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Dual stimulation

Jiajia Lv, Wen Su, Qianying Yu, Meng Zhang, Caixia Di, Xiaoliang Lin, Min Wu, Zhenwei Xia
Asthma is thought to be caused by malfunction of type 2 T helper cell (Th2)-mediated immunity, causing excessive inflammation, mucus overproduction, and apoptosis of airway epithelial cells. Heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) functions in heme catabolism and is both cytoprotective and anti-inflammatory. We hypothesized that this dual function may be related to asthma's etiology. Using primary airway epithelial cells (pAECs) and an asthma mouse model, we demonstrate that severe lung inflammation is associated with rapid pAEC apoptosis...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Irisa Trianti, Saengchai Akeprathumchai, Phenjun Mekvichitsaeng, Sansanalak Rachdawong, Kanokwan Poomputsa
Baculovirus is a promising vaccine deliver vector due to its biosafety profiles, gene transfer efficiency, ability to display small foreign antigens on its surface, strong adjuvant activities, etc. A dual vector for peptide antigens and a DNA vaccine delivery was constructed. In this vector, a tetrameric glycoprotein neuraminidase (NA) from influenza A virus (H5N1) serves as a baculovirus surface protein to improve baculovirus transduction efficiency and a partner for displaying the target peptide antigen. Nucleotides encoding target peptides could be fused to a full length NA gene, at the lower part of its head structure, integrated into Autographa californica multinucleopolyhedrovirus genome and expressed under the control of a White Spot Syndrome Virus IE-1 shuttle promoter...
October 16, 2018: AMB Express
Yaoqin Yuan, Dongzi Lin, Long Feng, Mingyuan Huang, Huimin Yan, Yumei Li, Yinwen Chen, Bihua Lin, Yan Ma, Ziyu Ye, Yuezhi Mei, Xiaolin Yu, Keyuan Zhou, Qunzhou Zhang, Tao Chen, Jincheng Zeng
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking (CS) triggers an intense and harmful inflammatory response in lungs mediated by alveolar and blood macrophages, monocytes, and neutrophils and is closely associated with prevalence of tuberculosis (TB). The risk of death in patients with long-term cigarette smoking-related pulmonary tuberculosis (LCS-PTB) is approximately 4.5 times higher than those with nonsmoking pulmonary tuberculosis (N-PTB). However, the mechanisms underlying the harmful inflammatory responses in the setting of LCS-PTB have not been well documented...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Translational Medicine
Keita Sonoda, Teppei Matsui, Haruhiko Bito, Kenichi Ohki
Astrocytes are known to contact with a great number of synapses and may integrate sensory inputs. In the ferret primary visual cortex, astrocytes respond to a visual stimulus with a delay of several seconds with respect to the surrounding neurons. However, in the mouse visual cortex, it remains unclear whether astrocytes respond to visual stimulations. In this study, using dual-color simultaneous in vivo two-photon calcium imaging of neurons and astrocytes in the awake mouse visual cortex, we examined the visual response of astrocytes and their precise response timing relative to the surrounding neurons...
October 12, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Cong Du, Weinan Zhou, Yue Wang, Minghai Wang, Di Wang, Kongjia Wang, Wei Dong, Xindong Zhang
We present a novel and simple scheme for photonic generation of a millimeter-wave ultrawideband (UWB) signal free of low-frequency components that is implemented by using a stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS)-based frequency-doubling method. A dual-parallel Mach-Zehnder modulator is incorporated to generate appropriate optical sidebands and an optical carrier carrying the UWB signal. Then the single-sideband modulation is realized based on the successive SBS frequency shifting process. Eventually, a UWB signal is upconverted to twice the frequency of the radio frequency signal...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Romi Dasgupta, Indraneel Saha, Prajna Paramita Ray, Aniruddha Maity, Debajoyti Pradhan, Hari Prasad Sarkar, B R Maiti
Arecoline has biomedical importance, but it has untoward side effects on endocrine functions. The aim is to investigate its role on adrenal activity under thermal stress by ultrastructural and hormonal parameters in mice. Cold (4 °C) or heat (37 °C) stress, or arecoline (10 mg/kg body wt), each for 7 days in cold or heat stress stimulated adrenocortical activity ultrastructurally with an elevation of corticosterone level. Adrenomedullary activity was suppressed in cold stress with depletion of catecholamine levels...
October 13, 2018: Archives of Physiology and Biochemistry
Keywan Mortezaee, Nasser Hashemi Goradel, Peyman Amini, Dheyauldeen Shabeeb, Ahmed Eleojo Musa, Masoud Najafi, Bagher Farhood
BACKGROUND: Radiotherapy is a treatment modality for cancer. For better therapeutic efficiency, it could be used in combination with surgery, chemotherapy or immunotherapy. In addition to its beneficial therapeutic effects, exposure to radiation leads to several toxic effects on normal tissues. Also, it may induce some changes in genomic expression of tumor cells, thereby increasing the resistance of tumor cells. These changes lead to the appearance of some acute reactions in irradiated organs, increased risk of carcinogenesis, and reduction in the therapeutic effect of radiotherapy...
