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"assisted suicide" OR "aid in dying"

Diogo Rijo
Euthanasia has been discussed since Antiquity. Euthanasia and assisted suicide should be considered under the term "euthanasia" and under the same definition of "active and intentional death on demand of the patient, due to administration of medication, resulting from the decision of the physician, being independent of the executor", before being suithanasia, where the administration of medication was performed by the patient, or homothanasia, in the case of the doctor. The designations direct, active and voluntary, currently related to euthanasia should fall into disuse, because it assumes various kinds, of what is false...
January 2018: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Bonnie Steinbock, Paul T Menzel
Aid-in-dying laws in the United States have two important restrictions. First, only patients who are terminally ill, defined as having a prognosis of six months or less to live, qualify. Second, at the time the patients take the lethal medication, they must be competent to make medical decisions. This means that an advance directive requesting aid in dying for a later time when the patient lacks decision-making capacity would be invalid. However, many people are more concerned about avoiding living into severe dementia for years-a time when they will lack decision-making capacity-than they are about preventing suffering or the loss of dignity or autonomy for a few months at the end of life...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Shane Sharp
Using data from the 2007 Baylor Religion Survey, I evaluate whether beliefs in heaven and hell are associated with attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide. I find that those who believe in heaven and those who believe in hell tend to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic variables. I also find that the belief in hell mediates the effect of the belief in heaven on attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide, suggesting that the fear of hell, more so than the reward of heaven, may lead people to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Haider J Warraich, Robert W Sewell, Robert M Sade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
MaryKatherine A Brueck, Daniel P Sulmasy
In the early 20th century, a political movement to secure access to euthanasia and assisted suicide began in the United States. The multitude of organizations associated with this effort has undergone an array of mergers, splits, and name changes, channeled through two progenitor organizations-the Euthanasia Society of America and the Hemlock Society. A few chronologies mapping the metamorphoses of these organizations are available, but they are not accessible in the medical literature. Moreover, they are not comprehensive, lack consistency, and are not rigorously validated...
October 1, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
H Burger, L Gwyther, R Krause, M Ratshikana-Moloko, D Hellenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Gina Bravo, Claudie Rodrigue, Marcel Arcand, Jocelyn Downie, Marie-France Dubois, Sharon Kaasalainen, Cees M Hertogh, Sophie Pautex, Lieve Van den Block, Lise Trottier
OBJECTIVES: To elicit Quebec physicians' attitudes towards extending medical aid in dying (MAiD) to incompetent patients and to compare the attitudes of family physicians to those of other medical specialists. METHODS: We conducted a postal survey among physicians caring for patients with dementia. We used hypothetical vignettes to elicit their attitudes towards MAiD and continuous deep sedation (CDS) to relieve suffering at end of life. Two patients were depicted in the vignettes: one with cancer eligible for MAiD and one with dementia...
August 27, 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Mara Buchbinder, Enioluwafe Ojo, Laila Knio, Elizabeth R Brassfield
CONTEXT: Eight jurisdictions in the U.S. currently permit medical aid-in-dying (AID), yet little is known about the direct experience of caregivers in supporting a loved one through the process. OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of lay caregivers involved with AID in the U.S., focusing on the day of death. METHODS: Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of terminally ill patients who pursued AID under Vermont's 2013 "Patient Choice and Control at End of Life" Act...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Connie M Ulrich, Lillian S
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Daniel P Sulmasy
A number of practices at the end of life can causally contribute to diminished consciousness in dying patients. Despite overlapping meanings and a confusing plethora of names in the published literature, this article distinguishes three types of clinically and ethically distinct practices: (1) double-effect sedation, (2) parsimonious direct sedation, and (3) sedation to unconsciousness and death. After exploring the concept of suffering, the value of consciousness, the philosophy of therapy, the ethical importance of intention, and the rule of double effect, these three practices are defined clearly and evaluated ethically...
June 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Thomas A Cavanaugh
Among the oldest extant medical ethics, the Hippocratic Oath prohibits the giving of a deadly drug, regarding this act as an egregious violation of a medical ethic that is exclusively therapeutic. Proportionate palliative sedation involves the administration of a deadly drug. Hence it seems to violate the venerable Hippocratic promise associated with the dawn of Western medicine not to give a deadly drug. Relying on distinctions commonly employed in the analysis and evaluation of human actions, this article distinguishes physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, as acts that necessarily violate the prohibition against giving a deadly drug, from proportionate palliative sedation, as an act that does not...
