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Aalap C Shah, Kevin Ma, David Faraoni, Daniel C S Oh, G Alec Rooke, Gail A Van Norman
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary hypertension (PHTN) is associated with increased post-procedure morbidity and mortality. Pre-procedure echocardiography (ECHO) is a widely used tool for evaluation of these patients, but its accuracy in predicting post-procedure outcomes is unproven. Self-reported exercise tolerance has not been evaluated for operative risk stratification of PHTN patients. OBJECTIVE: We analyzed whether self-reported exercise tolerance predicts outcomes (hospital length-of-stay [LOS], mortality and morbidity) in PHTN patients (WHO Class I-V) undergoing anesthesia and surgery...
2018: PloS One
Sarah T Ridge, Mark T Olsen, Dustin A Bruening, Kevin Jurgensmeier, David Griffin, Irene S Davis, A Wayne Johnson
INTRODUCTION: Weakness of foot muscles may contribute to a variety of loading related injuries. Supportive footwear may contribute to intrinsic foot muscle weakness by reducing the muscles' role in locomotion (e.g. absorbing forces and controlling motion). Increased stimulus to the foot muscles can be provided through a variety of mechanisms, including minimalist footwear and directed exercise. PURPOSE: To determine the effect of walking in minimalist footwear or performing foot strengthening exercises on foot muscle size and strength...
August 15, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Hiroyasu Mori, Yasunobu Tokuda
AIM: To evaluate the effectiveness of a 24-week program of nutritional supplementation using whey protein, ingested after resistance exercise, in increasing muscle mass and physical function among community-dwelling healthy older Japanese women. METHODS: We carried out a randomized controlled trial, with 81 healthy women, aged 65-80 years, allocated to three groups of 27 participants each: the exercise and protein supplementation group, the exercise only group, and the protein supplementation only group...
August 16, 2018: Geriatrics & Gerontology International
Yan Nok Lau, Joseph Ng, Shan Yee Lee, Lam Chin Li, Cheuk Man Kwan, Sin Ming Fan, Bernard Pui Lam Leung, Chi Ngai Lo
BACKGROUND: In rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovitis, activation of synoviocytes and infiltration of adaptive immune cells leads to synovial hyperplasia and joint swelling. Under the elevated extra-neural pressure, free nerve endings release neuropeptides, calcitonin gene-related peptide, and substance P, thus promoting neurogenic inflammation. OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the effect of therapeutic neural mobilization (NM) exercises targeting the nervous system on disease impact in RA patients...
August 15, 2018: Zeitschrift Für Rheumatologie
Colleen M Nevins, Jacqueline Sherman, Keri Canchola, Kalie Ihrig, Brooklyn Steinfeld, William E Wagner
PURPOSE: Health promotion is often neglected by students during their nursing education, yet research indicates that self-care practices can significantly reduce compassion fatigue and burnout. An intervention study investigated strategies to increase exercise and hydration in baccalaureate nursing students. METHOD: Using a convenience sample ( n = 73), data were collected through pre- and postsurveys of nursing students participating in an 8-week period that focused on strategies to increase walking and drinking water...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Holistic Nursing: Official Journal of the American Holistic Nurses' Association
Yeela Ben Naftali, Irit Chermesh, Ido Solt, Yolanda Friedrich, Lior Lowenstein
BACKGROUND: Abnormal gestational weight gain (GWG) has been associated with adverse outcomes for mothers and their offspring. OBJECTIVES: To compare the achievement of recommended GWG and lifestyle factors in women with high-risk versus normal-risk pregnancies. METHODS: Pregnant women hospitalized in a gynecological and obstetrics department and pregnant women who arrived at a community clinic for a routine checkup were interviewed and completed questionnaires relating to weight gain and lifestyle factors (e...
July 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Bhumika Aggarwal, Aruni Mulgirigama, Norbert Berend
Exercise-induced bronchoconstriction (EIB) can occur in individuals with and without asthma, and is prevalent among athletes of all levels. In patients with asthma, symptoms of EIB significantly increase the proportion reporting feelings of fearfulness, frustration, isolation, depression and embarrassment compared with those without symptoms. EIB can also prevent patients with asthma from participating in exercise and negatively impact their quality of life. Diagnosis of EIB is based on symptoms and spirometry or bronchial provocation tests; owing to low awareness of EIB and lack of simple, standardised diagnostic methods, under-diagnosis and mis-diagnosis of EIB are common...