October 10, 2018: Current Molecular Pharmacology
Augusto Juste-Dolz, Noelle M do Nascimento, Isidro Monzó, Elena Grau-García, Jose A Román-Ivorra, José Luis Lopez-Paz, Jorge Escorihuela, Rosa Puchades, Sergi Morais, David Gimenez-Romero, Ángel Maquieira
The mechanism of self-recognition of the autoantigen TROVE2, a common biomarker in autoimmune diseases, has been studied with a quartz crystal microbalance with dissipation monitoring (QCM-D) and dual polarization interferometry (DPI). The complementarity and remarkable analytical features of both techniques has allowed new insights into the onset of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) to be achieved at the molecular level. The in vitro study for SLE patients and healthy subjects suggests that anti-TROVE2 autoantibodies may undergo an antibody bipolar bridging...
October 13, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Mohd Ashraf Ganie, Semanti Chakraborty, Ashish Sehgal, M Sreejith, Devasenathipathy Kandasamy, Manisha Jana, Aafia Rashid
CONTEXT: The effects of endocrine aberrations associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) on bone mineral density (BMD) in young women is a matter of debate. OBJECTIVES: To compare BMD in young women with PCOS to age and body mass index (BMI) matched controls and to elucidate its correlation to BMI, insulin resistance and serum testosterone. DESIGN AND METHODS: We recruited 60 women with PCOS aged 14-24 years, diagnosed based on Rotterdam 2003 criteria, and 58 age matched controls...
October 2018: Hormone and Metabolic Research, Hormon- und Stoffwechselforschung, Hormones et Métabolisme
Galyna V Graham, J Michael Conlon, Yasser H Abdel-Wahab, Peter R Flatt
Glucagon-like peptides-1 (GLP-1)from phylogenetically ancient fish (lamprey, dogfish, ratfish, paddlefish and bowfin) and from a teleost, the rainbow trout produced concentration-dependent stimulations of insulin release from clonal β-cells and isolated mouse islets. Lamprey and paddlefish GLP-1 were the most potent and effective. Incubation of BRIN-BD11 cells with GLP-1 receptor (GLP1R) antagonist, exendin-4 (9-39) attenuated insulinotropic activity of all peptides whereas glucagon receptor (GCGR) antagonist [des-His1 ,Pro4 ,Glu9 ] glucagon amide significantly decreased the activities of lamprey and paddlefish GLP-1 only...
October 9, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
Longlue Jia, Danyan Zhang, Hannian Huang, Yongyong Zhou, Shengli Zhou, Jiangfeng Guo
Triazophos is a highly toxic organophosphorus pesticide, causing acute toxicity to brain tissue, and neurotoxicity and embryotoxicity to animals. Therefore, triazophos is considered as a public health problem due to its acute hazard index. MicroRNAs (miRNAs), a class of endogenous noncoding RNAs, can regulate the expression of target gene(s) by mediating mRNA cleavage or translational repression in organisms exposed to environmental chemicals. We found that nup43 is targeted by miR-217 , which was significantly regulated in adult zebrafish ( Danio rerio ) exposed to triazophos (phenyl-1,2,4-triazolyl-3-( o , o -diethyl thionophosphate))...
September 1, 2018: Toxicology Research
YunKyoung Ko, Seong Dae Yun, Suk-Min Hong, Yonghyun Ha, Chang-Hoon Choi, N Jon Shah, Jörg Felder
PURPOSE: Functional MRI (fMRI) is a well-established method used to investigate localised brain activation by virtue of the blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) effect. It often relies on visual presentations using beam projectors, liquid crystal display (LCD) screens, and goggle systems. In this study, we designed an MR compatible, low-cost display unit based on organic light-emitting diodes (OLED) and demonstrated its performance. METHODS: A 3.8" dual OLED module and an MIPI-to-HDMI converter board were used...
2018: PloS One
Yosuke Saga, Christian C Ruff, Tremblay Léon
The basal ganglia (BG) are involved in motivation and goal-directed behavior. Recent studies suggest that limbic territories of BG not only support reward seeking (appetitive approach) but also the encoding of aversive conditioned stimuli (CS) and the production of aversive-related behaviors (avoidance or escape). This study aimed to identify inside two BG nuclei, the Striatum and Pallidum, the territories involved in aversive behaviors and to compare the effects of stimulating these territories to those resulting from stimulation of the anterior Insula (aIns), a region that is well known to be involved in aversive encoding and associated behaviors...
October 11, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Suchun Li, Miaojuan Qiu, Yonglun Kong, Xiaoduo Zhao, Hyo-Jung Choi, Maria Reich, Brady H Bunkelman, Qiaojuan Liu, Shan Hu, Mengke Han, Haixia Xie, Avi Z Rosenberg, Verena Keitel, Tae-Hwan Kwon, Moshe Levi, Chunling Li, Weidong Wang
BACKGROUND: The bile acid-activated receptors, including the membrane G protein-coupled receptor TGR5 and nuclear farnesoid X receptor (FXR), have roles in kidney diseases. In this study, we investigated the role of TGR5 in renal water handling and the underlying molecular mechanisms. METHODS: We used tubule suspensions of inner medullary collecting duct (IMCD) cells from rat kidneys to investigate the effect of TGR5 signaling on aquaporin-2 (AQP2) expression, and examined the in vivo effects of TGR5 in mice with lithium-induced nephrogenic diabetes insipidus (NDI) and Tgr5 knockout ( Tgr5 -/- ) mice...
