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Dual stimulation

Alexandria K Driessen, Michael J Farrell, Mathias Dutschmann, Davor Stanic, Alice E McGovern, Stuart B Mazzone
Sensory neurons of the jugular vagal ganglia innervate the respiratory tract and project to the poorly studied medullary paratrigeminal nucleus. In the present study, we used neuroanatomical tracing, pharmacology and physiology in guinea pig to investigate the paratrigeminal neural circuits mediating jugular ganglia-evoked respiratory reflexes. Retrogradely traced laryngeal jugular ganglia neurons were largely (> 60%) unmyelinated and expressed the neuropeptide substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide, although a population (~ 30%) of larger diameter myelinated jugular neurons was defined by the expression of vGlut1...
August 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
Meei-Ling Sheu, Chien-Yi Chiang, Hong-Lin Su, Chun-Jung Chen, Jason Sheehan, Hung-Chuan Pan
Dual leucine zipper kinase (DLK) is a member of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase (MAP3K) family mainly involved in neuronal degeneration. However, the role of DLK signaling in the neuropathic pain has not yet been fully determined. Chronic constrictive injury (CCI) was conducted by four 3-0 chromic gut ligatures loosely ligated around the sciatic nerve. Escalated DLK expression over the dorsal root ganglion was observed from one to four rings of CCI. Remarkable expression of DLK was observed in primary dorsal root ganglion cells culture subjected to electrical stimulation and attenuated by DLK short hairpin RNA (shRNA) treatment...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Matthew N Ashner, William A Tisdale
Time-resolved femtosecond stimulated Raman spectroscopy (FSRS) is a powerful tool for investigating ultrafast structural and vibrational dynamics in light absorbing systems. However, the technique generally requires exposing a sample to high laser pulse fluences and long acquisition times to achieve adequate signal-to-noise ratios. Here, we describe a time-resolved FSRS instrument built around a Yb ultrafast amplifier operating at 200 kHz, and address some of the unique challenges that arise at high repetition-rates...
July 9, 2018: Optics Express
Ying-Ying Wu, Chao Chen, Xiao Yu, Xiao-Dong Zhao, Rong-Qi Bao, Jia-Yu Yu, Guo-Xing Zhang, Jing-Wei Chen
Sera from the rats with Tiaozhi granule treatment were collected. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were incubated with different dosage of sera with Tiaozhi granule for 48 hours. Rapamycin or angiotensin II was applied to activate autophagy in HUVECs with or without different dosages of sera of Tiaozhi granule. The mRNA expressions of Atg5, Atg7, Beclin-1, and mammal target of rapamycin (mTOR) were detected by real-time PCR. Autophagic flux markers (protein expression of LC3, Beclin-1, and p62) were examined by western blot analyses...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Andrea Franco, Zachary Kraus, Huifang Li, Naomi Seibert, Jessica Dement-Brown, Mate Tolnay
The B cell response to antigen is critically regulated by co-receptors. CD21 (complement receptor 2) amplifies the response to antigen linked to its ligands, specific C3 fragments. In contrast, human Fc receptor-like 5 (FCRL5), a novel IgG receptor, was reported to inhibit B cell receptor (BCR) signaling. Here we show that CD21 and FCRL5 physically associate, suggesting that immune complexes containing both C3 fragment and IgG could simultaneously engage the pre-assembled receptors. We found that activating signaling molecules such as CD19, active PLCγ2 and BTK were rapidly recruited to FCRL5 upon engagement, suggesting a novel activating function for FCRL5...
August 11, 2018: International Immunology
Manish Mishra, Arul J Duraisamy, Sudarshan Bhattacharjee, Renu Kowluru
AIMS: Diabetes increases oxidative stress in the retina, and dysfunctions their mitochondria, accelerating capillary cell apoptosis. A 66kDa adaptor protein, p66Shc, is considered as a sensor of oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. In the pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy, a progressive disease, ROS production by activation of a small molecular weight G-protein (Rac1)-Nox2 signaling precedes mitochondrial damage. Rac1 activation is facilitated by guanine exchange factors (GEFs), and p66Shc increases Rac1-specific GEF activity of Son of Sevenless (Sos1)...