August 14, 2018: NPJ Primary Care Respiratory Medicine
Richard C Blagrove, Kristina M Holding, Stephen D Patterson, Glyn Howatson, Philip R Hayes
OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of performing depth jumps (DJ) pre-exercise on running economy (RE) and time to exhaustion (TTE) at the speed associated with maximal oxygen uptake (sV˙O2max ) in a group of high-performing junior middle-distance runners. DESIGN: Randomized crossover study. METHODS: Seventeen national- and international-standard male distance runners (17.6±1.2years, 63.4±6.3kg, 1.76±0.06m, 70.7±5.2mLkg-1 min-1 ) completed two trials...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Robert M Edinburgh, Aaron Hengist, Harry A Smith, Rebecca L Travers, Francoise Koumanov, James A Betts, Dylan Thompson, Jean-Philippe Walhin, Gareth A Wallis, D Lee Hamilton, Emma J Stevenson, Kevin D Tipton, Javier T Gonzalez
AIMS: To characterize postprandial glucose flux after exercise in the fed versus overnight fasted-state and to investigate potential underlying mechanisms. METHODS: In a randomized order, twelve men underwent breakfast-rest (BR; 3 h semi-recumbent), breakfast-exercise (BE; 2 h semi-recumbent before 60-min of cycling (50% peak power output) and overnight fasted-exercise (FE; as per BE omitting breakfast) trials. An oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT) was completed post-exercise (post-rest on BR)...
August 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Chin-Man Wang, Wann-Yun Shieh, Chan-Shien Ho, Yu-Wei Hu, Yih-Ru Wu
Introduction: The coordination of swallowing and respiration is important for safety swallowing without aspiration. This coordination was affected in Parkinson disease (PD). A noninvasive assessment tool was used to investigate the effect of an easy-to-perform and device-free home-based orolingual exercise (OLE) program on swallowing and respiration coordination in patients with early-stage PD. Materials and Methods: This study had a quasi-experimental before-and-after exercise program design. Twenty six patients with early-stage PD who were aged 62...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Traci L Parry, Joseph W Starnes, Sara K O'Neal, James R Bain, Michael J Muehlbauer, Aubree Honcoop, Amro Ilaiwy, Peter Christopher, Cam Patterson, Monte S Willis
Introduction: The effects of exercise on the heart and its resistance to disease are well-documented. Recent studies have identified that exercise-induced resistance to arrhythmia is due to the preservation of mitochondrial membrane potential. Objectives: To identify novel metabolic changes that occur parallel to these mitochondrial alterations, we performed non-targeted metabolomics analysis on hearts from sedentary and exercise-trained rats challenged with isolated heart ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/R)...
January 2018: Metabolomics: Official Journal of the Metabolomic Society
Nicholas Bott, Shefali Kumar, Caitlyn Krebs, Jordan M Glenn, Erica N Madero, Jessie L Juusola
BACKGROUND: A growing body of evidence supports the use of lifestyle interventions for preventing or delaying the onset of Alzheimer disease and other forms of dementia in at-risk individuals. The development of internet-delivered programs would increase the scalability and reach of these interventions, but requires validation to ensure similar effectiveness to brick-and-mortar options. OBJECTIVE: We describe the study design, recruitment process, and baseline participant characteristics of the sample in the Virtual Cognitive Health (VC Health) study...
August 13, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Ruth Martis, Caroline A Crowther, Emily Shepherd, Jane Alsweiler, Michelle R Downie, Julie Brown
BACKGROUND: Successful treatments for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) have the potential to improve health outcomes for women with GDM and their babies. OBJECTIVES: To provide a comprehensive synthesis of evidence from Cochrane systematic reviews of the benefits and harms associated with interventions for treating GDM on women and their babies. METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (5 January 2018) for reviews of treatment/management for women with GDM...
