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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30252596/moonlighting-proteins-putting-the-spotlight-on-enzymes
#1
Sara Abolhassani Rad, Emily J Clayton, Emily J Cornelius, Travis R Howes, Susanne E Kohalmi
AROGENATE DEHAYDRATASE2 (ADT2) is a member of the Arabidopsis thaliana ADT family. All members of this family act as arogenate dehydratases in phenylalanine biosynthesis, decarboxylating/dehydrating arogenate to phenylalanine. ADT2 is detected in stromules, and as a ring around the equatorial plane of dividing chloroplasts, indicating it has a second, non-enzymatic function in chloroplast division. Here, we provide further evidence for this alternative role of ADT2. First, we demonstrate that ADT2 and FtsZ co-localize around the equatorial plane at the same time...
September 25, 2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30067472/dynamic-coordination-of-plastid-morphological-change-by-cytoskeleton-for-chloroplast-nucleus-communication-during-plant-immune-responses
#2
Eunsook Park, Jeffrey L Caplan, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar
Considering their sessile life, plants must efficiently coordinate their resources and energy for maintaining their presence in normal living conditions and for defending themselves against environmental threats. Collaboration between multiple subcellular compartments is a common strategy in several biological processes to modify cells' architecture for their growth and development and to respond to acute changes in the environment. When plants defend themselves against microbial pathogens, chloroplasts generate tubular structures - so-called stromules- to facilitate chloroplast movement towards nuclei during innate immunity...
2018: Plant Signaling & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30041102/shaping-plastid-stromules-principles-of-in-vitro-membrane-tubulation-applied-in-planta
#3
REVIEW
Jessica Lee Erickson, Martin Hartmut Schattat
Plastids undergo drastic shape changes under stress, including the formation of stroma-filled tubules, or `stromules'. Stromules are dynamic, and may extend, branch and retract within minutes. There are two prerequisites for stromule extension: excess plastid membrane and a force(s) that shapes the membrane into a tubule. In vitro studies provide insight into the basic molecular machinery for tubulation, and are often cited when discussing stromule formation. In this review, we evaluate in vitro modes of tubulation in the context of stromule dynamics, and find that most mechanisms fail to explain stromule morphology and behavior observed in planta...
July 21, 2018: Current Opinion in Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29915611/plastid-envelope-localized-proteins-exhibit-a-stochastic-spatiotemporal-relationship-to-stromules
#4
Kathleen Delfosse, Michael R Wozny, Kiah A Barton, Neeta Mathur, Nigel Griffiths, Jaideep Mathur
Plastids in the viridiplantae sporadically form thin tubules called stromules that increase the interactive surface between the plastid and the surrounding cytoplasm. Several recent publications that report observations of certain proteins localizing to the extensions have then used the observations to suggest stromule-specific functions. The mechanisms by which specific localizations on these transient and sporadically formed extensions might occur remain unclear. Previous studies have yet to address the spatiotemporal relationship between a particular protein localization pattern and its distribution on an extended stromules and/or the plastid body...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29659986/brassica-yellows-virus-p0-protein-impairs-the-antiviral-activity-of-nbraf2-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#5
Qian Sun, Yuan-Yuan Li, Ying Wang, Hang-Hai Zhao, Tian-Yu Zhao, Zong-Ying Zhang, Da-Wei Li, Jia-Lin Yu, Xian-Bing Wang, Yong-Liang Zhang, Cheng-Gui Han
In interactions between poleroviruses and their hosts, few cellular proteins have been identified that directly interact with the multifunctional virus P0 protein. To help explore the functions of P0, we identified a Brassica yellows virus genotype A (BrYV-A) P0BrA-interacting protein from Nicotiana benthamiana, Rubisco assembly factor 2 (NbRAF2), which localizes in the nucleus, cell periphery, chloroplasts, and stromules. We found that its C-terminal domain (amino acids 183-211) is required for self-interaction...
May 25, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563221/ties-that-bind-the-integration-of-plastid-signalling-pathways-in-plant-cell-metabolism
#6
REVIEW
Jacob O Brunkard, Tessa M Burch-Smith
Plastids are critical organelles in plant cells that perform diverse functions and are central to many metabolic pathways. Beyond their major roles in primary metabolism, of which their role in photosynthesis is perhaps best known, plastids contribute to the biosynthesis of phytohormones and other secondary metabolites, store critical biomolecules, and sense a range of environmental stresses. Accordingly, plastid-derived signals coordinate a host of physiological and developmental processes, often by emitting signalling molecules that regulate the expression of nuclear genes...
