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NASH cirrhosis

Barbara Kern, Benedikt Feurstein, Josef Fritz, Cornelia Fabritius, Robert Sucher, Ivo Graziadei, Reto Bale, Herbert Tilg, Heinz Zoller, Philip Newsome, Stephan Eschertzhuber, Raimund Margreiter, Dietmar Öfner, Stefan Schneeberger
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is an increasingly prevalent indication for liver transplantation (LT) across the world. The relative outcomes following transplantation are poorly described in this cohort. We aimed to analyze the incidence and outcome of LT for NASH as compared with other indications. PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of 513 patients who underwent deceased-donor, adult LT between 2002 and 2012 as recorded at the Medical University of Innsbruck, Austria...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Lisa K Koch, Matthew M Yeh
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is increasingly prevalent and strongly associated with obesity, diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, not only in the Western societies, but also in most regions of the world in the 21st century. The spectrum of its histopathology ranges from steatosis to nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), with risk for progressive fibrosis that may lead to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Benign and malignant liver tumors have also been more frequently reported with the increasing prevalence of obesity and diabetes...
September 27, 2018: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
Ta-Ya Lin, Ming-Lun Yeh, Chung-Feng Huang, Ching-I Huang, Chia-Yen Dai, Meng-Hsuan Hsieh, Shinn-Chern Chen, Jee-Fu Huang, Ming-Lung Yu, Wan-Long Chuang
OBJECTIVES: Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) might progress to fibrosis, cirrhosis, and hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the natural history of NASH has not been fully clarified. This study aimed to investigate the disease progression in NASH patients receiving paired liver biopsies. We also aimed to examine the factors associated with NASH progression. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Ten NASH patients who had received liver biopsies during June 2001 and February 2010 were consecutively enrolled...
October 10, 2018: European Journal of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Hongying Yang, Jianguo Wu, Yuan Yuan, Wenxiang Huang, Bei Jia
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the serum anti-HEV antibody positive rate in patients with different types of CH or cirrhosis. METHODS: 1751 hospitalized patients were chart reviewed, who were diagnosed of mono-CH or cirrhosis between 2011 and 2016. RESULTS: The total anti-HEV-IgG positive rate was 1.33%(13/981) in CH patients, which was significantly lower than that (6.49%; 50/770) in cirrhosis patients (OR 4.78(2.51-9.10);P=0.00). The comparison of positive rate of anti-HEV-IgG between the same etiology CH and cirrhosis groups was as follows: chronic hepatitis B 1...
October 11, 2018: Journal of Medical Virology
Pierluigi Toniutto, Davide Bitetto, Ezio Fornasiere, Elisa Fumolo
Liver transplantation (LT) has become the treatment of choice for a wide range of liver diseases in both adult and pediatric patients. Until recently, the largest proportion of LT in adults, were performed in patients with hepatitis C (HCV) related cirrhosis. The recent availability of safe and effective direct antiviral agents to cure HCV infection in almost all patients whatever the HCV genotype and severity of liver disease, will reduce the need for LT in this category of recipients. Thus, it is presumed that in the next 1 to 2 decades HCV related liver disease will diminish substantially, whereas non-alcoholic steato-hepatitis (NASH) will correspondingly escalate as an indication for LT...
October 5, 2018: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
Irene Pierantonelli, Gianluca Svegliati-Baroni
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) represents a growing cause of chronic liver injury, especially in Western Countries, where it is becoming the most frequent indication for liver transplantation (OLTx). NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of diseases that from simple steatosis (pure NAFLD) can progress to Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). The pathogenesis of NAFLD and the mechanisms behind its progression to NASH have been extensively studied. However, while the processes that determine fat accumulation are mostly clear, the mechanisms associated with the progression of the disease are not fully characterized...
October 8, 2018: Transplantation
Takaomi Kessoku, Kento Imajo, Takashi Kobayashi, Yasushi Honda, Yuji Ogawa, Masato Yoneda, Satoru Saito, Atsushi Nakajima
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), especially nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), is a disease that may lead to liver cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma. The number of patients is increasing steadily and the pathology is diverse. Effective treatment is still mainly focused on diet and exercise therapy. With the advent of the next-generation sequencer, the intestinal flora in NAFLD/NASH is being elucidated. We believe that elevation of endotoxin in the blood caused by intestinal bacterial dysbiosis caused by intestinal permeability enhancement is important for NASH pathology and control of intestinal permeability enhancement has a new possibility for treatment of NAFLD/NASH...
