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Primate behavior

Vanessa A Jimenez, Xiaojie Wang, Natali Newman, Nicole A R Walter, Steven Gonzales, Jamie O Lo, Mathew M Ford, Verginia C Cuzon Carlson, Kathleen A Grant, Christopher D Kroenke
INTRODUCTION: Gestational ethanol exposure is associated with multiple developmental abnormalities, collectively termed fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (FASD). While the majority of women abstain from ethanol following knowledge of pregnancy, one contributing factor to the high FASD prevalence is that pregnancy is not detected until 4-6 weeks. Thus, ethanol consumption continues during the initial stages of fetal development. METHODS: An experimental protocol is described in which rhesus macaques self-administer 1...
December 14, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Valentina Ferretti, Francesco Papaleo
Emotion recognition represents the ability to encode an ensemble of sensory stimuli providing information about the emotional state of another individual. This ability is not unique to humans. An increasing number of studies suggests that many aspects of higher order social functions, including emotion recognition, might be present in species ranging from primates to rodents, indicating a conserved role of these abilities in social animals. The aim of this review is to use a comparative approach to examine how emotions are communicated and perceived in humans and other animals, with the intent to highlight possible new behavioral approaches and research perspectives...
December 13, 2018: Genes, Brain, and Behavior
Simone Sukhdeo, Jacob Parsons, Xiaoyue Maggie Niu, Timothy M Ryan
Trabecular bone structure has been used to investigate the relationship between skeletal form and locomotor behavior on the premise that trabecular bone remodels in response to loading during an animal's lifetime. The aim of this study is to characterize human distal femoral trabecular bone structure in comparison to three non-human primate taxa and relate the patterns of trabecular structural variation in the distal femur to knee posture during habitual locomotor behavior. A whole-epiphysis approach was applied using microCT scans of the distal femora of extant Homo sapiens, Pan troglodytes, Pongo pygmaeus, and Papio spp...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Anne M Burrows, Leanne T Nash, Adam Hartstone-Rose, Mary T Silcox, Sergi López-Torres, Keegan R Selig
Exudativory, the consumption of gums, is an obligate or a facultative dietary niche for some primates and marsupials. Exudativory has been cited as a dietary niche that may have been present in early primates, so finding a dental signature for exudativory is highly desirable. The present study combines exudativorous lorisoids (galagos and lorises) into one sample to compare to closely related, non-exudativorous lorisoids to search for a consistent dental signature of exudativory. Linear measurements were taken from the toothcomb, P2 , M3 , upper canine, and P2 from skulls of 295 adult galagids and lorisids...
December 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Idalia M Yabe, Lauren L Truitt, Diego A Espinoza, Chuanfeng Wu, Samson Koelle, Sandhya Panch, Marcus A F Corat, Thomas Winkler, Kyung-Rok Yu, So Gun Hong, Aylin Bonifacino, Allen Krouse, Mark Metzger, Robert E Donahue, Cynthia E Dunbar
Gene therapies using integrating retrovirus vectors to modify hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells have shown great promise for the treatment of immune system and hematologic diseases. However, activation of proto-oncogenes via insertional mutagenesis has resulted in the development of leukemia. We have utilized cellular bar coding to investigate the impact of different vector designs on the clonal behavior of hematopoietic stem and progenitor cells (HSPCs) during in vivo expansion, as a quantitative surrogate assay for genotoxicity in a non-human primate model with high relevance for human biology...
December 14, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Inge Steuer, Pierre A Guertin
Central pattern generators (CPGs) are generally defined as networks of neurons capable of enabling the production of central commands, specifically controlling stereotyped, rhythmic motor behaviors. Several CPGs localized in brainstem and spinal cord areas have been shown to underlie the expression of complex behaviors such as deglutition, mastication, respiration, defecation, micturition, ejaculation, and locomotion. Their pivotal roles have clearly been demonstrated although their organization and cellular properties remain incompletely characterized...
