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Primate behavior

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317556/atlantic-primates-a-dataset-of-communities-and-occurrences-of-primates-in-the-atlantic-forests-of-south-america
#1
Laurence Culot, Lucas Augusto Pereira, Ilaria Agostini, Marco Antônio Barreto de Almeida, Rafael Souza Cruz Alves, Izar Aximoff, Alex Bager, María Celia Baldovino, Thiago Ribas Bella, Júlio César Bicca-Marques, Caryne Braga, Carlos Rodrigo Brocardo, Ana Kellen Nogueira Campelo, Gustavo R Canale, Jader da Cruz Cardoso, Eduardo Carrano, Diogo Cavenague Casanova, Camila Righetto Cassano, Erika Castro, Jorge José Cherem, Adriano Garcia Chiarello, Braz Antonio Pereira Cosenza, Rodrigo Costa-Araújo, Nilmara Cristina da Silva, Mario S Di Bitetti, Aluane Silva Ferreira, Priscila Coutinho Ribas Ferreira, Marcos de S Fialho, Lisieux Franco Fuzessy, Guilherme Siniciato Terra Garbino, Francini de Oliveira Garcia, Cassiano A F R Gatto, Carla Cristina Gestich, Pablo Rodrigues Gonçalves, Nila Rássia Costa Gontijo, Maurício Eduardo Graipel, Carlos Eduardo Guidorizzi, Robson Odeli Espíndola Hack, Gabriela Pacheco Hass, Renato Richard Hilário, André Hirsch, Ingrid Holzmann, Daniel Henrique Homem, Hilton Entringer Júnior, Gilberto Sabino-Santos Júnior, Maria Cecília Martins Kierulff, Christoph Knogge, Fernando Lima, Elson Fernandes de Lima, Cristiana Saddy Martins, Adriana Almeida de Lima, Alexandre Martins, Waldney Pereira Martins, Fabiano R de Melo, Ricardo Melzew, João Marcelo Deliberador Miranda, Flávia Miranda, Andréia Magro Moraes, Tainah Cruz Moreira, Maria Santina de Castro Morini, Mariana B Nagy-Reis, Luciana Oklander, Leonardo de Carvalho Oliveira, Adriano Pereira Paglia, Anderson Pagoto, Marcelo Passamani, Fernando de Camargo Passos, Carlos A Peres, Michell Soares de Campos Perine, Míriam Plaza Pinto, Antonio Rossano Mendes Pontes, Marcio Port Carvalho, Bárbara Heliodora Soares do Prado, André Luis Regolin, Gabriela Cabral Rezende, Alessandro Rocha, Joedison Dos S Rocha, Raisa Reis de Paula Rodarte, Lilian Patrícia Sales, Edmilson Dos Santos, Paloma Marques Santos, Christine Steiner São Bernardo, Ricardo Sartorello, Leonardo La Serra, Eleonore Setz, Anne Sophie de Almeida E Silva, Leonardo Henrique da Silva, Pedro Bencke Ermel da Silva, Maurício Silveira, Rebecca L Smith, Sara Machado de Souza, Ana Carolina Srbek-Araujo, Leonardo Carreira Trevelin, Claudio Valladares Padua, Luciana Zago, Eduardo Marques, Stephen Francis Ferrari, Raone Beltrão-Mendes, Denison José Henz, Francys E da Veiga da Costa, Igor Kintopp Ribeiro, Lucas Lacerda Toth Quintilham, Marcos Dums, Pryscilla Moura Lombardi, Renata Twardowsky Ramalho Bonikowski, Stéfani Gabrieli Age, João Pedro Souza-Alves, Renata Chagas, Rogério Grassetto Teixeira da Cunha, Monica Mafra Valença-Montenegro, Gabriela Ludwig, Leandro Jerusalinsky, Gerson Buss, Renata Bocorny de Azevedo, Roberio Freire Filho, Felipe Bufalo, Louis Milhe, Mayara Mulato Dos Santos, Raíssa Sepulvida, Daniel da Silva Ferraz, Michel Barros Faria, Milton Cezar Ribeiro, Mauro Galetti
Primates play an important role in ecosystem functioning and offer critical insights into human evolution, biology, behavior, and emerging infectious diseases. There are 26 primate species in the Atlantic Forests of South America, 19 of them endemic. We compiled a dataset of 5,472 georeferenced locations of 26 native and 1 introduced primate species, as hybrids in the genera Callithrix and Alouatta. The dataset includes 700 primate communities, 8,121 single species occurrences and 714 estimates of primate population sizes, covering most natural forest types of the tropical and subtropical Atlantic Forest of Brazil, Paraguay and Argentina and some other biomes...
