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Nicole Alessandra Munz, Qiuguo Fu, Christian Stamm, Juliane Hollender
Internal concentrations link external exposure to the potential effect, as they reflect what the organisms actually take up and experience physiologically. In this study, we investigated whether frequently detected risk-driving substances in water were found in the exposed organisms and if they are classified the same based on the whole body internal concentrations. Field gammarids were collected upstream and downstream of ten wastewater treatment plants in mixed land use catchments. The sampling was conducted in autumn and winter, during low flow conditions when diffuse agricultural input was reduced...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Harry Siviter, Mark J F Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater
Intensive agriculture currently relies on pesticides to maximize crop yield1,2 . Neonicotinoids are the most widely used insecticides globally3 , but increasing evidence of negative impacts on important pollinators4-9 and other non-target organisms10 has led to legislative reassessment and created demand for the development of alternative products. Sulfoximine-based insecticides are the most likely successor11 , and are either licensed for use or under consideration for licensing in several worldwide markets3 , including within the European Union12 , where certain neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, clothianidin and thiamethoxam) are now banned from agricultural use outside of permanent greenhouse structures...
August 15, 2018: Nature
Jingyi Guo, Rong Shi, Yiyi Cao, Yang Luan, Yijun Zhou, Yu Gao, Ying Tian
Among neonicotinoid insecticides, the fastest growing class of insecticides worldwide over the past decade, imidacloprid (IMI) is the most widely used one. The effects of IMI on human health, especially on genetic toxicity have gradually aroused more attention. In this study, a combined in vitro approach employing the thymidine kinase (TK) gene mutation assay, the comet assay and the micronucleus test was taken to assess the genotoxicity of IMI. The mechanism behind IMI was also explored by measuring reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the human lymphoblastoid TK6 cells...
August 13, 2018: Drug and Chemical Toxicology
Hayato Terayama, Ning Qu, Hitoshi Endo, Masatoshi Ito, Hideo Tsukamoto, Kanae Umemoto, Satoshi Kawakami, Yasuhiro Fujino, Masayuki Tatemichi, Kou Sakabe
Neonicotinoids, such as acetamiprid (ACE), a pesticide used worldwide, are believed to be safe for human use. These molecules are structurally similar to nicotine, act as nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) agonists, and were shown to be associated with neuromuscular and reproductive disorders, but these experiments were primarily performed in mature animals. In this study, the effects of ACE on the testes of immature mice were examined. The exposure of 3-week-old mice to ACE-containing water for 180 days led to a decrease in body weight and mildly affected spermatogenesis...
August 13, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Health Research
Joseph Salerno, Charles J Bennett, Emily Holman, Patricia L Gillis, Paul K Sibley, Ryan S Prosser
Freshwater mussels contribute important ecological functions to aquatic systems. The water filtered by mussel assemblages can improve water quality and the mixing of sediments by burrowing mussels can improve oxygen content and release nutrients. However, nearly 70% of North American freshwater mussel species are listed as either endangered, threatened, or in decline. In Ontario, 28 species are in decline or in need of protection. Even though freshwater mussels have a heightened sensitivity to some contaminants, few studies have investigated the risks that various pesticide classes pose to one freshwater mussel species or among life stages...
August 10, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Yong Fang, Pan Xie, Chunhua Dong, Yongqiang Han, Tao Tang, Yang Liu, Jie Zhong, Lianyang Bai, Xiaomao Zhou
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens (Stål) (Hemiptera: Delphacidae), is a serious pest of rice. At present, the application of chemical insecticides is the main control option for this pest. BPH has evolved resistance to various classes of insecticides. Cycloxaprid, a new oxabridged cis-configuration neonicotinoid insecticide, is a (nitromethylene) imidazole analog of imidacloprid. This study focused on the baseline susceptibility to cycloxaprid of 18 field samples of N. lugens collected from nine geographical locations in China, as well as possible cross-resistances between cycloxaprid and other important neonicotinoids in one laboratory-selected resistant strain of N...