August 14, 2018: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
Zhenzhen Chen, Liangshun You, Lei Wang, Xianbo Huang, Hui Liu, Ju Ying Wei, Li Zhu, Wenbin Qian
BACKGROUND: Exosomes derived from tumor cells (TEXs) are involved in both immune suppression, angiogenesis, metastasis and anticancer stimulatory, but the biological characteristics and role of diffuse large B cell lymphoma (DLBCL)-derived exosomes have been less investigated. METHODS: Exosomes (EXOs) were isolated from OCI-LY3, SU-DHL-16, and Raji cells and biological characteristics of EXOs were investigated using electron microscopy, flow cytometry analysis, and Western blot analysis...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental & Clinical Cancer Research: CR
Qing Yan, Xu-Yin Ding, Zi-Han Chen, Shi-Fan Xue, Xin-Yue Han, Zi-Yang Lin, Miao Yang, Guoyue Shi, Min Zhang
Dual-mode optical assays are becoming more popular and attractive, since they would provide robust detailed information in biochemical analysis. We herein unveil a novel dual-mode optical (i.e. UV-vis absorption and fluorescence) method for multifunctional sensing of phosphate compounds (PCs) (e.g. nucleotides and pyrophosphate) based on pattern recognition, which innovatively employs only one kind of porphyrin/lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (Ln-UCNPs) hybrid integrated with a facile pH-regulated strategy as the sensor array...
August 13, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Jing Wei Jin, Shun Qing Tang, Min Zhi Rong, Ming Qiu Zhang
Presently, clinically approved adjuvants (such as aluminum salts) fail to induce cellular immune responses, which is crucial to defend against intracellular pathogens (including HIV, malaria, tuberculosis and Ebola) and cancer. However, Freund's complete adjuvant potently stimulates both humoral and cellular immune responses, accompanying by high toxicity and severe side reactions. Here in this work, a CpG-oligodeoxynucleotides (CpG-OND) crosslinked aminated β-glucan-Ovalbumin dual targeting nanoparticle (CpG-OND-AG-OVA) is prepared through a simple and mild ionic complexation method...
August 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Giovana Souza Branco, Aline Gomes Melo, Juliana M B Ricci, Melanie Digmayer, Lázaro W O de Jesus, Hamid R Habibi, Rafael Henrique Nóbrega
In vertebrates, the pituitary gonadotropins Fsh (follicle-stimulating hormone) and Lh (luteinizing hormone) control testicular development and function. In the pituitary, on the other hand, the synthesis and release of the gonadotropins relies on a complex regulatory system, which involves different signaling systems, such as GnRH (gonadotropin-releasing hormone) and GnIH (gonadotropin-inhibitory hormone) neuropeptides. While GnRH exerts stimulatory roles on gonadotropin release and reproduction, the actions of GnIH remain incipient and controversial for many teleost species...
August 8, 2018: General and Comparative Endocrinology
Chenchen Song, Denise M Piscopo, Cristopher M Niell, Thomas Knöpfel
Sensory inputs carry critical information for the survival of an organism. In mice, tactile information conveyed by the whiskers is of high behavioural relevance, and is broadcasted across cortical areas beyond the primary somatosensory cortex. Mesoscopic voltage sensitive dye imaging (VSDI) of cortical population response to whisker stimulations has shown that seemingly 'simple' sensory stimuli can have extended impact on cortical circuit dynamics. Here we took advantage of genetically encoded voltage indicators (GEVIs) that allow for cell type-specific monitoring of population voltage dynamics in a chronic dual-hemisphere transcranial windowed mouse preparation to directly compare the cortex-wide broadcasting of sensory information in wakening (lightly anesthetized to sedated) and awake mice...
August 10, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yuxin Xian, Liping Dong, Yong Jia, Yi Lin, Wenjuan Jiao, Yao Wang
miRNAs expression profiles in podocyte injuries have been reported in different models in vivo and in vitro. In the present study, miR-370 was elevated in high glucose-stimulated podocyte, and the post-transcriptional mechanism of miR-370 was investigated in high glucose-induced podocyte injuries. The gene and protein levels were assayed by RT-qPCR and western blotting, respectively. Annexin V-fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)/propidium iodide (PI) staining was used to evaluate the apoptosis in high glucose-stimulated podocyte...
August 10, 2018: Cell Biology International
Gaetano Zizzo, Philip L Cohen
Mer receptor tyrosine kinase (MerTK) is key for efficient phagocytosis of apoptotic neutrophils (ANs) and homeostasis of IL-10 production by human anti-inflammatory M2c monocytes/macrophages. We asked whether stimulation of M2c surface receptors contributes in turn to MerTK activation. For this purpose, human monocytes/macrophages were differentiated under M1, M2a, and M2c polarizing conditions. The effects of antibody-mediated cross-linking of M2c receptors (i.e., CD14, CD16, CD32, CD163, CD204) on MerTK phosphorylation and phagocytosis of ANs were tested...
August 8, 2018: Inflammation
Mehdi Aleahmad, Alireza Ghanavatinejad, Mahmood Bozorgmehr, Mohammad-Reza Shokri, Shohreh Nikoo, Maryam Tavakoli, Somaieh Kazemnejad, Fazel Shokri, Amir-Hassan Zarnani
Background: It is more than sixty years that the concept of the fetal allograft and immunological paradox of pregnancy was proposed and in this context, several regulatory networks and mechanisms have been introduced so far. It is now generally recognized that mesenchymal stem cells exert potent immunoregulatory activity. In this study, for the first time, the potential impact of Menstrual blood Stem Cells (MenSCs), as surrogate for endometrial stem cells, on proliferative capacity of CD4+ T cells was tested...
