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Blood cancers

Leticia Gomes Lira, Rute Mattos Dourado Esteves Justa, Antonio Augusto Ferreira Carioca, Sara Maria Moreira Lima Verde, Geni Rodrigues Sampaio, Elizabeth Aparecida Ferraz da Silva Torres, Nágila Raquel Teixeira Damasceno
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to assess the association of plasma and erythrocyte ω-3 and ω-6 fatty acids with multiple oxidative stress biomarkers in breast cancer patients. METHODS: Ninety-five women with recently diagnosed breast cancer and no previous treatment were selected for this study. The socioeconomic, clinical, and demographic profile of the patients was determined using a structured questionnaire and medical records. Body weight and height were measured to calculate body mass index...
August 21, 2018: Nutrition
Jing Wang, Changpei Gan, Irene A Retmana, Rolf W Sparidans, Wenlong Li, Maria C Lebre, Jos H Beijnen, Alfred H Schinkel
Quizartinib, a second-generation FLT3 inhibitor, is in clinical development for the treatment of acute myeloid leukemia. We studied its pharmacokinetic interactions with the multidrug efflux transporters ABCB1 and ABCG2 and the multidrug metabolizing enzyme CYP3A, using in vitro transport assays and knockout and transgenic mouse models. Quizartinib was transported by human ABCB1 in vitro, and by mouse (m)Abcb1 and mAbcg2 in vivo. Upon oral administration, the brain accumulation of quizartinib was 6-fold decreased by mAbcb1 and 2-fold by mAbcg2 (together: 12-fold)...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Laura Duran-Lozano, Gemma Montalban, Sandra Bonache, Alejandro Moles-Fernández, Anna Tenés, Marta Castroviejo-Bermejo, Estela Carrasco, Adrià López-Fernández, Sara Torres-Esquius, Neus Gadea, Neda Stjepanovic, Judith Balmaña, Sara Gutiérrez-Enríquez, Orland Diez
PURPOSE: Disruption of splicing motifs by genetic variants can affect the correct generation of mature mRNA molecules leading to aberrant transcripts. In some cases, variants may alter the physiological transcription profile composed of several transcripts, and an accurate in vitro evaluation is crucial to establish their pathogenicity. In this study, we have characterized a novel PALB2 variant c.3201+5G>T identified in a breast cancer family. METHODS: Peripheral blood RNA was analyzed in two carriers and ten controls by RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing...
December 14, 2018: Breast Cancer Research and Treatment
Arjeta Podrimaj-Bytyqi, Ana Borovečki, Qerim Selimi, Suzana Manxhuka-Kerliu, Goneta Gashi, Isa R Elezaj
Bladder urothelial cell carcinoma (UCC) is an increasingly prevalent cancer worldwide, and thus, gaining a better understanding of its identifiable risk factors is a global priority. This study addressed this public health need with the understanding that cancer-initiating events, such as chromosome breakage, loss and rearrangement, can be reasonably used as biomarkers to evaluate an individual's cancer risk. Overall, forty bladder cancer patients and twenty controls were evaluated for genomic instability. To the best of the investigators' knowledge, this is the first study to perform micronucleus (MN) assays simultaneously in urothelial exfoliated cells (UEC), buccal exfoliated cells (BEC), and peripheral blood lymphocytes (PBL) in first-diagnosed, non-smoker bladder UCC patients...
December 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
James M Kelly, Alejandro Amor-Coarasa, Shashikanth Ponnala, Anastasia Nikolopoulou, Clarence Williams, Stephen G DiMagno, John Babich
Despite significant gains in the treatment of metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer by radioligands targeting PSMA, 30% of patients never respond to therapy. One possible explanation is insufficient dose delivery to the tumor, which is related to suboptimal pharmacokinetics. We have recently described RPS-063, a trifunctional ligand targeting PSMA with high uptake in LNCaP xenograft tumors, but also in kidneys. We aimed to use structural modifications to increase the tumor-to-kidney ratio through increased albumin binding and tumor uptake and reduction of kidney activity...
December 14, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Medicine: Official Publication, Society of Nuclear Medicine
Ai-Wu Shi, Xiao-Feng Shen, Hong-Juan Ding, Yao-Qiu Liu, Li Meng, Bill Kalionis
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus is strongly related to the risk of pancreatic cancer in pregnant women, but gestational diabetes can precede a diagnosis of pancreatic cancer by many years. Women with a history of gestational diabetes showed a relative risk of pancreatic cancer of 7.1. Pancreatic adenocarcinoma is one of the most common malignancies associated with thromboembolic events. A clinical study showed that thromboembolic events were detected in 36% of patients diagnosed as having pancreatic cancer...
