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Dual stimulation

Asghar Talebian, Kim Robinson-Brookes, Susan O Meakin
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) facilitates multiple aspects of neuronal differentiation and cellular physiology by activating the high-affinity receptor tyrosine kinase, TrkB. While it is known that both BDNF and TrkB modulate cellular processes involved in learning and memory, exactly how TrkB cross-talks and modulates signaling downstream of excitatory ionotropic receptors, such as the NMDA receptor (NMDAR), are not well understood. A model that we have investigated involves the signaling molecule RasGrf1, a guanine nucleotide exchange factor for both Ras and Rac...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Silvia A Arredondo, Kristian E Swearingen, Thomas Martinson, Ryan Steel, Dorender A Dankwa, Anke Harupa, Nelly Camargo, William Betz, Vladimir Vigdorovich, Brian G Oliver, Niwat Kangwanrangsan, Tomoko Ishino, Noah Sather, Sebastian Mikolajczak, Ashley M Vaughan, Motomi Torii, Robert L Moritz, Stefan H I Kappe
Within the liver, Plasmodium sporozoites traverse cells searching for a "suitable" hepatocyte, invading these cells through a process that results in the formation of a parasitophorous vacuole (PV), within which the parasite undergoes intracellular replication as a liver stage. It was previously established that two members of the Plasmodium s48/45 protein family, P36 and P52, are essential for productive invasion of host hepatocytes by sporozoites as their simultaneous deletion results in growth-arrested parasites that lack a PV...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Chiara Modica, Dora Tortarolo, Paolo M Comoglio, Cristina Basilico, Elisa Vigna
The 'onco-receptor' MET (Hepatocyte Growth Factor Receptor) is involved in the activation of the invasive growth program that is essential during embryonic development and critical for wound healing and organ regeneration during adult life. When aberrantly activated, MET and its stroma-secreted ligand HGF (Hepatocyte Growth Factor) concur to tumor onset, progression, and metastasis in solid tumors, thus representing a relevant target for cancer precision medicine. In the vast majority of tumors, wild-type MET behaves as a 'stress-response' gene, and relies on ligand stimulation to sustain cancer cell 'scattering', invasion, and protection form apoptosis...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Tatiana M Garcia-Bates, Mariana L Palma, Chengli Shen, Andrea Gambotto, Bernard J C Macatangay, Robert L Ferris, Charles R Rinaldo, Robbie B Mailliard
Eliciting highly functional CD8+ cytotoxic T lymphocyte (CTL) responses against a broad range of epitopes will likely be required for immunotherapeutic control of HIV-1 infection. However, the combination of CTL exhaustion and the ability of HIV-1 to rapidly establish CTL escape variants represent major hurdles towards this goal. Our previous work highlighted the use of monocyte derived, mature, high IL-12-producing type-1 polarized dendritic cells (MDC1) to selectively induce more potent effector CTLs derived from naïve, rather than memory, CD8+ T cell precursors isolated from HIV-1 positive participants in the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study...
December 12, 2018: Journal of Virology
Tianhua Rong, Jianxiong Shen, Kenny Kwan, Jianguo Zhang, Yahan Wang, Shugang Li, Zheng Li, Chong Chen, Youxi Lin, Haining Tan
STUDY DESIGN: Retrospective radiographic study. OBJECTIVE: To investigate the growth of the vertebrae around distal instrumented vertebra (DIV) in patients with early-onset scoliosis (EOS) who underwent dual growing rod (DGR) treatment. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Previous studies indicated that DGR was likely to preserve or even stimulate the spinal growth. However, report pertaining to the effect of growing rod on the growth of individual vertebral body is rare...
December 11, 2018: Spine
Rui Zhou, Long Yi, Xikun Ye, Xianglong Zeng, Kai Liu, Yu Qin, Qianyong Zhang, Mantian Mi
BACKGROUND/AIMS: Lipid droplets (LDs) are dynamic organelles that store neutral lipids during times of energy excess, and an increased accumulation of LDs in the liver is closely linked to hepatic steatosis. Our previous studies suggested that resveratrol (RSV) supplement could improve hepatic steatosis, but the underlying mechanism, particularly which related to LD accumulation, has not yet been elucidated. METHODS: A high-fat diet (HFD) and palmitic acid were used to induce hepatic steatosis in mouse liver and hepatocytes, respectively...