October 13, 2018: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315635/trabecular-bone-structural-variation-in-the-proximal-sacrum-among-primates
#2
Gabrielle A Russo
The sacrum occupies a functionally important anatomical position as part of the pelvic girdle and vertebral column. Sacral orientation and external morphology in modern humans are distinct from that in other primates and compatible with the demands of habitual bipedal locomotion. Among nonhuman primates, however, the relationship between external sacral morphology and positional behaviors is less clear. As an alternative to evaluation of the sacrum's external morphology, this study assesses if the sacrum's internal morphology differs among extant primates...
October 13, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312959/a-video-driven-model-of-response-statistics-in-the-primate-middle-temporal-area
#3
Omid Rezai, Pinar Boyraz Jentsch, Bryan Tripp
Neurons in the primate middle temporal area (MT) encode information about visual motion and binocular disparity. MT has been studied intensively for decades, so there is a great deal of information in the literature about MT neuron tuning. In this study, our goal is to consolidate some of this information into a statistical model of the MT population response. The model accepts arbitrary stereo video as input. It uses computer-vision methods to calculate known correlates of the responses (such as motion velocity), and then predicts activity using a combination of tuning functions that have previously been used to describe data in various experiments...
September 21, 2018: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30312525/postcranial-skeletal-differences-in-free-range-and-captive-born-primates
#4
Luci Ann P Kohn, Gabriele R Lubach
Skeletal morphology is important in evolutionary, genetic, developmental, physiological and functional studies. While samples from free-ranging individuals may be preferable, constraints of sample size, demography, or conservation status may necessitate the inclusion of captive-born individuals. Captivity may be associated with physical, physiological or behavioral differences that may affect skeletal form. This study assesses differences in postcranial skeletal form between free-range and captive-born Macaca mulatta and Saguinus oedipus...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307650/disturbance-of-approach-avoidance-behaviors-in-non-human-primates-by-stimulation-of-the-limbic-territories-of-basal-ganglia-and-anterior-insula
#5
Yosuke Saga, Christian C Ruff, Tremblay Léon
The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in motivation and goal-directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that limbic territories of BG not only support reward seeking (appetitive approach) but also the encoding of aversive conditioned stimuli (CS) and the production of aversive-related behaviors (avoidance or escape). This study aimed to identify inside two BG nuclei, the Striatum and Pallidum, the territories involved in aversive behaviors and to compare the effects of stimulating these territories to those resulting from stimulation of the anterior Insula (aIns), a region that is well known to be involved in aversive encoding and associated behaviors...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307634/foraging-strategies-underlying-bird-egg-predation-by-macaques-a-study-using-artificial-nests
#6
Olivier Kaisin, Eva Gazagne, Tommaso Savini, Marie-Claude Huynen, Fany Brotcorne
Bird egg predation is widespread in non-human primates. Although nest predation is often described as opportunistic, little is known about foraging strategies and nest detection in primates. Since it is the prevalent cause of nest failure in the tropics, birds select nest sites within specific microhabitats and use different nest types to increase nesting success. Identifying the nests targeted by the northern pigtailed macaques (Macaca leonina), an omnivorous cercopithecine species, and known nest predator, will shine light on nest foraging strategies in primates...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307631/seasonal-changes-in-social-cohesion-among-males-in-a-same-sex-primate-group
#7
Pingfen Zhu, Cyril C Grueter, Paul A Garber, Dayong Li, Zuofu Xiang, Baoping Ren, Ming Li
Male-male interactions in mixed-sex groups of social mammals are typically characterized by a mix of hostility and affiliation, as a result of inherent conflicts over mating opportunities, and the costs and benefits of social alliances, co-operative behaviors, and coalitionary defense. In species of nonhuman primates that form all-male groups, it is still unclear how the tradeoffs between the benefits of forming an all-male group and the cost of male-male competition in seeking mating opportunities with females in bisexual groups influence social cohesion in different seasons...
October 11, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30307494/trajectories-and-milestones-of-cortical-and-subcortical-development-of-the-marmoset-brain-from-infancy-to-adulthood
#8
S J Sawiak, Y Shiba, L Oikonomidis, C P Windle, A M Santangelo, H Grydeland, G Cockcroft, E T Bullmore, A C Roberts
With increasing attention on the developmental causes of neuropsychiatric disorders, appropriate animal models are crucial to identifying causes and assessing potential interventions. The common marmoset is an ideal model as it has sophisticated social/emotional behavior, reaching adulthood within 2 years of birth. Magnetic resonance imaging was used in an accelerated longitudinal cohort (n = 41; aged 3-27 months; scanned 2-7 times over 2 years). Splines were used to model nonlinear trajectories of grey matter volume development in 53 cortical areas and 16 subcortical nuclei...