2018: Nihon Yakurigaku Zasshi. Folia Pharmacologica Japonica
Naim Alkhouri, Casey Johnson, Leon Adams, Sachiko Kitajima, Chikayuki Tsuruno, Tracey L Colpitts, Kazuki Hatcho, Eric Lawitz, Rocio Lopez, Ariel E Feldstein
[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0202226.].
2018: PloS One
Yuichi Honma, Kazuhiro Sumida, Noriyoshi Ogino, Masashi Kusanaga, Sota Minami, Shinsuke Kumei, Hidehiko Matsuoka, Tatsuyuki Watanabe, Masaaki Hiura, Shintaro Abe, Michihiko Shibata, Masaru Harada
Obesity is a major contributor to insulin resistance and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease, which is the most common cause of chronic liver diseases. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) can progress to liver cirrhosis and end-stage liver diseases. Some cases already show severe liver fibrosis at the time of diagnosis. We present the case of a 44-year-old male with overt obesity who was admitted with hematemesis due to the rupture of gastric varices. We diagnosed him with NASH with severe liver fibrosis. This case shows that we should be concerned about the progression of liver fibrosis due to NASH associated with severe obesity even in young patients...
May 2018: Case Reports in Gastroenterology
Eric R Yoo, Sandy Sallam, Brandon J Perumpail, Umair Iqbal, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by histological evidence of hepatic steatosis, lobular inflammation, ballooning degeneration and hepatic fibrosis in the absence of significant alcohol use and other known causes of chronic liver diseases. NAFLD is subdivided into nonalcoholic fatty liver (NAFL) and nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). NAFL is generally benign but can progress to NASH, which carries a higher risk of adverse outcomes including cirrhosis, end-stage liver disease, hepatocellular carcinoma and death if liver transplantation is not pursued in a timely fashion...
September 30, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
James J Connolly, Kohtaro Ooka, Joseph K Lim
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) results from inflammation and hepatocyte injury in the setting of hepatic steatosis. Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis increases the risk of progression to liver fibrosis and cirrhosis, and is the most rapidly growing etiology for liver failure and indication for liver transplantation in the USA. Weight loss and lifestyle modification remain the standard first-line treatment, as no USA Food and Drug Administration-approved pharmacotherapy currently exists. The past decade has seen an explosion of interest in drug development targeting pathologic pathways in non-alcoholic steatohepatitis, with numerous phase 2 and 3 trials currently in progress...
September 28, 2018: Journal of Clinical and Translational Hepatology
Frank Tacke, Ralf Weiskirchen
Chronic injury to the liver, such as viral hepatitis, alcoholism, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) or nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), promotes extracellular matrix deposition and organ scarring, termed hepatic fibrosis. Fibrosis might progress to cirrhosis and predisposes to hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), but is also associated with extrahepatic morbidity and mortality in NAFLD/NASH. The improved understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying chronic inflammation and fibrogenesis in the liver prompted recent advances in antifibrotic therapies...
September 27, 2018: Expert Review of Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Laurence Poekes, Justine Gillard, Geoffrey C Farrell, Yves Horsmans, Isabelle A Leclercq
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the form of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease that can evolve into cirrhosis. Lifestyle modifications achieving 10% weight loss reverse NASH, but there are no effective approved drug treatments. We previously identified defective adaptive thermogenesis as a factor contributing to metabolic syndrome and hepatic steatosis. We have now tested whether increasing nonshivering thermogenesis can improve preexisting NASH in mice. In high-fat diet-fed foz/foz mice with established NASH, treatment with β3AR agonist restored brown adipose tissue (BAT) function, decreased body weight, improved glucose tolerance, and reduced hepatic lipid content compared to untreated counterparts, but had no impact on liver inflammation or on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease activity score (NAS)...
September 26, 2018: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
Robert F Schwabe, Tom Luedde
Cell death represents a basic biological paradigm that governs outcomes and long-term sequelae in almost every hepatic disease condition. Acute liver failure is characterized by massive loss of parenchymal cells but is usually followed by restitution ad integrum. By contrast, cell death in chronic liver diseases often occurs at a lesser extent but leads to long-term alterations in organ architecture and function, contributing to chronic hepatocyte turnover, the recruitment of immune cells and activation of hepatic stellate cells...