August 14, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Michael J Duncan, Alexandra P Dobell, Chloe L Caygill, Emma Eyre, Jason Tallis
The current study examined the effect of acute caffeine ingestion on mean and peak power production during upper body Wingate test (WANT) performance, rating of perceived exertion, readiness to invest effort and cognitive performance. Using a double-blind design, 12 males undertook upper body WANTs, following ingestion of caffeine (5 mg*kg-1 ) or placebo. Pre-substance ingestion, 60 mins post substance ingestion and post exercise participants completed measures of readiness to invest physical and mental effort and cognitive performance...
August 13, 2018: European Journal of Sport Science
Alexandra M Coates, Philip J Millar, Jamie F Burr
PURPOSE: Moderate overtraining has been characterized by decreased exercising heart rate (HR) and recently, decreased exercising stroke volume (SV), independent of alterations to blood volume. The aim of this study was to assess changes in arterial stiffness and central hemodynamics, and their relationship to exercising SV, following three weeks of overload training. METHODS: Twenty-six cyclists and triathletes completed 3-weeks of either regular training (CON; n=13) or overload training (OL; n=13)...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Gwenael Layec, Gregory M Blain, Matthew J Rossman, Song Y Park, Corey R Hart, Joel D Trinity, Jayson R Gifford, Simranjit K Sidhu, Joshua C Weavil, Thomas J Hureau, Markus Amann, Russell S Richardson
PURPOSE: The impact of an acute bout of exercise, especially high-intensity exercise, on the function of mitochondrial respiratory complexes is not well understood, with potential implications for both the healthy population and patients undergoing exercise based rehabilitation. Therefore, this study sought to comprehensively examine respiratory flux through the different complexes of the electron transport chain (ETC) in skeletal muscle mitochondria before and immediately after high-intensity aerobic exercise...
August 10, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Nicole H Korman, Shelukumar Shah, Shuichi Suetani, Karen Kendall, Simon Rosenbaum, Frances Dark, Ketevan Nadareishvili, Dan Siskind
Purpose: People with severe mental illness are sedentary, have high cardio-metabolic risks and significantly reduced life expectancy. Despite considerable data regarding positive physical and mental health outcomes following exercise interventions, implementation and evaluation of real-world programs is lacking. The primary aim of this study was to assess the feasibility of an exercise intervention implemented by exercise physiology (EP) students within a residential rehabilitation unit for residents with severe mental illness, together with assessment of a range of secondary physical and mental health outcomes pre- and post- the intervention...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
Florian Azad Engel, Alexander Ackermann, Hamdi Chtourou, Billy Sperlich
Background: High-intensity interval training (HIIT) is as a time-efficient alternative to moderate- or low-intensity continuous exercise for improving variables related to endurance and anaerobic performance in young and adolescent athletes. Objectives: To assess original research about enhancement of endurance and anaerobic exercise performance in young and adolescent athletes performing HIIT. Method: Relevant articles published in peer-reviewed journals were retrieved from the electronic databases PubMed and SPORTDiscus in December 2017...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Yunsuk Koh, Jinkyung Park
Background: An extensive systematic review was undertaken in the current literature in order to explore the role of different types and intensities of exercise in cell adhesion molecules (CAMs), one of the markers of vascular inflammation, endothelial dysfunction, and atherosclerosis. Methods: Twenty-eight qualifying studies were extensively reviewed to examine the effects of different intensities (low-to-moderate vs. high) and types (aerobic vs. resistance) of exercise on intercellular adhesion molecule-1, vascular cell adhesion molecule-1, and selectins...
2018: Journal of Inflammation Research
Hojun Lee, Kijeong Kim, Boa Kim, Junchul Shin, Sudarsan Rajan, Jingwei Wu, Xiongwen Chen, Michael D Brown, Sukho Lee, Joon-Young Park
KEY POINTS: Referring to the muscle memory theory, previously trained muscles acquire strength and volume much faster than naive muscles. Using extreme experimental models such as synergist ablation or steroid administration, previous studies have demonstrated that the number of nuclei increases when a muscle becomes enlarged, which serves as a cellular muscle memory mechanism for the muscle. In the present study, we found that, when rats were subjected to physiologically relevant resistance training, the number of myonuclei increased and was retained during a long-term detraining period...
August 12, 2018: Journal of Physiology
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