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"assisted suicide" OR "aid in dying"

William McClelland, Ewan C Goligher
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Withholding or withdrawing life-sustaining therapy is generally differentiated from physician-assisted suicide or euthanasia based on the distinction between intention and foresight. We reviewed the literature surrounding the validity of this distinction. RECENT FINDINGS: Many physicians from different specialties express a perceived distinction between intention and foresight. The distinction between intention and foresight differs from the morally irrelevant distinction between doing and allowing...
December 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
Lori Seller, Marie-Ève Bouthillier, Veronique Fraser
BACKGROUND: Medical aid in dying (MAiD) was introduced in Quebec in 2015. Quebec clinical guidelines recommend that MAiD be approached as a last resort when other care options are insufficient; however, the law sets no such requirement. To date, little is known about when and how requests for MAiD are situated in the broader context of decision-making in end-of-life care; the timing of MAiD raises potential ethical issues. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of all MAiD requests between December 2015 and June 2017 at two Quebec hospitals and one long-term care centre was conducted to explore the relationship between routine end-of-life care practices and the timing of MAiD requests...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Medical Ethics
Derek Willis, Rob George
Conscience objection is a proposed way of ensuring that medical practitioners who object to physician-assisted suicide may avoid having to be involved in such a procedure if this is legalised. This right on the part of healthcare professionals already exists in certain circumstances. This paper examines the ethical and legal grounds for conscientious objection for medical professionals and shows how it is heavily criticised in circumstances where it is already used. The paper comes to the conclusion that as the grounds and application of conscience objection are no longer as widely accepted, its future application in any legislation can be called into question...
November 15, 2018: BMJ Supportive & Palliative Care
Alpo Vuorio, Tanja Laukkala, Ilkka Junttila, Robert Bor, Bruce Budowle, Eero Pukkala, Pooshan Navathe, Antti Sajantila
Pilot aircraft-assisted suicides (AAS) are rare, and there is limited understanding of copycat phenomenon among aviators. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possible effect the 11 September 2001, terrorist attacks had on pilot AASs in the U.S. Fatal aviation accidents in the National Transportation Safety Board (NTSB) database were searched using the following search words: "suicide", "murder-suicide" and "homicide-suicide". The timeline between 11 September 1996, and 11 September 2004, was analyzed...
November 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
E Ávila, J C Bermejo, P Sastre, M Villacieros, R Prieto
OBJECTIVE: The Law (4/2017) on rights and guarantees of persons in the process of dying in Community of Madrid regulates the exercise of the rights of the person during this process. The main objective of this study was to determine the knowledge and preferences about palliative sedation (PS), euthanasia, physician-assisted suicide (PAS), and adequacy of the therapeutic effort (ATE). MATERIALS AND METHODS: A questionnaire was designed to collect knowledge about definition and legality of detailed resources, and disposition for themselves or for a relative...
November 5, 2018: Semergen
Devin Miller, Nicole Nevadunsky
The purpose of this article is to review data supporting the benefit of palliative care, specifically for women with advanced ovarian cancer. Authors discuss barriers to implementation of palliative care, including confusion with hospice and challenges of prognostication. Generalist-level palliative techniques for treatment of pain, shortness of breath, bowel obstruction, and ascites are described. A description of physician-assisted suicide in legalized states is provided. Resources for physicians regarding communication and end-of-life decision making support for patients and their families...
December 2018: Hematology/oncology Clinics of North America
Pablo Requena, Antonio de Pádua Andrade Dos Santos
In the last few years, the new catch phrase ″voluntary stopping of eating and drinking″ has made its appearance in the medical and bioethical literature. The practice, whose ″primary intention″ is to hasten the death of a person who does not want to continue living, has been proposed as an alternative to euthanasia and assisted suicide. Some authors present it as a valid option from both the ethical and legal point of view arguing that it is basically a ″natural death″ in the same line as a limitation of treatment and does not involve suicide...
September 2018: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
Mohammad Rostami, Seyyed Jalal Younesi, Farahnaz Mohammadi Shahboulaghi, Seyed Kazem Malakouti, Mahshid Foroughan
INTRODUCTION: The rates of suicide in the elderly population are generally higher than other age groups. Models of suicide that explain the phenomenon of suicide in later life may have research, clinical and educational implications for the field of ageing. The primary purpose of this systematic review is to identify and review existing models of suicide that have a particular focus on the elderly. METHODS AND ANALYSIS: The authors intend reviewing the findings of observational studies including cohort studies, cross-sectional studies, case-control studies, and qualitative studies such as grounded theory designs which are published in Google Scholar, Scopus, PsycINFO, PubMed, Web of Science, Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews and research-related journals...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Tom Koch
Public opinion surveys and polls have a long history as tools for the reportage of public sentiment. Born in the "straw polls" of nineteenth century politics, their use expanded in the last century to include a range of commercial and social subjects. In recent decades, these have included issues of medico-legal uncertainty including, in a partial list, abortion, fetal tissue research, and the propriety of medical termination. Because public opinion surveys are assumed to be "scientific," and thus unbiased, there has been little discussion of either their suitability in areas of complex, medico-legal uncertainty or the ethics of their use in these areas...
