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Yen-Chun Lai, Longfei Wang, Mark T Gladwin
Pulmonary hypertension in the setting of heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (PH-HFpEF) is a growing public health problem that is increasing in prevalence. While PH-HFpEF is defined by a high mean pulmonary artery pressure, high left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and a normal ejection fraction, some HFpEF patients develop PH in the presence of pulmonary vascular remodeling with a high transpulmonary pressure gradient or pulmonary vascular resistance. Aging, increased left atrial pressure and stiffness, mitral regurgitation, as well as features of metabolic syndrome, which include obesity, diabetes, and hypertension, are recognized as risk factors for PH-HFpEF...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Bo Ye, Junling Gao, Hua Fu
BACKGROUND: Frailty represents a public health priority and an increasingly prevalent condition in the ageing population. It is seen as reflecting an interaction among individual factors and a range of environmental elements. This study aims to examine the association between frailty and individual factors, physical and social environments among Chinese older people. METHODS: The data were from the Shanghai Healthy City Survey in 2017, which sampled 2559 older people aged ≥60 years from 67 neighbourhoods...
December 14, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Zeinab Mohammed Helmy, Sherin Hassan Mohammed Mehani, Basant Hamdy El-Refaey, Eman Hassan Abd Al-Salam, El-Sayed Essam El-Sayed Felaya
The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) versus trunk stabilization exercises on sternotomy healing following coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) surgery. Forty-five male patients who had acute sternal instability post-CABG surgery in the age range of 45-65 years were divided randomly into three equal groups (n = 15). The laser group received LLLT, while the exercise group received trunk stabilization exercises. The control group only received a routine cardiac rehabilitation programme, which was also provided to both the laser and the exercise groups...
December 13, 2018: Lasers in Medical Science
Azza Hamed, Sebastian Bohm, Falk Mersmann, Adamantios Arampatzis
BACKGROUND: The risk of falling and associated injuries increases with age. Therefore, the prevention of falls is a key priority in geriatrics and is particularly based on physical exercising, aiming to improve the age-related decline in motor performance, which is crucial in response to postural threats. Although the benefits and specifications of effective exercise programs have been well documented in pre-post design studies, that is during the treatment, the definitive retention and transfer of these fall-related exercise benefits to the daily life fall risk during follow-up periods remains largely unclear...
December 13, 2018: Sports Medicine—Open
Henning Øien, Niklas Jakobsson, Carl Bonander
BACKGROUND: Hip fractures among older adults are a major public health problem in many countries. Hip fractures are associated with expensive health care treatments, and serious adverse effects on patients' health and quality-of-life. In this paper, we estimate the effect of a community-based hip fracture prevention program that was initiated in 16 Norwegian municipalities in 2007. Specifically, the participating municipalities implemented one or more of the following interventions: exercise programs for older adults, information and education campaigns to communicate how to effectively reduce falls to care workers and older adults, and preventive home safety assessment and modification help services...
December 13, 2018: BMC Geriatrics
Takudzwa A Madzima, Jonas R Black, Jared T Melanson, Svetlana Nepocatych, Eric E Hall
To determine changes in appetite, affect and cortisol in response to an acute bout of resistance exercise (RE) the morning after consuming whey (WP) and casein (CP) protein and a non-caloric placebo (PLA) consumed pre-sleep, 14 active men (n = 5) and women (n = 9) consumed a single dose of 24 g WP, 48 g WP, 24 g CP, 48 g CP, or PLA 30 min pre-sleep. Prior to and immediately after RE, appetite, affect and cortisol were assessed. Significant time effects were observed for Energetic Arousal and Tense Arousal ( p = 0...
December 11, 2018: Sports
Antonia Kaltsatou, Andreas D Flouris
Patients with multiple sclerosis experience many complications that gradually lead them to comorbidity and disability. Exercise could prevent and ameliorate the symptoms that comorbidity or inactivity generate. However, until recently it was suggested that multiple sclerosis patients should not participate in exercise training programs because these patients are characterized by thermoregulatory failure and the heat stress due to physical work could exacerbate the disease symptoms. Furthermore, taken into account that 60-80% of the multiple sclerosis patients present adverse clinical symptoms when their body temperature is increased (not only due to physical working but even when immerse in hot water or by exposure to infrared lamps or to the sun), the need for the development of treatment strategies to overcome the thermoregulatory problem in these patients is crucial...
