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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222375/on-site-nutrient-recovery-and-removal-from-source-separated-urine-by-phosphorus-precipitation-and-short-cut-nitrification-denitrification
#1
Song Yao, Liping Chen, Detian Guan, Zhongguo Zhang, Xiujun Tian, Aimin Wang, Guotian Wang, Qian Yao, Dangcong Peng, Jiuyi Li
Source separation and treatment of human urine have been recognized as a resource-efficient alternative to conventional urban drainage, not only reducing nutrient loads on municipal wastewater treatment plants, but recovering valuable resources from waste streams. In this work, on-site phosphorus (P) recovery from real urine was carried out by using the brine from a reverse osmosis process as the flush water for urine-diverting toilets and a P precipitant, while nitrogen (N) was removed via short-cut nitrification-denitrification (SCND) in a membrane bioreactor (MBR)...
February 16, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222351/the-land-morphology-approach-to-flood-risk-mapping-an-application-to-portugal
#2
N S Cunha, M R Magalhães, T Domingos, M M Abreu, C Küpfer
In the last decades, the increasing vulnerability of floodplains is linked to societal changes such as population density growth, land use changes, water use patterns, among other factors. Land morphology directly influences surface water flow, transport of sediments, soil genesis, local climate and vegetation distribution. Therefore, the land morphology, the land used and management directly influences flood risks genesis. However, attention is not always given to the underlying geomorphological and ecological processes that influence the dynamic of rivers and their floodplains...
February 16, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220128/effect-of-leaf-water-potential-on-internal-humidity-and-co2-dissolution-reverse-transpiration-and-improved-water-use-efficiency-under-negative-pressure
#3
Timo Vesala, Sanna Sevanto, Tiia Grönholm, Yann Salmon, Eero Nikinmaa, Pertti Hari, Teemu Hölttä
The pull of water from the soil to the leaves causes water in the transpiration stream to be under negative pressure decreasing the water potential below zero. The osmotic concentration also contributes to the decrease in leaf water potential but with much lesser extent. Thus, the surface tension force is approximately balanced by a force induced by negative water potential resulting in concavely curved water-air interfaces in leaves. The lowered water potential causes a reduction in the equilibrium water vapor pressure in internal (sub-stomatal/intercellular) cavities in relation to that over water with the potential of zero, i...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28216002/stealth-nanocarriers-based-sterosomes-using-peg-post-insertion-process
#4
Anna Cieślak, Nathalie Wauthoz, Alejandro Nieto Orellana, Nolwenn Lautram, Jérôme Béjaud, José Hureaux, Michel Lafleur, Jean-Pierre Benoit, Claudio J Salomon, Guillaume Bastiat
Sterosomes (STEs), a new and promising non-phospholipidic liposome platform based on palmitic acid (PA) and cholesterol (Chol) mixtures, need to have polyethylene glycol (PEG) chains grafted to their surface in order to obtain long-circulating nanocarriers in the blood stream. A post-insertion method was chosen to achieve this modification. The post-insertion process of PEG-modified distearoylphosphoethanolamine (DSPE-PEG) was monitored using the zeta potential value of STEs. Various conditions including PEG chain length and the DSPE-PEG/PA-Chol ratio, were explored...
February 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28215467/cardiovascular-screening-in-low-income-settings-using-a-novel-4-lead-smartphone-based-electrocardiograph-d-heart%C3%A2
#5
Niccolo' Maurizi, Alessandro Faragli, Jacopo Imberti, Nicolò Briante, Mattia Targetti, Katia Baldini, Amadou Sall, Abibou Cisse, Francesca Gigli Berzolari, Paola Borrelli, Fulvio Avvantaggiato, Stefano Perlini, Niccolo' Marchionni, Franco Cecchi, Gianbattista Parigi, Iacopo Olivotto
BACKGROUND: MHealth technologies are revolutionizing cardiovascular medicine. However, a low-cost, user-friendly smartphone-based electrocardiograph is still lacking. D-Heart® is a portable device that enables the acquisition of the ECG on multiple leads which streams via Bluetooth to any smartphone. Because of the potential impact of this technology in low-income settings, we determined the accuracy of D-Heart® tracings in the stratification of ECG morphological abnormalities, compared with 12-lead ECGs...