August 2, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Weiting Jiao, Yizheng Hu, Guoqin Ge, Jianchao Li, Yu Xiao, Huimei Cai, Lili He, Rimao Hua, Jun Sun, Ruyan Hou
The use of an in vitro cell suspension to study insecticide metabolism is a simpler strategy compared to using intact plants, especially for a difficult matrix such as tea. In this study, a sterile tea leaf callus was inoculated into B5 liquid media with 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D, 1.0 mg L-1 ) and Kinetin (KT, 0.1 mg L-1 ). After 3-4 subcultures (28 days each), a good cell suspension was established. Utilizing these cultures, the metabolic behaviors of six insecticides, including two organophosphates (dimethoate, omethoate) and four neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and imidaclothiz) were compared...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
J Hernandez, A Volland, B J Leyshon, M Juda, J M Ridlon, R W Johnson, A J Steelman
Nicotine and acetylcholine cause immunosuppresion by signaling to the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7 nAChR) on immune cells. Neonicotinoids are nAChR agonists and widly used insecticides. We aimed to define the immunosuppressive potential of dietary exposure to the neonicotinoid imidacloprid (IMI) on the generation of innate and adaptive immune responses to porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV). Piglets were randomized into groups based on diet and infection. Behavioral signs of illness were recorded...
August 2, 2018: Scientific Reports
Debora Azevedo Borges, Paula de Abreu Moraes, Jaime Dias Cardoso, Priscila Cardim de Oliveira, Anne Marie Yasui, Isabella Maxwell Paulino Fernandes, Monique Moraes Lambert, Thaís Ribeiro Correia, Fabio Barbour Scott
The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of an insecticidal product in rabbits that combines the neonicotinoid dinotefuran with the pyrethroid permethrin plus the insect growth regulator pyriproxyfen. Adult New Zealand rabbits (n = 12) were infested with Ctenocephalides felis felis (50 males and 50 females per rabbit) at days -7, -2, +5, +12 and +19. The control group (n = 6) received no treatment and the treated group (n = 6) received the commercial formulation, indicated for use in dogs, which was applied topically on day 0...
August 15, 2018: Veterinary Parasitology
Melanie Raby, Xiaoming Zhao, Chunyan Hao, David G Poirier, Paul K Sibley
Neonicotinoid insecticides are a group of plant protectants frequently detected in surface waters at low concentrations. Aquatic invertebrates therefore have the potential to be exposed chronically to low concentrations of neonicotinoids. The cladocerans Daphnia magna and Ceriodaphnia dubia are among the most commonly used invertebrate test species in aquatic toxicology. Both species are known to be acutely insensitive to neonicotinoids, and while chronic toxicity has been characterized for D. magna, little research has been conducted with C...
July 25, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Melanie Raby, Xiaoming Zhao, Chunyan Hao, David G Poirier, Paul K Sibley
Neonicotinoid insecticides are frequently detected in surface waters near agricultural areas, leading to a potential for chronic exposure to sensitive aquatic species. The midge Chironomus dilutus and the mayfly Neocloeon triangulifer have been shown to be acutely sensitive to neonicotinoids. While previous studies have established chronic effects of some neonicotinoids on C. dilutus, reproduction remains unstudied. Toxic effects have not been assessed using N. triangulifer. Here we present results of chronic, static-renewal tests for 6 neonicotinoids (acetamiprid, clothianidin, dinotefuran, imidacloprid, thiacloprid, and thiamethoxam) with C...
July 28, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
Juho Lämsä, Erno Kuusela, Juha Tuomi, Sini Juntunen, Phillip C Watts
Widespread use of neonicotinoid insecticides, such as imidacloprid, is often associated with diminishing populations of bees; this loss of pollinators presents a concern for food security and may cause unpredictable changes in ecological networks. However, little is known about the potential behavioural mechanisms behind the neonicotinoid-associated pollinator decline. We quantified the effects of low-dose (1 ppb) imidacloprid exposure on the foraging behaviour of bumblebees ( Bombus terrestris ). Individual bumblebees were released into a flight arena containing three patches of robotic flowers whose colour (yellow, orange, blue) indicated whether the flower delivered a reward (sugar solution)...
July 25, 2018: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Nao Kagawa, Tetsuji Nagao
Acetamiprid (ACE) belongs to a widely used class of pesticides known as neonicotinoids. ACE binds selectively to insect nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and was previously considered relatively safe in mammalian species; however, recent studies have demonstrated ACE-mediated toxicity related to vertebrate nicotinic acetylcholine receptor activation. The potential for neurotoxicity following exposure to ACE in utero is unknown. Therefore, we evaluated the effects of repeated prenatal ACE exposure (5 mg/kg, oral doses administered to pregnant dams) on neurogenesis, neuronal distribution and microglial activation in the dorsal telencephalon on embryonic day (E)14 and in the neocortex on postnatal day 14...