April 13, 2018: Essays in Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29466386/the-arabidopsis-arc5-and-arc6-mutations-differentially-affect-plastid-morphology-in-pavement-and-guard-cells-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#7
Makoto T Fujiwara, Mana Yasuzawa, Kei H Kojo, Yasuo Niwa, Tomoko Abe, Shigeo Yoshida, Takeshi Nakano, Ryuuichi D Itoh
Chloroplasts, or photosynthetic plastids, multiply by binary fission, forming a homogeneous population in plant cells. In Arabidopsis thaliana, the division apparatus (or division ring) of mesophyll chloroplasts includes an inner envelope transmembrane protein ARC6, a cytoplasmic dynamin-related protein ARC5 (DRP5B), and members of the FtsZ1 and FtsZ2 families of proteins, which co-assemble in the stromal mid-plastid division ring (FtsZ ring). FtsZ ring placement is controlled by several proteins, including a stromal factor MinE (AtMinE1)...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29338837/stromule-extension-along-microtubules-coordinated-with-actin-mediated-anchoring-guides-perinuclear-chloroplast-movement-during-innate-immunity
#8
Amutha Sampath Kumar, Eunsook Park, Alexander Nedo, Ali Alqarni, Li Ren, Kyle Hoban, Shannon Modla, John H McDonald, Chandra Kambhamettu, Savithramma P Dinesh-Kumar, Jeffrey Lewis Caplan
Dynamic tubular extensions from chloroplasts called stromules have recently been shown to connect with nuclei and function during innate immunity. We demonstrate that stromules extend along microtubules (MTs) and MT organization directly affects stromule dynamics since stabilization of MTs chemically or genetically increases stromule numbers and length. Although actin filaments (AFs) are not required for stromule extension, they provide anchor points for stromules. Interestingly, there is a strong correlation between the direction of stromules from chloroplasts and the direction of chloroplast movement...
January 17, 2018: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29285819/the-xanthomonas-effector-xopl-uncovers-the-role-of-microtubules-in-stromule-extension-and-dynamics-in-nicotiana-benthamiana
#9
Jessica L Erickson, Norman Adlung, Christina Lampe, Ulla Bonas, Martin H Schattat
Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria type III-secreted effectors were screened for candidates influencing plant cell processes relevant to the formation and maintenance of stromules in Nicotiana benthamiana lower leaf epidermis. Transient expression of XopL, a unique type of E3 ubiquitin ligase, led to a nearly complete elimination of stromules and the relocation of plastids to the nucleus. Further characterization of XopL revealed that the E3 ligase activity is essential for the two plastid phenotypes. In contrast to the XopL wild type, a mutant XopL lacking E3 ligase activity specifically localized to microtubules...
March 2018: Plant Journal: for Cell and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210003/abscisic-acid-insensitive-4-transcription-factor-is-an-important-player-in-the-response-of-arabidopsis-thaliana-to-two-spotted-spider-mite-tetranychus-urticae-feeding
#10
Anna Barczak-Brzyżek, Małgorzata Kiełkiewicz, Magdalena Górecka, Karol Kot, Barbara Karpińska, Marcin Filipecki
Plants growing in constantly changeable environmental conditions are compelled to evolve regulatory mechanisms to cope with biotic and abiotic stresses. Effective defence to invaders is largely connected with phytohormone regulation, resulting in the production of numerous defensive proteins and specialized metabolites. In our work, we elucidated the role of the Abscisic Acid Insensitive 4 (ABI4) transcription factor in the plant response to the two-spotted spider mite (TSSM). This polyphagous mite is one of the most destructive herbivores, which sucks mesophyll cells of numerous crop and wild plants...
December 2017: Experimental & Applied Acarology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29097392/stromules-probing-formation-and-function
#11
REVIEW
Maureen R Hanson, Kevin M Hines
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2018: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28984364/isolation-and-analysis-of-a-stromule-overproducing-arabidopsis-mutant-suggest-the-role-of-parc6-in-plastid-morphology-maintenance-in-the-leaf-epidermis
#12
Ryuuichi D Itoh, Hiroki Ishikawa, Kohdai P Nakajima, Shota Moriyama, Makoto T Fujiwara
Stromules, or stroma-filled tubules, are thin extensions of the plastid envelope membrane that are most frequently observed in undifferentiated or non-mesophyll cells. The formation of stromules is developmentally regulated and responsive to biotic and abiotic stress; however, the physiological roles and molecular mechanisms of the stromule formation remain enigmatic. Accordingly, we attempted to obtain Arabidopsis thaliana mutants with aberrant stromule biogenesis in the leaf epidermis. Here, we characterize one of the obtained mutants...