February 10, 2017: International Journal of Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214124/increasing-agricultural-land-use-is-associated-with-the-spread-of-an-invasive-fish-gambusia-affinis
#6
Finnbar Lee, Kevin S Simon, George L W Perry
Land-use change and invasive species pose major threats to ecosystems globally. These stressors can act together, with disturbance due to changes in land-use facilitating invasion. We examined the potential for agricultural land use to facilitate the establishment and population growth (abundance) of a globally invasive fish (Gambusia affinis). To achieve this we examined Gambusia presence, abundance, and life history traits in 31 streams spanning an agricultural land use gradient in the North Island of New Zealand...
February 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213276/engineering-approaches-in-sirna-delivery
#7
Anna Angela Barba, Sara Cascone, Diego Caccavo, Gaetano Lamberti, Gianluca Chiarappa, Michela Abrami, Gabriele Grassi, Mario Grassi, Giovanna Tomaiuolo, Stefano Guido, Valerio Brucato, Francesco Carfì Pavia, Giulio Ghersi, Vincenzo La Carrubba, Roberto Andrea Abbiati, Davide Manca
siRNAs are very potent drug molecules, able to silence genes involved in pathologies development. siRNAs have virtually an unlimited therapeutic potential, particularly for the treatment of inflammatory diseases. However, their use in clinical practice is limited because of their unfavorable properties to interact and not to degrade in physiological environments. In particular they are large macromolecules, negatively charged, which undergo rapid degradation by plasmatic enzymes, are subject to fast renal clearance/hepatic sequestration, and can hardly cross cellular membranes...
February 14, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213120/a-cross-validated-cytoarchitectonic-atlas-of-the-human-ventral-visual-stream
#8
M Rosenke, K S Weiner, M A Barnett, K Zilles, K Amunts, R Goebel, K Grill-Spector
The human ventral visual stream consists of several areas considered processing stages essential for perception and recognition. A fundamental microanatomical feature differentiating areas is cytoarchitecture, which refers to the distribution, size, and density of cells across cortical layers. Because cytoarchitectonic structure is measured in 20-micron-thick histological slices of postmortem tissue, it is difficult to assess (a) how anatomically consistent these areas are across brains and (b) how they relate to brain parcellations obtained with prevalent neuroimaging methods, acquired at the millimeter and centimeter scale...
February 14, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212219/drug-infusion-systems-technologies-performance-and-pitfalls
#9
Uoo R Kim, Robert A Peterfreund, Mark A Lovich
This review aims to broadly describe drug infusion technologies and raise subtle but important issues arising from infusion therapy that can potentially lead to patient instability and morbidity. Advantages and disadvantages of gravity-dependent drug infusion are described and compared with electromechanical approaches for precise control of medication infusion, including large-volume peristaltic and syringe pumps. This review discusses how drugs and inert carriers interact within infusion systems and outlines several complexities and potential sources of drug error...
February 16, 2017: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211267/efficient-and-selective-uptake-of-tco4-by-a-cationic-metal-organic-framework-material-with-open-ag-sites
#10
Daopeng Sheng, Lin Zhu, Chao Xu, Chengliang Xiao, Yanlong Wang, Yaxing Wang, Lanhua Chen, Juan Diwu, Jing Chen, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Shuao Wang
99Tc is one of the most problematic radioisotopes in used nuclear fuel owing to its combined features of high fission yield, long half-life, and high environmental mobility. There are only a handful of functional materials that can remove TcO4- anion from aqueous solution and identifying for new, stable materials with high anion-exchange capacities, fast kinetics, and good selectivity remains a challenge. We report here an 8-fold interpenetrated three-dimensional cationic metal-organic framework material, SCU-100, which is assembled from a tetradentate neutral nitrogen-donor ligand and two-coordinate Ag+ cations as potential open metal sites...