July 25, 2018: Journal of Applied Toxicology: JAT
Chris Bass, Linda M Field
Neonicotinoids are a class of pesticides widely used in agriculture. In this Quick Guide, Bass and Field explain their mechanism of action and discuss the evidence supporting a potential role in pollinator declines.
July 23, 2018: Current Biology: CB
Dave Goulson, Jack Thompson, Amy Croombs
A strong argument can be made that the European Union has the most rigorous regulatory system for pesticides in the world, and that modern pesticide use poses fewer environmental threats than older regimes. Nevertheless, the impacts of pesticides on bees and other non-target organisms are much debated in Europe as elsewhere. Here we document changing patterns of pesticide use in arable and horticultural crops in Great Britain from 1990 to 2015. The weight of pesticides used has approximately halved over this period, but in contrast the number of applications per field nearly doubled...
2018: PeerJ
Christo J Botha, Elizabeth C Du Plessis, Heleen Coetser, Magda Rosemann
Reports were received that Cape spurfowl (Pternistis capensis) fell during flight and scrambled uncoordinatedly for cover and some died. Three carcases were submitted for necropsy examination, which revealed mainly congestion of the carcases and haemorrhages. Common causes of acute mortalities in birds were first excluded, but there was a history of possible exposure to imidacloprid-treated barley seeds. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid insecticide, is used to protect various crops against invertebrate pests. The combined crop contents and pooled liver samples collected from the Cape spurfowl during necropsy were submitted for liquid chromatography-high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for imidacloprid analysis...
July 9, 2018: Journal of the South African Veterinary Association
Lakshay Mahajan, Pawan Kumar Verma, Rajinder Raina, Shilpa Sood
Imidacloprid (IMI), a newer neonicotinoid insecticide, induces oxidative insult to hepatocytes due to the formation of reactive metabolites during hepatic metabolism. The present study aimed to determine the potentiating effect of arsenic (As) on IMI-induced hepatic damage in Wistar rats. Rats, randomly divided into eight groups with six in each, were subjected to daily oral administration for 28 days. Group I served as control; group II received IMI at the dose rate of 16.9 mg/kg body weight; groups III, IV, and V received As at the dose rate of 50, 100, and 150 ppb, respectively, in drinking water; groups VI, VII, and VIII received both IMI (16...
January 1, 2018: Toxicology and Industrial Health
Yongqiang Wu, Hongfei Xu, Yiou Pan, Xiwu Gao, Jinghui Xi, Juhong Zhang, Qingli Shang
Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases represent a key detoxification mechanism in neonicotinoids resistance in Aphis gossypii Glover. Synergism analysis has indicates that P450s are involved in thiamethoxam resistance. In this study, expression changes in the transcripts of P450 genes were determined in thiamethoxam-susceptible and thiamethoxam-resistant strains. Nine P450 genes in CYP3 clade were significantly overexpressed in the resistant strain (especially CYP6CY14, which was increased 17.67-fold) compared with the susceptible strain...
July 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Ane C C Santos, Paulo F Cristaldo, Ana P A Araújo, Carlisson R Melo, Ana P S Lima, Emile D R Santana, Bruna M S de Oliveira, José W S Oliveira, Jodnes S Vieira, Arie F Blank, Leandro Bacci
The recent decline of Apis mellifera populations around the world has been subject of intense research due to ecological and economic damages resulting from the loss of pollination services. The intensive use of insecticides from the neonicotinoids group is among the possible causal factors of this decline, including also sub-lethal effects. However, the use of synthetic insecticides has been increased on a global scale in the recent decades. In order to evaluate an alternative to the use of neonicotinoids, this work investigated the effects of a bioinsecticide and its major compound on A...
July 19, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Laurence Lachat, Gaétan Glauser
A very sensitive ultrahigh performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed and validated for the quantitation of the most common neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam, clothianidin, imidacloprid, acetamiprid, and thiacloprid) at trace levels in milk. Using fast and selective liquid-liquid extraction (LLE) starting from 0.5 mL of milk, lowest limits of quantitation (LLOQ) equal or lower than 10 pg/mL for all analytes were achieved. Precision and accuracy were evaluated at four different concentrations (5, 10, 500, and 10000 pg/mL) and ranged between 2 and 16% (RSD) and 77-125%, respectively...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
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