October 11, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30298460/low-ranking-individuals-present-high-and-unstable-fecal-cortisol-levels-in-provisioned-free-ranging-adult-male-rhesus-macaques-macaca-mulatta-during-the-birth-season-in-a-mountain-area-of-northern-china
#9
Shiqiang Zhang, Zhenwei Cui, Yifeng Zhang, Baishi Wang, Meilin Zhu, Jiqi Lu, Zhenlong Wang
Social hierarchy commonly exists in animal societies, affecting both the endocrine functioning and the behavior of animals. In nonhuman primates, the relationship between social rank and cortisol levels varies across species and even within species. Here, we assessed the relationships between social rank and fecal cortisol levels in adult male Taihangshan macaques (rhesus macaques, Macaca mulatta tcheliensis) from the provisioned, free-ranging Wulongkou-2 (WLK-2) group inhabiting Wulongkou Scenic Area, Jiyuan, China...
October 8, 2018: Primates; Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30297792/cortical-visual-processing-evokes-short-latency-reward-predicting-cue-responses-in-primate-midbrain-dopamine-neurons
#10
Norihiro Takakuwa, Peter Redgrave, Tadashi Isa
After classical conditioning dopamine (DA) neurons exhibit short latency responses to reward-predicting visual cues. At least two possible projections could induce such DA responses; the cortical and subcortical visual pathways. Our recent study has shown that after a lesion of the striate cortex (V1), the superior colliculus (SC), a critical node of the subcortical visual pathway, can mediate short latency cue responses in the DA neurons of macaque monkeys. An obvious question then is does the cortical pathway have a similar capacity? Using the monkeys with a unilateral V1 lesion that took part in the preceding study, we recorded DA activity while they were performing the same classical conditioning task...
October 8, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30295562/chimpanzee-cooperation-is-fast-and-independent-from-self-control
#11
Alexandra G Rosati, Lauren M DiNicola, Joshua W Buckholtz
Large-scale cooperation is a hallmark of our species and appears to be unique among primates. Yet the evolutionary mechanisms that drove the emergence of humanlike patterns of cooperation remain unclear. Studying the cognitive processes underlying cooperative behavior in apes, our closest living relatives, can help identify these mechanisms. Accordingly, we employed a novel test battery to assess the willingness of 40 chimpanzees to donate resources, instrumentally help others, and punish a culpable thief. We found that chimpanzees were faster to make prosocial than selfish choices and that more prosocial individuals made the fastest responses...
October 8, 2018: Psychological Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30282695/huntingtin-suppression-restores-cognitive-function-in-a-mouse-model-of-huntington-s-disease
#12
Amber L Southwell, Holly B Kordasiewicz, Douglas Langbehn, Niels H Skotte, Matthew P Parsons, Erika B Villanueva, Nicholas S Caron, Michael E Østergaard, Lisa M Anderson, Yuanyun Xie, Louisa Dal Cengio, Hailey Findlay-Black, Crystal N Doty, Bethany Fitsimmons, Eric E Swayze, Punit P Seth, Lynn A Raymond, C Frank Bennett, Michael R Hayden
Huntington's disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative disorder caused by a mutation in the huntingtin (HTT) protein, resulting in acquisition of toxic functions. Previous studies have shown that lowering mutant HTT has the potential to be broadly beneficial. We previously identified HTT single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) tightly linked to the HD mutation and developed antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) targeting HD-SNPs that selectively suppress mutant HTT. We tested allele-specific ASOs in a mouse model of HD...
October 3, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281820/opportunities-and-challenges-for-intranasal-oxytocin-treatment-studies-in-nonhuman-primates
#13
Melissa D Bauman, Takeshi Murai, Casey E Hogrefe, Michael L Platt
Nonhuman primates provide a human-relevant experimental model system to explore the mechanisms by which oxytocin (OT) regulates social processing and inform its clinical applications. Here, we highlight contributions of the nonhuman primate model to our understanding of OT treatment and address unique challenges in administering OT to awake behaving primates. Prior preclinical research utilizing macaque monkeys has demonstrated that OT can modulate perception of other individuals and their expressions, attention to others, imitation, vigilance to social threats, and prosocial decisions...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281817/scars-on-plants-sourced-for-termite-fishing-tools-by-chimpanzees-towards-an-archaeology-of-the-perishable
#14
Alejandra Pascual-Garrido
Chimpanzees are well-studied, but raw material acquisition for tool use is still poorly understood as sources are difficult to trace. This study pioneers the use of information that can be gleaned from plant scars made by chimpanzees while they source vegetation parts to manufacture termite fishing tools. Source plant species, raw material types and locations relative to targeted termite mounds were recorded for populations at Gombe, Issa, and Mahale in western Tanzania. Recovered bark, twig, and vine tools were traced to 29 plant species, while grass sources were indeterminable...