February 17, 2017: Environmental Science & Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208897/a-validation-of-an-examination-protocol-for-cerebral-visual-impairment-among-children-in-a-clinical-population-in-india
#11
Swetha Sara Philip, Sherab Tsherlinga, Maya Mary Thomas, Gordon N Dutton, Richard Bowman
INTRODUCTION: Cerebral Visual Impairment (CVI) is a leading cause of vision impairment in developed and developing countries due to and increased survival of preterm and low birth weight infants. There are few data concerning the validity of protocols available to diagnose CVI. AIM: This study aimed to document the face, content and construct validity of an assessment protocol namely, a 15-domain, Structured Clinical Question Inventory (SCQI), which is based on structured history taking and clinical examination, for the diagnosis of CVI in a clinical population of India...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208211/changes-in-projected-spatial-and-seasonal-groundwater-recharge-in-the-upper-colorado-river-basin
#12
Fred D Tillman, Subhrendu Gangopadhyay, Tom Pruitt
The Colorado River is an important source of water in the western United States, supplying the needs of more than 38 million people in the United States and Mexico. Groundwater discharge to streams has been shown to be a critical component of streamflow in the Upper Colorado River Basin (UCRB), particularly during low-flow periods. Understanding impacts on groundwater in the basin from projected climate change will assist water managers in the region in planning for potential changes in the river and groundwater system...
February 16, 2017: Ground Water
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207856/biodiesel-production-potential-from-fat-fraction-of-municipal-waste-in-makkah
#13
K Shahzad, A S Nizami, M Sagir, M Rehan, S Maier, M Z Khan, O K M Ouda, I M I Ismail, A O BaFail
In the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA), millions of Muslims come to perform Pilgrimage every year. Around one million ton of municipal solid waste (MSW) is generated in Makkah city annually. The collected MSW is disposed of in the landfills without any treatment or energy recovery. As a result, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions and contamination of the soil and water bodies along with leachate and odors are occurring in waste disposal vicinities. The composition of MSW shows that food waste is the largest waste stream (up to 51%) of the total generated MSW...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207806/trace-element-accumulation-in-lotic-dragonfly-nymphs-genus-matters
#14
Dean E Fletcher, Angela H Lindell, Garrett K Stillings, Susan A Blas, J Vaun McArthur
Constituents of coal combustion waste (CCW) expose aquatic organisms to complex mixtures of potentially toxic metals and metalloids. Multi-element trace element analyses were used to distinguish patterns of accumulation among 8 genera of dragonfly nymphs collected from two sites on a CCW contaminated coastal plain stream. Dragonfly nymphs are exceptional for comparing trace element accumulation in syntopic macroinvertebrates that are all predators within the same order (Odonata) and suborder (Anisoptera), but differ vastly in habitat use and body form...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28207670/feasibility-study-of-utilization-of-action-camera-gopro-hero-4-google-glass-and-panasonic-hx-a100-in-spine-surgery
#15
Chang Kyu Lee, Youngjun Kim, Nam Lee, Byeongwoo Kim, Doyoung Kim, Seong Yi
STUDY DESIGN: Study for feasibility of commercially available action cameras in recording video of spine. OBJECTIVE: Recent innovation of the wearable action camera with high-definition video recording enables surgeons to use camera in the operation at ease without high costs. The purpose of this study is to compare the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of commercially available action cameras in recording video of spine surgery. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: There are early reports of medical professionals using Google Glass throughout the hospital, Panasonic HX-A100 action camera, and GoPro...