July 2018: Avicenna Journal of Medical Biotechnology
Jingyou Yu, Shan-Lu Liu
Interferon inducible transmembrane proteins (IFITMs) are one of several IFN-stimulated genes (ISGs) that restrict entry of enveloped viruses, including flaviviruses, filoviruses and retroviruses. It has been recently reported that in U87 glioblastoma cells IFITM proteins inhibit HIV-1 entry in a co-receptor-dependent manner, that is, IFITM1 is more inhibitory on CCR5 tropic HIV-1 whereas IFITM2/3 confers a greater suppression of CXCR4 counterparts. However, how entry of HIV-1 with distinct co-receptor usage is modulated by different IFITM orthologs in physiologically relevant CD4⁺ T cells and monocytes/macrophages has not been investigated in detail...
August 7, 2018: Viruses
Vivaswath S Ayyar, Siddharth Sukumaran, Debra C DuBois, Richard R Almon, William J Jusko
Corticosteroids (CS) regulate the expression of numerous genes at the mRNA and protein levels. The time-course of CS pharmacogenomics and proteomics were examined in livers obtained from adrenalectomized rats given a 50 mg/kg bolus dose of methylprednisolone. Microarrays and mass-spectrometry based proteomics were employed to quantify hepatic transcript and protein dynamics. A total of 163 differentially expressed mRNA and their corresponding proteins (163 genes) were clustered into two dominant groups. The temporal profiles of most proteins were delayed compared to its mRNA, attributable to synthesis delays and slower degradation kinetics...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Ross T Aitchison, Laura Ward, Graeme J Kennedy, Xinhua Shu, David C Mansfield, Uma Shahani
AIMS: Diabetes mellitus affects about 6% of the world's population, and the chronic complications of the disease may result in macro- and micro-vascular changes. The purpose of the current study was to shed light on visual cortical oxygenation in diabetic individuals. We then aimed to compare the haemodynamic response (HDR) to visual stimulation with glycaemic control, given the likelihood of diabetic individuals suffering from such macro- and micro-vascular insult. METHODOLOGY: Thirty participants took part in this explorative study, fifteen of whom had diabetes and fifteen of whom were non-diabetic controls...
August 6, 2018: Acta Diabetologica
Estelle Willems, Matthias Dedobbeleer, Marina Digregorio, Arnaud Lombard, Nicolas Goffart, Paul Noel Lumapat, Jeremy Lambert, Priscilla Van den Ackerveken, Martyna Szpakowska, Andy Chevigné, Felix Scholtes, Bernard Rogister
Primary glioblastoma is the most frequent human brain tumor in adults and is generally fatal due to tumor recurrence. We previously demonstrated that glioblastoma-initiating cells invade the subventricular zones and promote their radio-resistance in response to the local release of the CXCL12 chemokine. In this work, we show that the mitotic Aurora A kinase (AurA) is activated through the CXCL12-CXCR4 pathway in an ERK1/2-dependent manner. Moreover, the CXCL12-ERK1/2 signaling induces the expression of Ajuba, the main cofactor of AurA, which allows the auto-phosphorylation of AurA...
August 6, 2018: Oncogene
Arshia, Almas Jabeen, Aisha Faheem, Khalid Mohammed Khan, Shazia Shah, Shahnaz Perveen
BACKGROUND: Inflammation is a biological rejoinder of vascular tissues against destructive agents e.g. irritants, damaged cell or pathogens. During inflammation respiratory burst occur by activated phagocytes helps to destroy invading pathogens. Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and macrophages are one of the major sources of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and nitric oxide (NO). Normally the redox environment is maintained by various antioxidant defense systems, however, these reactive oxygen species may be destructive and can lead to various pathological conditions...
August 5, 2018: Medicinal Chemistry
Kyoung-Hee Lee, Jiyeong Jeong, Jisu Woo, Chang-Hoon Lee, Chul-Gyu Yoo
Adiponectin, a hormone produced by adipose tissue, is very abundant in plasma, and its anti- and pro-inflammatory effects are reported. However, the mechanisms of these proand anti-inflammatory effects are not fully defined. Herein, we evaluated the dual inflammatory response mechanism of adiponectin in macrophages. Short-term globular adiponectin (gAd) treatment induced IκBα degradation, NF-κB nuclear translocation, and TNF-α production in RAW 264.7 cells. Polymyxin B pretreatment did not block gAd-induced IκBα degradation, and heated gAd was unable to degrade IκBα, suggesting that the effects of gAd were not due to endotoxin contamination...
July 30, 2018: Molecules and Cells
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