November 13, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Tais Feitosa da Silva, Maria do Socorro Cirilo-Souza, Marizângela Ferreira de Souza, Geraldo Veloso Neto, Marcos Antônio Pereira Dos Santos, Alexandre Sérgio Silva
The aim of this study was to determine the energy demand of one session of active video game (AVG) and its potential to reduce blood pressure (BP). Fourteen hypertensive (56.4±7.5 years) individuals performed sessions of AVG, a traditional sedentary video game sessions (SVG) and walking (WAL), as negative and positive controls, in a randomly determined order. Oxygen consumption and energy expenditure (EE) were measured during sessions. BP and cardiac autonomic modulation (CAM) were measured at rest and every 15 minutes of a 60-minute period of recovery from activities...
2018: PloS One
Takayuki Suzuki, Toshihiro Ikebukuro, Keitaro Kubo
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the present study was to compare changes in joint stiffness after repeated eccentric (ECC; leading to muscle fatigue) and isometric (ISO; leading to tendon fatigue) contractions and to elucidate the mechanisms responsible for decline in joint stiffness after repeated stretch-shortening cycle exercises reported previously. METHODS: Ankle joint stiffness (change in joint torque divided by change in joint angle during braking phase) and electromyographic activity (mEMG) of the plantar flexor muscles during drop jump using the ankle joint were measured before and after ECC, ISO, and control conditions...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
Chelsea R Stone, Kerry S Courneya, S Elizabeth McGregor, Haocheng Li, Christine M Friedenreich
PURPOSE: Physical activity (PA) has been shown to improve quality of life and survival in cancer survivors; however, a cancer diagnosis may change PA patterns. We examine determinants of changes in meeting the PA guidelines (150 min/week of moderate aerobic PA) before and after a prostate cancer diagnosis. METHODS: Eight hundred and thirty prostate cancer survivors who participated in a population-based case-control study between 1997 and 2000 in Alberta, Canada, enrolled in a prospective cohort study...
December 12, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Jeann L Sabino-Carvalho, Tiago Obeid-Freitas, Marcelle Paula-Ribeiro, Thiago R Lopes, Thiago H N Ferreira, José E Succi, Antônio C Silva, Bruno Moreira Silva
PURPOSE: High cardiac vagal control in endurance athletes has been generally associated with adequate recovery from training and readiness to cope high-intensity training. A method that improves cardiac vagal control in endurance athletes could therefore be advantageous. Accordingly, we sought to test whether ischemic preconditioning (IPC) could enhance cardiac vagal control in endurance runners. METHODS: Fifteen subjects underwent IPC, sham ultrasound (SHAM) or control (CT), in random order...
December 12, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Keith M McGregor, Bruce Crosson, Lisa C Krishnamurthy, Venkatagiri Krishnamurthy, Kyle Hortman, Kaundinya Gopinath, Kevin M Mammino, Javier Omar, Joe R Nocera
Objective: We have previously demonstrated that aerobic exercise improves upper extremity motor function concurrent with changes in motor cortical activity using task-based functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). However, it is currently unknown how a 12-week aerobic exercise intervention affects resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in motor networks. Previous work has shown that over a 6-month or 1-year exercise intervention, older individuals show increased resting state connectivity of the default mode network and the sensorimotor network (Voss et al...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Bashir Abba, Sule Abdullahi, Samuel Bawa, Kabir Ibrahim Getso, Imam Wada Bello, Charles Korir, Audu Musa, Fiona Braka, Adamu Ningi, Peter Nsubuga, Richard Banda, Sisay G Tegegne, Faisal Shuaib, Usman Said Adamu, Sulaiman Haladu
BACKGROUND: Kano is one of the high-risk states for polio transmission in Northern Nigeria. The state reported more cases of wild polioviruses (WPVs) than any other state in the country. The Nigeria Demographic and Health Survey of 2013 indicated that OPV3 coverage in the routine immunization (RI) programmewas 57.9%. Additionally, serial polio seroprevalence studies conducted from 2011 to 2015 in the eightmetropolitan LGAs indicated low immunity levels against all three polio serotypes in children below one year...