June 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Alexander Craig, Elizabeth Dzeng
We discuss physician aid in dying, euthanasia, and other dimensions of palliative care decision making and define relevant terms raised by this case of a dying patient with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in Washington State who is unable to self-administer a lethal prescription. We then present a concrete framework that clinicians can directly apply when faced with difficult cases such as this one. We outline how exploring motivations, obtaining informed consent, defining goals, and examining alternatives can help guide physicians like the one in this case...
August 1, 2018: AMA Journal of Ethics
Frederick J White
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2018: Linacre Quarterly
Eric Blackstone, Stuart J Youngner
In 1989, Susan Wolf convincingly warned of a troublesome consequence that should discourage any movement in American society towards physician-assisted death-a legal backlash against the gains made for limiting life-sustaining treatment. The authors demonstrate that this dire consequence did not come to pass. As physician-assisted suicide gains a foothold in USA and elsewhere, many other slippery slope arguments are being put forward. Although many of these speculations should be taken seriously, they do not justify halting the new practice...
October 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Johanna Anneser
Palliative Sedation: Comments on a controversial topic Abstract. Palliative sedation (PS) is an accepted medical practice for terminally ill patients. It intends the alleviation of unbearable suffering by intentionally lowering the level of consciousness. In contrast to physician assisted suicide and euthanasia, palliative sedation aims to relieve burdensome symptoms with no intention of hastening death. PC can be applied as "intermittent palliative sedation" or "continuous (deep) sedation until death"...
July 2018: Therapeutische Umschau. Revue Thérapeutique
Mara Buchbinder
This article draws on ethnographic research on the implementation of Vermont's 2013 medical aid-in-dying (AID) law to explore a fundamental paradox: While public discourse characterizes AID as a mechanism for achieving an individually controlled autonomous death, the medico-legal framework that organizes it enlists social support and cultivates dependencies. Therefore, while patients pursuing AID may avoid certain types of dependency-such as those involved in bodily care-the process requires them to affirm and strengthen other bureaucratic, material, and affective forms...
July 16, 2018: Medical Anthropology Quarterly
R K Jacobs, M Hendricks
BACKGROUND: Euthanasia/physician-assisted suicide have been a controversial and sometimes taboo topic for a long time, not only in South Africa (SA) but also internationally. A recent (SA) judicial case has seen the topic debated again. Consensus on accepting or abolishing these practices in SA has yet to be reached. All relevant role players need to be adequately engaged before policy can be informed. OBJECTIVES: To determine the views of future doctors (medical students) regarding euthanasia and physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and to ascertain their stance on its legalisation in South Africa (SA)...
May 25, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Danuta Mendelson
The Voluntary Assisted Dying Bill 2017 Vic (VAD Bill) was passed by the Legislative Assembly of the Victorian Parliament on 20 October 2017. The Bill is partly based on the Majority Report provided by the Legal and Social Issues Committee of the Victorian Legislative Council following its Inquiry into End of Life Choices (June 2016). The Majority Report recommended introduction of euthanasia and assisted suicide legislation. The Bill is modelled on the Ministerial Advisory Panel on Voluntary Assisted Dying Final Report, which drafted 66 recommendations on legalising administration and supply of substances for the purpose of causing the person's death...
November 2017: Journal of Law and Medicine
David Shaw, Manuel Trachsel, Bernice Elger
SummaryIn this editorial, we argue that current attitudes toward terminally ill patients are generally too paternalistic, and that it is wrong to assume that patients suffering from mental health issues (including depression) cannot consent to assisted suicide.Declaration of interestNone.
July 2018: British Journal of Psychiatry: the Journal of Mental Science
Stella Reiter-Theil, Charlotte Wetterauer, Irena Anna Frei
In Switzerland, the practice of lay right-to-die societies (RTDS) organizing assisted suicide (AS) is tolerated by the state. Patient counseling and accompaniment into the dying process is overtaken by RTDS lay members, while the role of physicians may be restricted to prescribing the mortal dose after a more or less rigorous exploration of the patient’s decisional capacity. However, Swiss health care facilities and professionals are committed to providing suicide prevention. Despite the liberal attitude in society, the legitimacy of organized AS is ethically questioned...
June 15, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
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