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Primate behavior

Takashi Handa, Akichika Mikami
Human and non-human primates can readily perceive the shape of objects using visual motion. Classically, shape and motion are considered to be separately processed via ventral and dorsal cortical pathways, respectively. However, many lines of anatomical and physiological evidence have indicated that these two pathways are likely to be interconnected at some stage. For motion-defined shape perception, these two pathways should interact with each other because the ventral pathway must utilize motion, which the dorsal pathway processes, to extract shape signal...
August 17, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Nicola Disma, James D O'Leary, Andreas W Loepke, Ansgar M Brambrink, Karin Becke, Nicola G Clausen, Jurgen C De Graaff, Fang Liu, Tom G Hansen, Mary E McCann, Cynthia F Salorio, Sulpicio Soriano, Lena S Sun, Peter Szmuk, David O Warner, Laszlo Vutskits, Andrew J Davidson
All commonly used general anesthetics have been shown to cause neurotoxicity in animal models, including nonhuman primates. Opinion, however, remains divided over how cumulative evidence from preclinical and human studies in this field should be interpreted and its translation to current practices in pediatric anesthesia and surgery. A group of international experts in laboratory and clinical sciences recently convened in Genoa, Italy, to evaluate the current state of both laboratory and clinical research and discuss future directions for basic, translational, and clinical studies in this field...
August 16, 2018: Paediatric Anaesthesia
Shyam Sundhar Bale, Jeffrey T Borenstein
Animal models such as rats and primates provide body-wide information for drug and metabolite responses, including organ-specific toxicity and any unforeseen side effects on other organs. While effective in the drug screening process, their translatability to humans is limited due to the lack of high concordance and correlation between enzymatic mechanisms, cellular mechanisms and resulting toxicities. A significant mode of failure for safety prediction in drug screening is hepatotoxicity, resulting in ~30% of all safety-related drug failures and withdrawals from the market...
August 16, 2018: Drug Metabolism and Disposition: the Biological Fate of Chemicals
Sam George Bradley Roberts, Anna Ilona Roberts
The challenges of life in complex social groups may select for complex communication to regulate interactions among conspecifics. Whereas the association between social living and vocalizations has been explored in nonhuman primates, great apes also have a rich repertoire of gestures, and how the complexity of gestural communication relates to sociality is still unclear. We used social network analysis to examine the relationship between the duration of time pairs of chimpanzees spent in proximity (within 10 m) and the rates of gestural communication accompanied by visual attention of the signaler, one-to-one calls, indicative gestures (collectively self-relevance cues), and synchronized pant-hoot calls...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Comparative Psychology
Rossella Cirillo, Lorenzo Ferrucci, Encarni Marcos, Stefano Ferraina, Aldo Genovesio
Representing others' intentions is central to primate social life. We explored the role of dorsal premotor cortex (PMd) in discriminating between self and others' behavior while two male rhesus monkeys performed a non-match-to-goal task in a monkey-human paradigm. During each trial, two of four potential targets were randomly presented on the right and left parts of a screen, and the monkey or the human was required to choose the one that did not match the previously chosen target. Each agent had to monitor the other's action in order to select the correct target in that agent's own turn...