December 13, 2018: BMC Public Health
Oliver J Price, Costas Tsakirides, Mike Gray, Antonios Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou
PURPOSE: Pre-participation health screening is recommended to detect individuals susceptible to serious adverse cardiovascular complications during exercise. Although expert opinion and best available scientific evidence have informed recent modifications, there remains limited experimental data to support or refute current practice. We therefore aimed to quantify the impact of change to the ACSM pre-participation health screening guidelines on risk classification and referral for medical clearance in a large cohort of undergraduate university students...
December 11, 2018: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
Chaya Gopalan
Flipped teaching (FT) has caught educators' attention due to its success in engaging students through pre- and in-class activities. To learn if FT improved student performance, scores from the quizzes and exams of a fully flipped classroom with retrieval exercises were compared with those of five semesters of traditional lecture-based [unflipped (UF)] teaching in an undergraduate sophomore-level physiology course. Student attitude surveys were also evaluated. Student performance on both the quizzes and exams was significantly higher in the FT class in general compared with that of the UF teaching...
March 1, 2019: Advances in Physiology Education
Robert Nilsson, Ann-Sofie Lindberg, Apostolos Theos, Richard A Ferguson, Christer Malm
The aim of this study was to investigate the predictive power of aerobic test results and anthropometric variables on FIS-ranking of junior elite alpine skiers. Results from twenty-three male and female adolescent elite alpine skiers from two seasons were included in the multivariate statistical models. Physical work capacity was determined by V̇O2peak, blood lactate concentration ([HLa]b), and heart rate (HR) during ergometer cycling. Anthropometric variables were body stature, body weight and calculated BMI...
July 2018: Sports medicine international open
Terese Eriksson, Linnea Germundsjö, Elisabeth Åström, Michael Rönnlund
Objective: The aims of this study were (a) to examine the effects of a 6 weeks web-based mindful self-compassion program on stress and burnout symptoms in a group of practicing psychologists, and (b) to examine relationships between changes in self-compassion and self-coldness and changes in stress and burnout symptoms. Method: In a randomized controlled trial, 101 practicing psychologists were assigned to a training group ( n = 51) or a wait-list control group ( n = 49). The training encompassed 15 min exercises per day, 6 days a week, for 6 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Bertine de Vries, Elisabeth C D van der Stouwe, Clement O Waarheid, Stefan H J Poel, Erwin M van der Helm, André Aleman, Johan Arends, Gerdina H M Pijnenborg, Jooske T van Busschbach
BACKGROUND: People with a psychotic disorder have an increased risk of becoming the victim of a crime. To prevent victimization a body-oriented resilience therapy using kickboxing exercises was developed. This study aims to explore the feasibility of the therapy, to improve the therapy protocol and to explore suitable outcomes for a RCT. METHODS: Twenty-four adults with a psychotic disorder received 20 weekly group sessions in which potential risk factors for victimization and strategies for dealing with them were addressed...
December 11, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
Volker Schöffl, Olaf Pöppelmeier, Julia Emmler, Isabelle Schöffl, Thomas Küpper, Christoph Lutter
Ski mountaineering (skimo) has recently gained popularity and established itself as a competition sport. It requires a specific training with a high hypoxic load. Although a variety of sport specific performance test protocols have been developed, a specific method for ski mountaineering (skimo) is pending. After the development of a sport specific ergometric protocol with recreational athletes in pre-tests a standard sport specific protocol was defined, concerning treadmill speed, slope and step test variables...
December 2018: Sportverletzung Sportschaden: Organ der Gesellschaft Für Orthopädisch-Traumatologische Sportmedizin
Natalie Z M Eichner, Julian M Gaitán, Nicole M Gilbertson, Mahnoor Khurshid, Arthur Weltman, Steven K Malin
Background People with prediabetes have elevated risk for cardiovascular disease (CVD) in part due to low insulin sensitivity mediated arterial stiffness. However, the effect of short-term exercise training intensity, and/or amount (i.e. kcal/session), on fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that increased exercise intensity and dose (i.e. amount) would correlate with reduced fasting and postprandial arterial stiffness in obese adults with prediabetes. Methods Following randomization, 31 adults (Age: 61...
December 11, 2018: Experimental Physiology
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