February 15, 2017: Spine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206714/opposite-effects-of-a-glucokinase-activator-and-metformin-on-glucose-regulated-gene-expression-in-hepatocytes
#16
Ziad H Al-Oanzi, Sophia Fountana, Tabassum Moonira, Susan J Tudhope, John L Petrie, Ahmed Alshawi, Gillian Patman, Catherine Arden, Helen L Reeves, Loranne Agius
AIM: Small molecule activators of glucokinase (GKAs) have been extensively explored as potential anti-hyperglycaemic drugs for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Several GKAs were remarkably effective at lowering blood glucose during early therapy but then lost their glycaemic efficacy chronically during clinical trials. We used rat hepatocytes to test the hypothesis that GKAs raise hepatocyte glucose 6-phosphate, (G6P, the glucokinase product) and down-stream metabolites with consequent repression of the liver glucokinase gene (Gck)...
February 16, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205438/generation-of-volatile-cadmium-and-zinc-species-based-on-solution-anode-glow-discharge-induced-plasma-electrochemical-processes
#17
Xing Liu, Zhifu Liu, Zhenli Zhu, Dong He, Siqi Yao, Hongtao Zheng, Shenghong Hu
In this study, a novel high efficiency vapor generation strategy was proposed based on solution anode glow discharge for the determination of Cd and Zn by atomic fluorescence spectrometry. In this approach, a glow discharge microplasma was acted as a gaseous cathode to initiate the plasma electrochemical vapor generation of Cd and Zn. Cadmium/Zinc ions could be converted into molecular species efficiently at the plasma-liquid interface from a supporting electrolyte (HCl, pH=3.2). It was found that the overall efficiency of the plasma electrochemical vapor generation (PEVG) system was much higher than the conventional electrochemical hydride generation (EcHG) and HCl-KBH4 system...
February 16, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204958/biological-control-of-snail-hosts-transmitting-schistosomiasis-by-the-water-bug-sphaerodema-urinator
#18
Aly Younes, Hanaa El-Sherief, Fathia Gawish, Marwa Mahmoud
The water bug, Sphaerodema urinator (Hemiptera : Belostomatidae), shares the same habitat of the freshwater snails in ponds, lakes, and streams. Studies conducted in lakes show that fish and crayfish predators play an important role in determining the abundance of freshwater snails. In contrast, shallow ponds and marches often lack fish and crayfish but have abundant insect predators. This study has been carried out to evaluate the predatory potential of S. urinator adult on two freshwater snails that serves as intermediate hosts of Schistosoma...
February 15, 2017: Parasitology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28204874/effects-of-calcium-at-toxic-concentrations-of-cadmium-in-plants
#19
REVIEW
Danlian Huang, Xiaomin Gong, Yunguo Liu, Guangming Zeng, Cui Lai, Hassan Bashir, Lu Zhou, Dafei Wang, Piao Xu, Min Cheng, Jia Wan
This review provides new insight that calcium plays important roles in plant growth, heavy metal accumulation and translocation, photosynthesis, oxidative damage and signal transduction under cadmium stress. Increasing heavy metal pollution problems have raised word-wide concerns. Cadmium (Cd), being a highly toxic metal, poses potential risks both to ecosystems and human health. Compared with conventional technologies, phytoremediation, being cost-efficient, highly stable and environment-friendly, is believed to be a promising green technology for Cd decontamination...
February 15, 2017: Planta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28202729/synchronous-spikes-are-necessary-but-not-sufficient-for-a-synchrony-code-in-populations-of-spiking-neurons
#20
Jan Grewe, Alexandra Kruscha, Benjamin Lindner, Jan Benda
Synchronous activity in populations of neurons potentially encodes special stimulus features. Selective readout of either synchronous or asynchronous activity allows formation of two streams of information processing. Theoretical work predicts that such a synchrony code is a fundamental feature of populations of spiking neurons if they operate in specific noise and stimulus regimes. Here we experimentally test the theoretical predictions by quantifying and comparing neuronal response properties in tuberous and ampullary electroreceptor afferents of the weakly electric fish Apteronotus leptorhynchus These related systems show similar levels of synchronous activity, but only in the more irregularly firing tuberous afferents a synchrony code is established, whereas in the more regularly firing ampullary afferents it is not...
February 15, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
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