen, Thomas B Moeslund
In order to enable a robust 24-h monitoring of traffic under changing environmental conditions, it is beneficial to observe the traffic scene using several sensors, preferably from different modalities. To fully benefit from multi-modal sensor output, however, one must fuse the data. This paper introduces a new approach for fusing color RGB and thermal video streams by using not only the information from the videos themselves, but also the available contextual information of a scene. The contextual information is used to judge the quality of a particular modality and guides the fusion of two parallel segmentation pipelines of the RGB and thermal video streams...
November 18, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867215/resolving-large-scale-pressures-on-species-and-ecosystems-propensity-modelling-identifies-agricultural-effects-on-streams
#18
Caitlin E Pearson, Steve J Ormerod, William O C Symondson, Ian P Vaughan
Although agriculture is amongst the world's most widespread land uses, studies of its effects on stream ecosystems are often limited in spatial extent. National monitoring data could extend spatial coverage and increase statistical power, but present analytical challenges where covarying environmental variables confound relationships of interest.Propensity modelling is used widely outside ecology to control for confounding variables in observational data. Here, monitoring data from over 3000 English and Welsh river reaches are used to assess the effects of intensive agricultural land cover (arable and pastoral) on stream habitat, water chemistry and invertebrates, using propensity scores to control for potential confounding factors (e...
April 2016: Journal of Applied Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862052/direct-simulation-of-electroosmosis-around-a-spherical-particle-with-inhomogeneously-acquired-surface-charge
#19
Amer Alizadeh, Moran Wang
Uncovering electroosmosis around an inhomogeneously acquired charge spherical particle in a confined space could provide detailed insights into its broad applications from biology to geology. In the present study, we developed a direct simulation method with the effects of inhomogeneously acquired charges on the particle surface considered, which has been validated by the available analytical and experimental data. Modeling results reveal that the surface charge and zeta potential, which are acquired through chemical interactions, strongly depend on the local solution properties and the particle size...
November 10, 2016: Electrophoresis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861618/meningococcal-carriage-among-adolescents-after-mass-meningococcal-c-conjugate-vaccination-campaigns-in-salvador-brazil
#20
Amélia Maria Pithon Borges Nunes, Guilherme Sousa Ribeiro, Ítalo Eustáquio Ferreira, Ana Rafaela Silva Simões Moura, Ridalva Dias Martins Felzemburgh, Ana Paula Silva de Lemos, Mitermayer Galvão Reis, José Cassio de Moraes, Leila Carvalho Campos
Neisseria meningitidis is a commensal bacterium of the human nasopharynx. In rare cases, it penetrates the mucosa, entering the blood stream and causing various forms of disease. Meningococcal conjugate vaccines can prevent invasive disease not only by direct effect in vaccinated individuals but also by herd protection, preventing acquisition of carriage, which interrupts transmission and leads to protection of unvaccinated persons. In 2010 in Salvador, Brazil, an outbreak of group C meningococcal disease led to a mass meningococcal serogroup C conjugate vaccination drive, targeting those <5 and 10-24 years of age...
2016: PloS One
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