September 24, 2018: Nature Reviews. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
Umair Iqbal, Brandon J Perumpail, Nimy John, Sandy Sallam, Neha D Shah, Waiyee Kwong, George Cholankeril, Donghee Kim, Aijaz Ahmed
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common cause of chronic liver disease in the Western world. NAFLD encompasses a spectrum of histological features, including steatosis, steatohepatitis with balloon degeneration, and hepatic fibrosis leading to cirrhosis. In patients with advanced liver damage, NAFLD is associated with an increased risk of hepatocellular carcinoma. Diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and dyslipidemia are components of metabolic syndrome and are commonly associated with NAFLD...
September 24, 2018: Diseases (Basel)
Eman M Hasan, Rasha A Abd Al Aziz, Dina Sabry, Samar K Darweesh, Hedy A Badary, Aisha Elsharkawy, Mahmood M Abouelkhair, Ayman Yosry
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Various genetic polymorphisms play a key-role in the pathogenesis of NAFLD and progression to NASH with fibrosis to cirrhosis. We aimed to study the association between single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in NNMT gene, namely rs694539 and the development of different stages of NAFLD diagnosed by controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) of FibroScan Echosens®. METHODS: Transient elastography (FibroScan®) with controlled attenuation parameter (CAP) measurement was performed in 81 NAFLD patients (35 of them with liver biopsy) and 80 non-NAFLD controls...
September 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal and Liver Diseases: JGLD
Mayra Domínguez-Pérez, Arturo Simoni-Nieves, Patricia Rosales, Natalia Nuño-Lámbarri, Mónica Rosas-Lemus, Verónica Souza, Roxana U Miranda, Leticia Bucio, Salvador Uribe Carvajal, Jens U Marquardt, Daekwan Seo, Luis E Gomez-Quiroz, María Concepción Gutiérrez-Ruiz
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) encompasses a broad spectrum of histopathological changes ranging from non-inflammatory intracellular fat deposition to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), which may progress into hepatic fibrosis, cirrhosis, or hepatocellular carcinoma. Recent data suggest that impaired hepatic cholesterol homeostasis and its accumulation are relevant to the pathogenesis of NAFLD/NASH. Despite a vital physiological function of cholesterol, mitochondrial dysfunction is an important consequence of dietary-induced hypercholesterolemia and was, subsequently, linked to many pathophysiological conditions...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Meron Tesfay, W Joseph Goldkamp, Brent A Neuschwander-Tetri
Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is a common cause of chronic liver disease that can progress to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. This review provides brief answers to common questions clinicians may have about NASH. The diagnosis of NASH currently requires a liver biopsy, although non-invasive tests are being evaluated and may supplant liver biopsy in the near future. Treatment is focused on lifestyle modifications, with new medications currently in clinical trials.
May 2018: Missouri Medicine
Dhadhang Wahyu Kurniawan, Arun Kumar Jajoriya, Garima Dhawan, Divya Mishra, Josepmaria Argemi, Ramon Bataller, Gert Storm, Durga Prasad Mishra, Jai Prakash, Ruchi Bansal
Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH) is the leading cause of cirrhosis worldwide and the most rapidly growing indication for liver transplantation. Macrophages are the important cellular component in the inflammatory milieu in NASH. Inflammatory and pro-fibrotic mediators produced by macrophages causes significant tissue injury in many inflammatory diseases. Therefore, inhibition of the inflammatory macrophages would be a promising approach to attenuate NASH. In this study, we studied the implication of SYK pathway in NASH, and investigated PLGA nanoparticles-based delivery of SYK pathway inhibitor as an effective and promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of NASH...
October 28, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
Kook Hwan Kim, Myung-Shik Lee
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is an emerging global health problem and a potential risk factor for type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and chronic kidney disease. Nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), an advanced form of NAFLD, is a predisposing factor for development of cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. The increasing prevalence of NASH emphasizes the need for novel therapeutic approaches. Although therapeutic drugs against NASH are not yet available, fundamental insights into the pathogenesis of NASH have been made during the past few decades...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
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