August 14, 2018: Cell Reports
Adam C Pallus, Mark M G Walton, Michael J Mustari
Infantile strabismus is a common disorder, characterized by a chronic misalignment of the eyes, impairment of binocular vision, and oculomotor abnormalities. Nonhuman primates with strabismus, induced in infancy, show a pattern of abnormalities similar to those of strabismic children. This allows strabismic nonhuman primates to serve as an ideal animal model to examine neural mechanisms associated with aberrant oculomotor behavior. Here, we test the hypothesis that impairment of disparity vergence and horizontal saccade disconjugacy in exotropia and esotropia are associated with disrupted tuning of near and far response neurons in the supraoculomotor area (SOA)...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Yi Ren, Kang Huang, Songtao Guo, Ruliang Pan, Dunn W Derek, Xiaoguang Qi, Xiaowei Wang, Chengliang Wang, Haitao Zhao, Bin Yang, Fangfang Li, Baoguo Li
In social mammals, kinship is an important factor that often affects the interactions among individuals within groups. In primates that live in a multilevel society, kinship may affect affiliative patterns between individuals at different scales within the larger group. For this study, we use field observations and molecular methods to reveal the profiles of how kinship affects affiliative behaviors between individuals in a breeding band of wild golden snub-nosed monkeys ( Rhinopithecus roxellana ). We use a novel nonparametric test, the partition Mantel test, to measure independently the correlation between kinship and each of three affiliative behaviors...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Yufang Yang, Mo Wang, Ping Yang, Zishan Wang, Li Huang, Jing Xu, Wei Wang, Mei Yu, Liping Bu, Jian Fei, Fang Huang
Background : The deposition of β-sheet rich amyloid in senile plaques is a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is thought to cause neuronal dysfunction. Previous studies have strongly implicated that intracerebral infusion of brain extract containing aggregated β-amyloid (Aβ) is able to induce cerebral amyloidosis thus causing neuronal damage and clinical abnormalities in rodents and nonhuman primates, which are reminiscent of a prion-like mechanism. Prion disease has been documented in cases of prion-contaminated food consumption...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Lynea R Witczak, Emilio Ferrer, Karen L Bales
Coordination of oxytocin (OT) activity and partner interactions is important for the facilitation and maintenance of monogamous pair bonds. We used coppery titi monkeys (Callicebus cupreus) to identify the effects of male aggressive temperament on OT activity, affiliative partner-directed behaviors, aggressive partner-directed behaviors, anxiety-related behaviors, and hormone-behavior interactions. We used a mirror technique, simulating an intruder in the home territory of pairs to elicit behavioral responses, and quantified behaviors using an established ethogram...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Erin L Kinnally, Mireille N Gonzalez, John P Capitanio
The effects of early stress may not be limited to the exposed generation, but are sometimes passed on to subsequent generations. Such non-genetic transgenerational inheritance is a potentially important developmental and evolutionary force. We compared the transgenerational effects of maternal and paternal line early stress on anxiety- and health-related traits in three non-exposed generations (F1, F2 and F3) of semi-naturalistically raised rhesus macaques. As infants, F0 macaques were exposed to nursery rearing (NR) or semi-naturalistic social conditions (CONTROL)...
August 13, 2018: Developmental Psychobiology
Maude Beaudoin-Gobert, Elise Météreau, Sandra Duperrier, Stéphane Thobois, Léon Tremblay, Véronique Sgambato
BACKGROUND: Dopaminergic and serotonergic degenerations alter pharmacological neurotransmission and structural markers in Parkinson's disease (PD). Alteration of diffusion measures in key brain regions depict MPTP/MDMA lesions in the monkey model of PD. Whether dopatherapy impacts such diffusion measures remains an open question. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate the consequences of L-DOPA treatment on diffusion alterations, PET imaging and immunohistochemical markers in MPTP/MDMA-intoxicated monkeys...
August 10, 2018: NeuroImage
James K Rilling, Martijn P van den Heuvel
A connectome is a comprehensive map of neural connections of a species nervous system. While recent work has begun comparing connectomes across a wide breadth of species, we present here a more detailed and specific comparison of connectomes across the primate order. Long-range connections are thought to improve communication efficiency and thus brain function but are costly in terms of energy and space utilization. Methods for measuring connectivity in the brain include measuring white matter volume, histological cell counting, anatomical tract tracing, diffusion-weighted imaging and tractography, and functional connectivity in MRI...
2018: Brain, Behavior and Evolution
Jan Zimmermann, Paul W Glimcher, Kenway Louie
Adaptation is a fundamental process crucial for the efficient coding of sensory information. Recent evidence suggests that similar coding principles operate in decision-related brain areas, where neural value coding adapts to recent reward history. However, the circuit mechanism for value adaptation is unknown, and the link between changes in adaptive value coding and choice behavior is unclear. Here we show that choice behavior in nonhuman primates varies with the statistics of recent rewards. Consistent with efficient coding theory, decision-making shows increased choice sensitivity in lower variance reward environments...