December 13, 2018: Reviews in the Neurosciences
Tejapratap Bollu, Samuel C Whitehead, Nikil Prasad, Jackson Walker, Nitin Shyamkumar, Raghav Subramaniam, Brian Kardon, Itai Cohen, Jesse Heymann Goldberg
An obstacle to understanding neural mechanisms of movement is the complex, distributed nature of the mammalian motor system. Here we present a novel behavioral paradigm for high-throughput dissection of neural circuits underlying mouse forelimb control. Custom touch-sensing joysticks were used to quantify mouse forelimb trajectories with micron-millisecond spatiotemporal resolution. Joysticks were integrated into computer-controlled, rack-mountable homecages, enabling batches of mice to be trained in parallel...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Matthew B Pomrenze, Jorge Tovar-Diaz, Angelo Blasio, Rajani Maiya, Simone M Giovanetti, Kelly Lei, Hitoshi Morikawa, F Woodward Hopf, Robert O Messing
The central amygdala (CeA) is important for fear responses to discrete cues. Recent findings indicate that the CeA also contributes to states of sustained apprehension that characterize anxiety, although little is known about the neural circuitry involved. The stress neuropeptide corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) is anxiogenic and is produced by subpopulations of neurons in the lateral CeA and the dorsolateral BST (dlBST). Here we investigated the function of these CRF neurons in stress-induced anxiety using chemogenetics in male rats that express Cre recombinase from a Crh promoter...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Rasmus M Birn, Alexander K Converse, Abigail Z Rajala, Andrew L Alexander, Walter F Block, Alan B McMillan, Bradley T Christian, Caitlynn N Filla, Dhanabalan Murali, Samuel A Hurley, Rick L Jenison, Luis C Populin
Dopamine (DA) levels in the striatum are increased by many therapeutic drugs, such as methylphenidate (MPH), which also alters behavioral and cognitive functions thought to be controlled by the prefrontal cortex (PFC) dose-dependently. We linked DA changes and functional connectivity (FC) using simultaneous [18 F]fallypride PET and resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) in awake male rhesus monkeys after oral administration of various doses of MPH. We found a negative correlation between [18 F]fallypride nondisplaceable binding potential (BPND ) and MPH dose in the head of the caudate (hCd), demonstrating increased extracellular DA resulting from MPH administration...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Ioana Carcea, Robert C Froemke
Observational learning occurs when an animal capitalizes on the experience of another to change its own behavior in a given context. This form of learning is an efficient strategy for adapting to changes in environmental conditions, but little is known about the underlying neural mechanisms. There is an abundance of literature supporting observational learning in humans and other primates, and more recent studies have begun documenting observational learning in other species such as birds and rodents. The neural mechanisms for observational learning depend on the species' brain organization and on the specific behavior being acquired...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Neurobiology
Laith Alexander, Philip L R Gaskin, Stephen J Sawiak, Tim D Fryer, Young T Hong, Gemma J Cockcroft, Hannah F Clarke, Angela C Roberts
Anhedonia is a core symptom of depression, but the underlying neurobiological mechanisms are unknown. Correlative neuroimaging studies implicate dysfunction within ventromedial prefrontal cortex, but the causal roles of specific subregions remain unidentified. We addressed these issues by combining intracerebral microinfusions with cardiovascular and behavioral monitoring in marmoset monkeys to show that over-activation of primate subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC, area 25) blunts appetitive anticipatory, but not consummatory, arousal, whereas manipulations of adjacent perigenual ACC (pgACC, area 32) have no effect...
November 30, 2018: Neuron
(no author information available yet)
The APA Awards for Distinguished Scientific Early Career Contributions to Psychology recognize psychologists who have demonstrated excellence early in their careers and have held a doctoral degree for no more than 9 years. One of the 2018 award winners is Eliza Bliss-Moreau, "for innovative contributions to the study of emotion in humans and animals." Her work in nonhuman primates spans behavioral neuroscience, psychophysiology, and evolutionary processes. Bliss-Moreau's award citation, biography, and a selected bibliography are presented here...
December 2018: American Psychologist
Han-Lin Hsieh, Yan Tat Wong, Bijan Pesaran, Maryam M Shanechi
OBJECTIVE: Behavior is encoded across multiple spatiotemporal scales of brain activity. Modern technology can simultaneously record various scales, from spiking of individual neurons to large neural populations measured with field activity. This capability necessitates developing multiscale modeling and decoding algorithms for spike-field activity, which is challenging because of the fundamental differences in statistical characteristics and time-scales of these signals. Spikes are binary-valued with a millisecond time-scale while fields are continuous-valued with slower time-scales...