September 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30281814/oxytocin-vasopressin-and-primate-behavior-diversity-and-insight
#15
Sara M Freeman, Karen L Bales
It has become increasingly clear that the nonapeptide hormones oxytocin and vasopressin have more diverse behavioral and physiological effects across species and across individuals than was initially recognized. To reflect this variation, we would like to introduce our Special Issue, entitled Oxytocin and Vasopressin in Primate Behavior, by celebrating the diversity that is found across the articles within it. While every article directly addresses the topic of this Special Issue, they also vary in many characteristics: the species studied, the methods used, and the perspectives taken...
October 3, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30271333/neural-activity-predicts-reaction-in-primates-long-before-a-behavioral-response
#16
Mohsen Parto Dezfouli, Mohammad Bagher Khamechian, Stefan Treue, Moein Esghaei, Mohammad Reza Daliri
How neural activity is linked to behavior is a critical question in neural engineering and cognitive neurosciences. It is crucial to predict behavior as early as possible, to plan a machine response in real-time brain computer interactions. However, previous studies have studied the neural readout of behavior only within a short time before the action is performed. This leaves unclear, if the neural activity long before a decision could predict the upcoming behavior. By recording extracellular neural activities from the visual cortex of behaving rhesus monkeys, we show that: (1) both, local field potentials (LFPs) and the rate of neural spikes long before (>2 s) a monkey responds to a change, foretell its behavioral performance in a spatially selective manner; (2) LFPs, the more accessible component of extracellular activity, are a stronger predictor of behavior; and (3) LFP amplitude is positively correlated while spiking activity is negatively correlated with behavioral reaction time (RT)...
2018: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30266152/a-dynamical-systems-perspective-on-flexible-motor-timing
#17
REVIEW
Evan D Remington, Seth W Egger, Devika Narain, Jing Wang, Mehrdad Jazayeri
A hallmark of higher brain function is the ability to rapidly and flexibly adjust behavioral responses based on internal and external cues. Here, we examine the computational principles that allow decisions and actions to unfold flexibly in time. We adopt a dynamical systems perspective and outline how temporal flexibility in such a system can be achieved through manipulations of inputs and initial conditions. We then review evidence from experiments in nonhuman primates that support this interpretation. Finally, we explore the broader utility and limitations of the dynamical systems perspective as a general framework for addressing open questions related to the temporal control of movements, as well as in the domains of learning and sequence generation...
October 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30264490/observational-fear-behavior-in-rodents-as-a-model-for-empathy
#18
REVIEW
Arie Kim, Sehoon Keum, Hee-Sup Shin
Empathy enables social mammals to recognize and share emotion with others and is well-documented in non-human primates. During the past few years, systematic observations have revealed that a primal form of empathy also exists in rodents, indicating that empathy has an evolutionary continuity. Now, using rodents exhibiting emotional empathy, the molecular and cellular study of empathy in animals has begun in earnest. In this article, we will review recent reports that indicate that rodents can share states of fear with others, and will try to highlight new understandings of the neural circuitry, biochemistry, and genetics of empathic fear...
September 28, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30261208/the-oxytocin-system-of-mice-and-men-similarities-and-discrepancies-of-oxytocinergic-modulation-in-rodents-and-primates
#19
REVIEW
Ferdinand Althammer, Gustav Jirikowski, Valery Grinevich
Nonapeptides and their respective receptors have been conserved throughout evolution and display astonishing similarities among the animal kingdom. They can be found in worms, birds, fish, amphibians, reptiles and mammals, including rodents, non-human primates and humans. In particular, the neuropeptide oxytocin (OT) has attracted the attention of scientists due to its profound effects on social behavior. However, although both the neuropeptide and its receptor are identical in rodents and primates, the effects of OT vary greatly in the two species...
September 24, 2018: Peptides
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252081/a-single-pheromone-receptor-gene-conserved-across-400-million-years-of-vertebrate-evolution
#20
Hikoyu Suzuki, Hidefumi Nishida, Hiro Kondo, Ryota Yoda, Tetsuo Iwata, Kanako Nakayama, Takayuki Enomoto, Jiaqi Wu, Keiko Moriya-Ito, Masao Miyazaki, Yoshihiro Wakabayashi, Takushi Kishida, Masataka Okabe, Yutaka Suzuki, Takehiko Ito, Junji Hirota, Masato Nikaido
Pheromones are crucial for eliciting social and sexual behaviors in diverse animal species. The vomeronasal receptor type-1 (V1R) genes, encoding members of a pheromone receptor family are highly variable in number and repertoire among mammals due to extensive gene gain and loss. Here, we report a novel pheromone receptor gene belonging to the V1R family, named ancient V1R (ancV1R), which is shared among most Osteichthyes (bony vertebrates) from the basal lineage of ray-finned fishes to mammals. Phylogenetic and syntenic analyses of ancV1R using 115 vertebrate genomes revealed that it represents an orthologous gene conserved for >400 million years of vertebrate evolution...
September 24, 2018: Molecular Biology and Evolution
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