August 10, 2018: Nature Communications
Tatiana A Shnitko, Steven W Gonzales, Kathleen A Grant
Chronic alcohol abuse is frequently considered a habitual or inflexible behavior; however, measures of pre-existing cognitive flexibility prior to initiation of alcohol use are usually not available. This study used rhesus monkeys and an attentional set-shifting task to investigate whether pre-existing cognitive flexibility would predict increased risk for heavy alcohol drinking. As previously reported, monkeys were given 30 daily set-shifting sessions prior to alcohol access. These sessions consisted of the same sequence of eight unique visual discriminations (sets) of two objects that varied on two dimensions (shapes and colors)...
April 25, 2018: Alcohol
Lesley J Rogers
This chapter examines the importance of studying hand preference together with different expressions of behavior. Cognitive differences between left- and right-handed primates are discussed. As shown in several species of primate, eye preference, but not hand preference, is biased at the level of the population and reflects hemispheric asymmetry of processing. Hand preference, determined from simple grasping of pieces of food and taking them to the mouth, is consistent for individuals but it is not population biased...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Karina Karenina, Andrey Giljov
Findings on nonprimate mammals place the issue of mother-infant lateralized relations in a broader context, demonstrating that humans are one of many species showing this feature. The remarkable interspecies consistency in the direction of lateralization points to a continuity between lateralized mother-infant interactions in primates and nonprimate mammals and suggests ancient evolutionary roots of human cradling bias. The results from species which, in contrast to primates, have no direct involvement of forelimbs in mother-infant spatial interactions clearly support the perceptual origin of this type of lateralization...
2018: Progress in Brain Research
Dionisios Youlatos, Dimitra Moussa, Nikolaos-Evangelos Karantanis, Leszek Rychlik
Debates on early euprimate evolution are related to the understanding of the ecological context that promoted their unique adaptations. Currently, these discussions mainly revolve around the habitual use of the small-branch niche or the frequent utilization of wider, and probably, strongly inclined substrates by euprimate ancestors. The current fossil evidence implies a diversity of arboreal quadrupedal behaviors for these early euprimates, associated with the use of various types of substrates. However, inferring the positional behavior of early euprimates based exclusively on fossils fails to unravel the positional flexibility in terms of modes and substrate use, which is important for understanding key adaptations related to limb postures...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Human Evolution
Niansheng Ju, Rundong Jiang, Stephen L Macknik, Susana Martinez-Conde, Shiming Tang
Whereas optogenetic techniques have proven successful in their ability to manipulate neuronal populations-with high spatial and temporal fidelity-in species ranging from insects to rodents, significant obstacles remain in their application to nonhuman primates (NHPs). Robust optogenetics-activated behavior and long-term monitoring of target neurons have been challenging in NHPs. Here, we present a method for all-optical interrogation (AOI), integrating optical stimulation and simultaneous two-photon (2P) imaging of neuronal populations in the primary visual cortex (V1) of awake rhesus macaques...
August 8, 2018: PLoS Biology
Maureen S McCarthy, Marie-Lyne Després-Einspenner, Liran Samuni, Roger Mundry, Sylvain Lemoine, Anna Preis, Roman M Wittig, Christophe Boesch, Hjalmar S Kühl
Demographic factors can strongly influence patterns of behavioral variation in animal societies. Traditionally, these factors are measured using longitudinal observation of habituated social groups, particularly in social animals like primates. Alternatively, noninvasive biomonitoring methods such as camera trapping can allow researchers to assess species occupancy, estimate population abundance, and study rare behaviors. However, measures of fine-scale demographic variation, such as those related to age and sex structure or subgrouping patterns, pose a greater challenge...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
Masaki Isoda, Atsushi Noritake, Taihei Ninomiya
This paper reviews the literature on social neuroscience studies using macaques in the hope of encouraging as many researchers as possible to participate in this field of research and thereby accelerate the system-level understanding of social cognition and behavior. We describe how different parts of the primate brain are engaged in different aspects of social information processing, with particular emphasis on the use of experimental paradigms involving more than one monkey in laboratory settings. The description begins with how individual neurons are used for evaluating socially relevant information, such as the identity, face, and focus of attention of others in various social contexts...
2018: Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, Physical and Biological Sciences
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