October 10, 2018: Journal of the American Society of Nephrology: JASN
Georg Gruenbacher, Martin Thurnher
Mevalonate metabolism provides cancer and immune cells with diverse products to ensure cell functionality. Similar metabolic reprogramming that raises mevalonate metabolism to higher levels appears to drive both, epithelial mesenchymal transition (EMT) of cancer cells, a reverse differentiation program that generates cancer cells with stem cell properties, and immune cell training for increased responsiveness to secondary stimulation. In this review, we address how mevalonate metabolism supports cancer development and stemness on the one hand, and on the other promotes immune responsiveness...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Juan Pablo Frias, Michael A Nauck, Joanna Van, Mark E Kutner, Xuewei Cui, Charles Benson, Shweta Urva, Ruth E Gimeno, Zvonko Milicevic, Deborah Robins, Axel Haupt
BACKGROUND: LY3298176 is a novel dual glucose-dependent insulinotropic polypeptide (GIP) and glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist that is being developed for the treatment of type 2 diabetes. We aimed to examine the efficacy and safety of co-stimulation of the GLP-1 and GIP receptors with LY3298176 compared with placebo or selective stimulation of GLP-1 receptors with dulaglutide in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomised, phase 2 study, patients with type 2 diabetes were randomly assigned (1:1:1:1:1:1) to receive either once-weekly subcutaneous LY3298176 (1 mg, 5 mg, 10 mg, or 15 mg), dulaglutide (1·5 mg), or placebo for 26 weeks...
October 3, 2018: Lancet
Fabrizio Gardoni, Michele Morari, James Kulisevsky, Andrea Brugnoli, Salvatore Novello, Clarissa A Pisano, Carla Caccia, Manuela Mellone, Elsa Melloni, Gloria Padoani, Victoria Sosti, Silvia Vailati, Charlotte Keywood
Safinamide (Xadago®) is a novel dual mechanism drug which has been approved in the EU and US as add-on treatment to levodopa in Parkinson's disease (PD) therapy. In addition to its selective and reversible monoamine oxidase B (MAO-B) inhibition, safinamide through use-dependent sodium channel blockade reduces overactive glutamatergic transmission in basal ganglia, which is believed to contribute to motor symptoms and complications including levodopa-induced dyskinesia (LID). The present study investigated the effects of safinamide on the development of LID in 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) lesioned rats, evaluating behavioural, molecular and neurochemical parameters associated with LID appearance...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Yijia Zheng, Ye Wang, Zhuang Yue, Xiaoying Wang, Jue Zhang, Jing Fang
Previous behavioral studies have shown that high-intensity cognitive tasks weaken balance control in elder adults. Moreover, age-related loss of plantar sensation is considered to be an important contributing factor to the occurrence of falls. Recently, we have realized that transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) can effectively improve the balance of the elderly under the dual-task, but its underlying regulatory mechanism is not clear. In this study, task functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) was used to study the brain's response to foot stimuli under foot stimuli or dual-task (foot stimuli and cognitive task) conditions to explain the effect of the addition of cognitive tasks during balance in 16 healthy elderly adults...
October 2, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Sahil Gupta, Arpit Jain, Shahzad Nawaz Syed, Ryan G Snodgrass, Beatrice Pflüger-Müller, Matthias S Leisegang, Andreas Weigert, Ralf P Brandes, Ingo Ebersberger, Bernhard Brüne, Dmitry Namgaladze
Macrophages in the tumor microenvironment respond to complex cytokine signals. How these responses shape the phenotype of tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs) is incompletely understood. Here we explored how cytokines of the tumor milieu, interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-4, interact to influence target gene expression in primary human monocyte-derived macrophages (hMDMs). We show that dual stimulation with IL-4 and IL-6 synergistically modified gene expression. Among the synergistically induced genes are several targets with known pro-tumorigenic properties, such as CC-chemokine ligand 18 (CCL18), transforming growth factor alpha (TGFA) or CD274 (programmed cell death 1 ligand 1 (PD-L1))...
2018: Oncoimmunology
Pablo R G Cardoso, Katherine A Matias, Andrea T Dantas, Claudia D L Marques, Michelly C Pereira, Angela L B P Duarte, Moacyr Jesus Barreto de Melo Rego, Ivan da Rocha Pitta, Maira Galdino da Rocha Pitta
Background: Rheumatoid Arthritis (RA) is a chronic and inflammatory disease that affects about 1% of the world's population. Almost 70% of RA patients have a cardiovascular disease such as Systemic Arterial Hypertension (SAH). Inflammatory cytokines are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of RA and correlated with SAH. Objective: It is necessary to understand whether the antihypertensive drugs have a dual effect as immunomodulators and which one is the best choice for RA SAH patients...
2018: Open Rheumatology Journal
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