2018: Cellular Physiology and Biochemistry
Attilio Marino, Enrico Almici, Simone Migliorin, Christos Tapeinos, Matteo Battaglini, Valentina Cappello, Marco Marchetti, Giuseppe de Vito, Riccardo Cicchi, Francesco Saverio Pavone, Gianni Ciofani
Major obstacles to the successful treatment of gliolastoma multiforme are mostly related to the acquired resistance to chemotherapy drugs and, after surgery, to the cancer recurrence in correspondence of residual microscopic foci. As innovative anticancer approach, low-intensity electric stimulation represents a physical treatment able to reduce multidrug resistance of cancer and to induce remarkable anti-proliferative effects by interfering with Ca2+ and K+ homeostasis and by affecting the organization of the mitotic spindles...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Habib Haybar, Hadi Rezaeeyan, Mohammad Shahjahani, Reza Shirzad, Najmaldin Saki
T-bet is a major transcription factor increasing inflammatory responses in the immune system. Recently, it has been shown that this factor leads to inflammation in cardiovascular disease (CVD). In this study, we examine the dual role of T-bet in inducing and suppressing inflammatory reactions as well as angiogenesis induction due to inflammatory cytokines in CVD. Relevant literature was identified by a Pubmed search (1992-2018) of English-language papers using the terms "T-bet," "Cardiovascular disease," "Immune response," and "Angiogenesis...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Yong-Zhen Wang, Yan-Hua Wang, Xi-Lin Fu
Background: As is known, hepatic stellate cells (HSC) activation contributes to liver cirrhosis. This study aims to find out the acting mechanisms of miR-454 inhibiting the activation and proliferation of hepatic stellate cells. Methods: The expression of Col1A1, α-SMA and Wnt10a were determined by western blot, and the miR-454 level was determined by qRT-PCR in this study. We took two objects as experiment subjects, one was liver cirrhosis rats, and the other was TGF-β1-stimulated HSC-T6 cells...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Biochemistry
Carey D Balaban, Alex Kiderman, Mikhaylo Szczupak, Robin C Ashmore, Michael E Hoffer
This study examined the dynamic coordination between disconjugate, vergence eye movements, and pupil size in 52 normal subjects during binocular disparity stimulation in a virtual reality display. Eye movements and pupil area were sampled with a video-oculographic system at 100 Hz during performance of two tasks, (1) fusion of a binocular disparity step (±1.5° of visual angle in the horizontal plane) and (2) pursuit of a sinusoidally varying binocular disparity stimulus (0.1 Hz, ±2.6° of visual angle in the horizontal plane)...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Huarong Yu, Kibaek Lee, Xiaolei Zhang, Kwang-Ho Choo
Efficient media designs for microbial quorum quenching (QQ) are essential to enable maximal biofouling control in membrane bioreactors (MBRs). Here we introduce a novel, double-layered, biocarrier design, which has QQ bacteria in the shell layer with biostimulating agents in the core, for effective membrane biofouling control. Confining the biostimulant within dense polymer materials permits its controlled release over an extended period. The provision of the biostimulant from the core to the outer shell, where the QQ bacteria are encapsulated, facilitates their prolonged survival and active life...
November 30, 2018: Water Research
Zhenzhen Zhou, Ke Wei, Jianshe Zhang
In this study, we identified and characterized a tripartite motif containing 25 (TRIM25) gene homologue, LcTRIM25, from large yellow croaker (Larimichthys crocea). Two isoforms of LcTRIM25, which were generated via alternative splicing, were identified via a molecular analysis of cDNA clones. The long isoform of LcTRIM25 (termed as LcTRIM25-L) contained the full open reading frame of the gene, encoded a protein of 698 amino acid residues, and possessed 11 exons. The short isoform of LcTRIM25 (termed as LcTRIM25-S) contained 9 exons and encoded a protein of 665 amino acid residues...
December 7, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Rui Kamada, Hisashi Yokoshiki, Hirofumi Mitsuyama, Masaya Watanabe, Kazuya Mizukami, Taro Tenma, Masayuki Takahashi, Shingo Takada, Toshihisa Anzai
Sustained ventricular arrhythmias (SVAs) lead to sudden cardiac death, for which β- adrenoreceptor blockers are effective. We hypothesized that electrophysiological changes and arrhythmias by β- adrenoreceptor stimulation are crucially related to activation of small-conductance calcium-activated potassium (SK) channels via the increase in Ca2+ / calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) activity. We used normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHRs). The latter served as a model of left ventricular hypertrophy...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Hanyong Sun, Weiqin Yang, Yuan Tian, Xuezhen Zeng, Jingying Zhou, Myth T S Mok, Wenshu Tang, Yu Feng, Liangliang Xu, Anthony W H Chan, Joanna H Tong, Yue-Sun Cheung, Paul B S Lai, Hector K S Wang, Shun-Wa Tsang, King-Lau Chow, Mengying Hu, Rihe Liu, Leaf Huang, Bing Yang, Pengyuan Yang, Ka-Fai To, Joseph J Y Sung, Grace L H Wong, Vincent W S Wong, Alfred S L Cheng
Obesity increases the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) especially in men, but the molecular mechanism remains obscure. Here, we show that an androgen receptor (AR)-driven oncogene, cell cycle-related kinase (CCRK), collaborates with obesity-induced pro-inflammatory signaling to promote non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH)-related hepatocarcinogenesis. Lentivirus-mediated Ccrk ablation in liver of male mice fed with high-fat high-carbohydrate diet abrogates not only obesity-associated lipid accumulation, glucose intolerance and insulin resistance, but also HCC development...