December 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
Qiuju Zhao, Shihao Zhao, Jinling Li, Huiwu Zhang, Cheng Qian, He Wang, Jianjun Liu, Yuqi Zhao
Acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) is characterized by abnormal lymphoblasts accumulation in the bone marrow and blood. Despite great efforts have been made in exploring novel therapeutic method, the prognosis of children with ALL is still unsatisfied. Glucocorticoid (GC) resistance is a great obstacle for the clinical treatment of ALL. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the molecular mechanism underlying the GC resistance. According to previous reports, long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are involved in drug resistance of various human cancers...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Murugesan Sathiya Deepika, Ramar Thangam, Thankaraj Salammal Sheena, Rajendran Sasirekha, Srinivasan Sivasubramanian, Manikandan Dinesh Babu, Kulandaivel Jeganathan, Ramasamy Thirumurugan
Recent studies on flavonoids forming complexes with macromolecules attract researchers due to their enhanced bioavailability as well as chemo-preventive efficacy. In this study, a flavonoid rutin (Ru) is non-covalently complexed with fucoidan (Fu) using the functional groups to obtain a therapeutic polymeric complex overcoming the limitations of bioavailability of rutin. The prepared novel rutin-fucoidan (Ru-Fu) complex is characterized for spectroscopic features, particle size and distribution analysis by DLS...
January 2019: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Tanja N Fehm, Franziska Meier-Stiegen, Christiane Driemel, Bernadette Jäger, Florian Reinhardt, Johanna Naskou, André Franken, Hans Neubauer, Rui P L Neves, Guus van Dalum, Eugen Ruckhäberle, Dieter Niederacher, Jutta M Rox, Johannes C Fischer, Nikolas H Stoecklein
Diagnostic leukapheresis (DLA) is based on continuous centrifugation that collects mononuclear cells from peripheral blood with a density of 1.055-1.08 g/ml. As epithelial cells have a similar density, DLA cocollects circulating tumor cell (CTCs) along with the targeted mononuclear cells. Here, we report on our single center experience applying DLA in 40 nonmetastatic and metastatic breast cancer patients and its impact on CTC detection. We found that the use of just 5% of the DLA product (corresponding to a median peripheral blood volume of around 60 ml) in the CellSearch® assay already leads to a significant increase in CTC detection frequency and yield...
December 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Linda G Rikkert, Edwin van der Pol, Ton G van Leeuwen, Rienk Nieuwland, Frank A W Coumans
Biomarkers in the blood of cancer patients include circulating tumor cells (CTCs), tumor-educated platelets (TEPs), tumor-derived extracellular vesicles (tdEVs), EV-associated miRNA (EV-miRNA), and circulating cell-free DNA (ccfDNA). Because the size and density of biomarkers differ, blood is centrifuged to isolate or concentrate the biomarker of interest. Here, we applied a model to estimate the effect of centrifugation on the purity of a biomarker according to published protocols. The model is based on the Stokes equation and was validated using polystyrene beads in buffer and plasma...
December 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Nayoung Kim, Ji-Wan Choi, Ah Young Song, Woo Seon Choi, Hye-Ran Park, Sojung Park, Inki Kim, Hun Sik Kim
This study identified 8-azaguanine (8-AG) as a novel immunomodulatory drug (IMiD) through a high-throughput screen of the Preswick Chemical Library in a model of human NK cell cytotoxicity against blood cancer cells. 8-AG, originally developed as an antineoplastic agent, significantly increased the cytotoxicity of NK cells and was superior in this activity to previously known IMiDs, such as fluoxetine and amphotericin B, identified from the same library. IFN-γ expression was also slightly increased by 8-AG...
December 11, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Kinga Kochan-Jamrozy, Jarosław Króliczewski, Adrianna Moszyńska, James F Collawn, Rafal Bartoszewski
Solid tumor microenvironments are often subjected to various levels of hypoxia. Although regulation of gene expression has been examined extensively, most studies have focused on prolonged hypoxia. The tumor microenvironment, however, experiences waves of hypoxia and reoxygenation that stimulate the expression of pro-angiogenic factors that promote blood vessel formation. In this study, we examined human umbilical vascular endothelial cells (HUVECs) under waves of intermittent (cyclic) hypoxia to determine how this process compares to prolonged hypoxia, and more importantly, how this influences the microRNA profiles that potentially affect the posttranscriptional regulation of angiogenic genes...
December 11, 2018: Cellular Signalling
Y T Wang, Y Q Li, H Z Yuan
Objective: To investigate the correlation between the levels of serum cytokeratin 18 (CK18) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) and tumor stage and prognosis in patients with laryngeal carcinoma. Method: Patients with laryngeal cancer who were admitted to our hospital from January 2012 to December 2013 were enrolled. Blood samples were collected for CK18 and HGF detection, and postoperative prognosis data were collected at regular follow-up. Result: The serum CK18 and HGF concentration of patients with poorly differentiated tumor, high tumor grade and clinical stage were significantly higher than those with well differentiated tumor, low tumor grade and low clinical stage ( P <0...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
S J Shi, A M Yu, B Guan, M H Wang, B Y Dai, Q Yan
Two cases with piriform fossa cancer underwent larynx lateral wall repair surgery. Case 1: The patient was admitted to the hospital because of pharyngeal discomfort with swallowing pain for 2 months Electronic laryngoscopy revealed neoplasm in the left piriform fossa. Space occupying lesion in left piriform fossa and paranasal space was found in MRI scan. The pathological diagnosis of this patient was squamous cell squamous cell carcinoma (T2N1M0). Case 2: The patient was admitted to the hospital because of blood in the sputum for more than 1 year...