April 2018: Physiologia Plantarum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729870/plastid-nucleus-distance-alters-the-behavior-of-stromules
#13
Jessica L Erickson, Matthias Kantek, Martin H Schattat
Plastids send "retrograde" signals to the nucleus to deliver information regarding their physiological status. One open question concerning this signal transfer is how the signal bridges the cytoplasm. Based on individual reports of plastid derived tubular membrane extensions connecting to nuclei, these so-called stromules have been suggested to function as communication routes between plastids and nuclei in response to biotic stress. However, based on the data currently available it is unclear whether interactions between stromules and nuclei are truly intentional or observed as a result of an inflated stromule frequency throughout the cell, and are thus a random event...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28338876/subcellular-localization-of-arabidopsis-arogenate-dehydratases-suggests-novel-and-non-enzymatic-roles
#14
Crystal D Bross, Travis R Howes, Sara Abolhassani Rad, Ornela Kljakic, Susanne E Kohalmi
Arogenate dehydratases (ADTs) catalyze the final step in phenylalanine biosynthesis in plants. The Arabidopsis thaliana genome encodes a family of six ADTs capable of decarboxylating/dehydrating arogenate into phenylalanine. Using cyan fluorescent protein (CFP)-tagged proteins, the subcellular localization patterns of all six A. thaliana ADTs were investigated in intact Nicotiana benthamiana and A. thaliana leaf cells. We show that A. thaliana ADTs localize to stroma and stromules (stroma-filled tubules) of chloroplasts...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056496/chloroplast-the-trojan-horse-in-plant-virus-interaction
#15
REVIEW
Dhriti Bhattacharyya, Supriya Chakraborty
The chloroplast is one of the most dynamic organelles of a plant cell. It carries out photosynthesis, synthesizes major phytohormones, plays an active part in the defence response and is crucial for interorganelle signalling. Viruses, on the other hand, are extremely strategic in manipulating the internal environment of the host cell. The chloroplast, a prime target for viruses, undergoes enormous structural and functional damage during viral infection. Indeed, large proportions of affected gene products in a virus-infected plant are closely associated with the chloroplast and the process of photosynthesis...
February 2018: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911400/visualizing-stromule-frequency-with-fluorescence-microscopy
#16
Jacob O Brunkard, Anne M Runkel, Patricia Zambryski
Stromules, or "stroma-filled tubules", are narrow, tubular extensions from the surface of the chloroplast that are universally observed in plant cells but whose functions remain mysterious. Alongside growing attention on the role of chloroplasts in coordinating plant responses to stress, interest in stromules and their relationship to chloroplast signaling dynamics has increased in recent years, aided by advances in fluorescence microscopy and protein fluorophores that allow for rapid, accurate visualization of stromule dynamics...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27760882/low-phosphate-induction-of-plastidal-stromules-is-dependent-on-strigolactones-but-not-on-the-canonical-strigolactone-signaling-component-max2
#17
Gilles Vismans, Tom van der Meer, Olivier Langevoort, Marielle Schreuder, Harro Bouwmeester, Helga Peisker, Peter Dörman, Tijs Ketelaar, Alexander van der Krol
Stromules are highly dynamic protrusions of the plastids in plants. Several factors, such as drought and light conditions, influence the stromule frequency (SF) in a positive or negative way. A relatively recently discovered class of plant hormones are the strigolactones; strigolactones inhibit branching of the shoots and promote beneficial interactions between roots and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi. Here, we investigate the link between the formation of stromules and strigolactones. This research shows a strong link between strigolactones and the formation of stromules: SF correlates with strigolactone levels in the wild type and strigolactone mutants (max2-1 max3-9), and SF is stimulated by strigolactone GR24 and reduced by strigolactone inhibitor D2...
December 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27208308/intracellular-redox-compartmentation-and-ros-related-communication-in-regulation-and-signaling
#18
REVIEW
Graham Noctor, Christine H Foyer
Recent years have witnessed enormous progress in understanding redox signaling related to reactive oxygen species (ROS) in plants. The consensus view is that such signaling is intrinsic to many developmental processes and responses to the environment. ROS-related redox signaling is tightly wedded to compartmentation. Because membranes function as barriers, highly redox-active powerhouses such as chloroplasts, peroxisomes, and mitochondria may elicit specific signaling responses. However, transporter functions allow membranes also to act as bridges between compartments, and so regulated capacity to transmit redox changes across membranes influences the outcome of triggers produced at different locations...
July 2016: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26924298/deep-proteome-analysis-of-gerontoplasts-from-the-inner-integument-of-developing-seeds-of-jatropha-curcas
#19
Mohibullah Shah, Emanoella L Soares, Magda L B Lima, Camila B Pinheiro, Arlete A Soares, Gilberto B Domont, Fabio C S Nogueira, Francisco A P Campos
UNLABELLED: The inner integument of Jatropha curcas seeds is a non-photosynthetic tissue that acts primarily as a conduit for the delivery of nutrients to the embryo and endosperm. In this study we performed a histological and transmission electron microscopy analysis of the inner integument in stages prior to fertilization to 25days after pollination, to establish the structural changes associated with the plastid to gerontoplast transition. This study showed that plastids are subjected to progressive changes, which include the dismantling of the internal membrane system, matrix degradation and the formation of stromule-derived vesicles...
June 30, 2016: Journal of Proteomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26840974/the-formation-of-stromules-in-vitro-from-chloroplasts-isolated-from-nicotiana-benthamiana
#20
Jonathan Ho, Steven M Theg
Stromules are stroma-containing tubules that have been observed to emanate from the main plastidic body in vivo. These structures have been shown to require cytoskeletal components for movement. Though numerous studies have shown a close association with the endoplasmic reticulum, nucleus, mitochondria, and other plastids, the mechanism of formation and their overall function remain unknown. A limiting factor in studying these structures has been the lack of a reconstituted system for in vitro stromule formation...
2016: PloS One
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