December 6, 2018: Nature Communications
Monica Verdoia, Patrizia Pergolini, Matteo Nardin, Roberta Rolla, Lucia Barbieri, Paolo Marino, Alessandro Carriero, Harry Suryapranata, Giuseppe De Luca
BACKGROUND: ADP-antagonists such as prasugrel have reduced but yet not overcome the phenomenon of high-on treatment platelet reactivity (HRPR), that has been shown to increase the rate of major cardiovascular events after an acute coronary syndrome (ACS) or percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). However, the exact prevalence and the principal determinants of suboptimal platelet inhibition in patients treated with dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) with prasugrel have not been completely clarified and were therefore the aim of the present study...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Zhuo Wang, Ming Yan, Jia'an Li, Jiafu Long, Yan Li, Hongmin Zhang
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a long-term consequence of chronic inflammatory liver injury. Hepatic injury is associated with a defective intestinal barrier and increased hepatic exposure to bacterial products including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), which promotes hepatocarcinogenesis. Despite its clinical significance, the molecular mediator linking chronic inflammation with HCC development remains to be clarified. In this study, we explored the significant dual functions of active signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) in LPS-induced angiogenesis of HCC...
December 3, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Logan L Grado, Matthew D Johnson, Theoden I Netoff
In this paper, we present a novel Bayesian adaptive dual controller (ADC) for autonomously programming deep brain stimulation devices. We evaluated the Bayesian ADC's performance in the context of reducing beta power in a computational model of Parkinson's disease, in which it was tasked with finding the set of stimulation parameters which optimally reduced beta power as fast as possible. Here, the Bayesian ADC has dual goals: (a) to minimize beta power by exploiting the best parameters found so far, and (b) to explore the space to find better parameters, thus allowing for better control in the future...
December 6, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
Qing Gao, Lin Xu, Qian Yang, Tian-Jun Guan
Peritoneal fibrosis remains to be one of the most severe causes of failure in continuous peritoneal dialysis. The current study cultured peritoneal mesothelial cells in high glucose to stimulate the environment of peritoneal fibrosis model in rats, and investigate whether microRNA-21 (miR-21) targeting Sprouty-1 affects high glucose-induced fibrosis in peritoneal mesothelial cells via the rennin angiotensin system (Ras)-mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway, as well as potential mechanisms...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Gonzalo Artiach, Miguel Carracedo, Joan Clària, Andres Laguna-Fernandez, Magnus Bäck
Intimal hyperplasia remains a significant clinical problem in for example coronary artery bypass graft failure. Since omega-3 fatty acids reduce intimal hyperplasia, we hypothesized that the G protein-coupled receptor ChemR23 for the omega-3-derived pro-resolving lipid mediator resolvin E1 drives those effects. ChemR23+/+ and ChemR23-/- mice were generated with or without introduction of the Caenorhabditis elegans fat-1 transgene, which leads to an endogenous omega-3 fatty acid synthesis and thus increasing the substrate for resolvin E1 formation...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Shane C Wright, Maria Consuelo Alonso Cañizal, Tobias Benkel, Katharina Simon, Christian Le Gouill, Pierre Matricon, Yoon Namkung, Viktoria Lukasheva, Gabriele M König, Stéphane A Laporte, Jens Carlsson, Evi Kostenis, Michel Bouvier, Gunnar Schulte, Carsten Hoffmann
Frizzleds (FZDs) are a group of seven transmembrane-spanning (7TM) receptors that belong to class F of the G protein-coupled receptor (GPCR) superfamily. FZDs bind WNT proteins to stimulate diverse signaling cascades involved in embryonic development, stem cell regulation, and adult tissue homeostasis. Frizzled 5 (FZD5 ) is one of the most studied class F GPCRs that promote the functional inactivation of the β-catenin destruction complex in response to WNTs. However, whether FZDs function as prototypical GPCRs has been heavily debated and, in particular, FZD5 has not been shown to activate heterotrimeric G proteins...
December 4, 2018: Science Signaling
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