October 5, 2018: Journal of Clinical Otorhinolaryngology, Head, and Neck Surgery
Anca Leibovici, Rivka Sharon, David Azoulay
BACKGROUND: Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) is a neuronal growth factor that is important for the development, maintenance, and repair of the peripheral nervous system. The BDNF gene commonly carries a single nucleotide polymorphism (Val66Met-SNP), which affects the cellular distribution and activity-dependent secretion of BDNF in neuronal cells. OBJECTIVES: To check the association between BDNF Val66Met-SNP as a predisposition that enhances the development of chemotherapy-induced peripheral neuropathy in an Israeli cohort of patients with breast cancer who were treated with paclitaxel...
December 2018: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
Caoyun Ju, Yajing Wen, Luping Zhang, Qianqian Wang, Lingjing Xue, Jian Shen, Can Zhang
Gastric cancer remains one of the most lethal cancers with high incidence and mortality worldwide. The majority of gastric cancer patients are those who have first been diagnosed in advanced stage, in which the standard chemo-radiotherapy produces limited benefit along with severe general toxicity, thus the demand for improved therapeutic efficacy and decreased side effects drives the development of novel therapeutic strategies. Here, a neoadjuvant chemotherapy based on Abraxane/human neutrophils (NEs) cytopharmaceuticals with radiotherapy is presented for effective cancer treatment...
December 14, 2018: Small
Liping Yu, Silin Sa, Ling Wang, Keely Dulmage, Neha Bhagwat, Stephanie S Yee, Moen Sen, Charles H Pletcher, Jonni S Moore, Suraj Saksena, Eric P Dixon, Erica L Carpenter
Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) carry valuable biological information. While enumeration of CTCs in peripheral blood is an FDA-approved prognostic indicator of survival in metastatic prostate and other cancers, analysis of CTC phenotypic and genomic markers is needed to identify cancer origin and elucidate pathways that can guide therapeutic selection for personalized medicine. Given the emergence of single-cell mRNA sequencing technologies, a method is needed to isolate CTCs with high sensitivity and specificity as well as compatibility with downstream genomic analysis...
December 2018: Cytometry. Part A: the Journal of the International Society for Analytical Cytology
Akira Horiuchi, Tamaki Ikuse, Naoki Tanaka
Colonoscopy has been shown to reduce the risk of colon cancer by enabling the removal of precancerous lesions. Although the cold snare and hot snare polypectomy have similar retrieval rates and complete resection rates, the rates of delayed bleeding tend to be lower with cold snare polypectomy than with hot snare polypectomy, especially for patients taking antithrombotic agents. However, among cold snares there may be differences in terms of the completeness of polyp excision, as complete removal appears more likely with thin-wire dedicated cold snares compared to the traditional, thick-wire cold snares...
December 14, 2018: Digestive Endoscopy: Official Journal of the Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society
Tsuneo Saga, Yuji Nakamoto, Takayoshi Ishimori, Takahiro Inoue, Yoichi Shimizu, Hiroyuki Kimura, Shusuke Akamatsu, Takayuki Goto, Hiroyuki Watanabe, Kosuke Kitaguchi, Masao Watanabe, Masahiro Ono, Hideo Saji, Osamu Ogawa, Kaori Togashi
This first-in-man study was performed to evaluate the safety, whole-body distribution, dose estimation and lesion accumulation of 18 F-FSU-880, a newly-developed probe targeting prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA). Six prostate cancer patients with known metastatic lesions underwent serial whole-body positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) with 18 F-FSU-880. Blood and urine were analyzed before and after PET/CT. Accumulation of 18 F-FSU-880 in organs and metastatic lesions in serial PET images were evaluated by measuring the standardized uptake values...
December 13, 2018: Cancer Science
Yasmine Abouleila, Kaoru Onidani, Ahmed Ali, Hirokazu Shoji, Takayuki Kawai, Chwee Teck Lim, Vipin Kumar, Shinobu Okaya, Ken Kato, Eiso Hiyama, Toshio Yanagida, Tsutomu Masujima, Yoshihiro Shimizu, Kazufumi Honda
Recently, there has been an increased attention to circulating tumor cells (CTCs) analysis, also known as liquid biopsy, owing to its potential benefits in cancer diagnosis and treatment. CTCs are released from primary tumor lesions into the blood stream and eventually metastasize to distant body organs. However, a major hurdle with CTC analysis is their natural scarcity. Existing methods lack sensitivity, specificity or reproducibility required in CTC characterization and detection. Here, we report untargeted molecular profiling of single CTCs obtained from gastric cancer (GC) and colorectal cancer (CRC) patients, using live single cell mass spectrometry (LSC-MS) integrated with microfluidics-based cell enrichment technique...
December 14, 2018: Cancer Science
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