October 17, 2018: HEC Forum: An Interdisciplinary Journal on Hospitals' Ethical and Legal Issues
Diogo Rijo
Euthanasia has been discussed since Antiquity. Euthanasia and assisted suicide should be considered under the term "euthanasia" and under the same definition of "active and intentional death on demand of the patient, due to administration of medication, resulting from the decision of the physician, being independent of the executor", before being suithanasia, where the administration of medication was performed by the patient, or homothanasia, in the case of the doctor. The designations direct, active and voluntary, currently related to euthanasia should fall into disuse, because it assumes various kinds, of what is false...
January 2018: Revista Portuguesa de Cirurgia Cardio-torácica e Vascular
Bonnie Steinbock, Paul T Menzel
Aid-in-dying laws in the United States have two important restrictions. First, only patients who are terminally ill, defined as having a prognosis of six months or less to live, qualify. Second, at the time the patients take the lethal medication, they must be competent to make medical decisions. This means that an advance directive requesting aid in dying for a later time when the patient lacks decision-making capacity would be invalid. However, many people are more concerned about avoiding living into severe dementia for years-a time when they will lack decision-making capacity-than they are about preventing suffering or the loss of dignity or autonomy for a few months at the end of life...
September 2018: Hastings Center Report
Shane Sharp
Using data from the 2007 Baylor Religion Survey, I evaluate whether beliefs in heaven and hell are associated with attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide. I find that those who believe in heaven and those who believe in hell tend to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide, even when controlling for other religiosity and sociodemographic variables. I also find that the belief in hell mediates the effect of the belief in heaven on attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide, suggesting that the fear of hell, more so than the reward of heaven, may lead people to have negative attitudes toward physician-assisted suicide...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Health Psychology
Haider J Warraich, Robert W Sewell, Robert M Sade
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 5, 2018: Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery
MaryKatherine A Brueck, Daniel P Sulmasy
In the early 20th century, a political movement to secure access to euthanasia and assisted suicide began in the United States. The multitude of organizations associated with this effort has undergone an array of mergers, splits, and name changes, channeled through two progenitor organizations-the Euthanasia Society of America and the Hemlock Society. A few chronologies mapping the metamorphoses of these organizations are available, but they are not accessible in the medical literature. Moreover, they are not comprehensive, lack consistency, and are not rigorously validated...
October 1, 2018: Palliative & Supportive Care
H Burger, L Gwyther, R Krause, M Ratshikana-Moloko, D Hellenberg
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 30, 2018: South African Medical Journal, Suid-Afrikaanse Tydskrif Vir Geneeskunde
Gina Bravo, Claudie Rodrigue, Marcel Arcand, Jocelyn Downie, Marie-France Dubois, Sharon Kaasalainen, Cees M Hertogh, Sophie Pautex, Lieve Van den Block, Lise Trottier
OBJECTIVES: To elicit Quebec physicians' attitudes towards extending medical aid in dying (MAiD) to incompetent patients and to compare the attitudes of family physicians to those of other medical specialists. METHODS: We conducted a postal survey among physicians caring for patients with dementia. We used hypothetical vignettes to elicit their attitudes towards MAiD and continuous deep sedation (CDS) to relieve suffering at end of life. Two patients were depicted in the vignettes: one with cancer eligible for MAiD and one with dementia...
December 2018: Canadian Journal of Public Health. Revue Canadienne de Santé Publique
Mara Buchbinder, Enioluwafe Ojo, Laila Knio, Elizabeth R Brassfield
CONTEXT: Eight jurisdictions in the U.S. currently permit medical aid-in-dying (AID), yet little is known about the direct experience of caregivers in supporting a loved one through the process. OBJECTIVES: To explore the experiences of lay caregivers involved with AID in the U.S., focusing on the day of death. METHODS: Semistructured in-depth interviews were conducted with caregivers of terminally ill patients who pursued AID under Vermont's 2013 "Patient Choice and Control at End of Life" Act...
August 24, 2018: Journal of Pain and Symptom Management
Connie M Ulrich, Lillian S
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2018: American Journal of Nursing
Daniel P Sulmasy
A number of practices at the end of life can causally contribute to diminished consciousness in dying patients. Despite overlapping meanings and a confusing plethora of names in the published literature, this article distinguishes three types of clinically and ethically distinct practices: (1) double-effect sedation, (2) parsimonious direct sedation, and (3) sedation to unconsciousness and death. After exploring the concept of suffering, the value of consciousness, the philosophy of therapy, the ethical importance of intention, and the rule of double effect, these three practices are defined clearly and evaluated ethically...
June 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
Thomas A Cavanaugh
Among the oldest extant medical ethics, the Hippocratic Oath prohibits the giving of a deadly drug, regarding this act as an egregious violation of a medical ethic that is exclusively therapeutic. Proportionate palliative sedation involves the administration of a deadly drug. Hence it seems to violate the venerable Hippocratic promise associated with the dawn of Western medicine not to give a deadly drug. Relying on distinctions commonly employed in the analysis and evaluation of human actions, this article distinguishes physician-assisted suicide and euthanasia, as acts that necessarily violate the prohibition against giving a deadly drug, from proportionate palliative sedation, as an act that does not...
June 2018: Theoretical Medicine and Bioethics
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