October 24, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
Paul A Lapchak, Paul D Boitano, Rene Bombien, Douglas J Cook, Sarina Doyan, Jacqueline M Lara, David R Schubert
Ischemic stroke is an acute neurodegenerative disease that is extremely devastating to patients, their families and society. Stroke is inadequately treated even with endovascular procedures and reperfusion therapy. Using an extensive translational screening process, we have developed a pleiotropic cytoprotective agent with the potential to positively impact a large population of brain ischemia patients and revolutionize the process used for the development of new drugs to treat complex brain disorders. In this unique translational study article, we document that the novel curcumin-based compound, CNB-001, when administered as a single intravenous dose, has significant efficacy to attenuate clinically relevant behavioral deficits following ischemic events in agyrencephalic rabbits when administered 1 h post-embolization and reduces infarct growth in gyrencephalic non-human primates, when administered 5 min after initiation of middle cerebral artery occlusion...
December 3, 2018: Experimental Neurology
Samuel U Nummela, Michael J Jutras, John T Wixted, Elizabeth A Buffalo, Cory T Miller
The core functional organization of the primate brain is remarkably conserved across the Order, but behavioral differences evident between species likely reflect derived modifications in the underlying neural processes. Here, we performed the first study to directly compare visual recognition memory in two primate species-rhesus macaques and marmoset monkeys-on the same visual preferential looking task as a first step toward identifying similarities and differences in this cognitive process across the primate phylogeny...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Michael C Granatosky, Daniel Schmitt, Jandy Hanna
During quadrupedal walking, most primates utilize diagonal sequence diagonal couplet gaits, large limb excursions, and hindlimb-biased limb-loading. These gait characteristics are thought to be basal to the Order, but the selective pressure underlying these gait changes remains unknown. Some researchers have examined these characteristics during vertical climbing and propose that primate quadrupedal gait characteristics may have arisen due to the mechanical challenges of moving on vertical supports. Unfortunately, these studies are usually limited in scope and do not account for varying strategies based on body size or phylogeny...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Experimental Biology
Lucas A Stetzik, Alana W Sullivan, Heather B Patisaul, Bruce S Cushing
OBJECTIVE: In this study, empathy is quantified using a novel social test. Empathy and prosocial behavior are linked to the expression of oxytocin in humans and rodent models. Specifically, prosocial behavior in prairie voles (Microtus ochrogaster) has been linked to the expression of oxytocin in the paraventricular nucleus of the hypothalamus. The animal's behavior was considered empathic if it spends significantly more time attempting to remove a loos fitting restraint (tether) from the stimulus animal than time in contact with a, simultaneously presented, non-social object similar to the tether...
December 4, 2018: BMC Research Notes
Muhammad A J Qadri, F Gregory Ashby, J David Smith, Robert G Cook
Categorization is an essential cognitive process useful for transferring knowledge from previous experience to novel situations. The mechanisms by which trained categorization behavior extends to novel stimuli, especially in animals, are insufficiently understood. To understand how pigeons learn and transfer category membership, seven pigeons were trained to classify controlled, bi-dimensional stimuli in a two-alternative forced-choice task. Following either dimensional, rule-based (RB) or information integration (II) training, tests were conducted focusing on the "analogical" extension of the learned discrimination to novel regions of the stimulus space (Casale, Roeder, & Ashby, 2012)...
November 30, 2018: Cognition
Xunxun Chu
Non-human primates have become one of the most important model animals for the investigation of brain diseases because they share a wide-range of genetics and social similarities with human beings. Naturally-evoked depression models in macaques may offer a full spectrum of similarity to human depression states, but they require validation and corroboration of specific phenotypes to depression-associated states before they can be used in research into more effective interventions. It is reported here that depressed cynomolgus monkeys developed in the natural condition display higher levels of typical depressive-like huddling behavior than healthy monkeys...
November 30, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Paula A Pebsworth, Michael A Huffman, Joanna E Lambert, Sera L Young
OBJECTIVES: Geophagy, the intentional consumption of earth, is widely practiced among humans and other mammals, but its causes are not well understood. Given the growing number of reports of geophagy among nonhuman primates (NHP), we sought to (1) advance and codify our understanding of the patterns and functional and evolutionary significance of geophagy among NHP and (2) provide a research agenda for a more unified approach to its study. METHODS: We systematically reviewed all available literature on NHP geophagy, extracted available data on taxa, geography, climate, diet, sex, age-class, reproductive status, and the characteristics of the earth...
December 3, 2018: American Journal of Physical Anthropology
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