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Nate Williams, Jon Sweetman
The use of neonicotinoid pesticides is widespread throughout agricultural regions, including the Prairie Pothole Region of North America. The occurrence of these pesticides to the abundant adjacent wetlands can result in impacts on nontarget insects, and cascading effects through wetland ecosystems. In the current study, field-based mesocosms were used to investigate the effects of multiple pulses of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the emergence and chironomid community composition, in an effort to simulate episodic rain events to Prairie Pothole Wetlands...
December 12, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Izabela Hrynko, Bożena Łozowicka, Piotr Kaczyński
The risk of exposure of honey bees to the presence of insecticides in melliferous plants is higher than previously reported. Therefore, monitoring insecticide residues in these plants is of great importance to honey bee safety. A novelty of the present research was the development of an innovative procedure for determination of residues of 142 insecticides in weeds and agricultural crops among melliferous plants. Phacelia, buckwheat, rape, common dandelion, cornflower and clover were selected for testing. Samples were extracted via QuEChERS...
December 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Marion Zaworra, Harald Koehler, Josef Schneider, Andreas Lagojda, Ralf Nauen
Neonicotinoid insecticides differ in their acute contact toxicity to honey bees. Here we investigated the uptake, metabolic fate and excretion of imidacloprid and two much less toxic chemotypes, thiacloprid and acetamiprid, upon contact expo-sure in honey bees as ADME data for this mode of entry are lacking. Pharmacokinetic parameters were analyzed by track-ing a 14C-label and HPLC coupled to ESI-MS. Imidacloprid penetrates the honey bee cuticle much faster and more readily compared to thiacloprid and acetamiprid...
December 10, 2018: Chemical Research in Toxicology
Philippa J Holder, Ainsley Jones, Charles R Tyler, James E Cresswell
Mass mortalities of honey bees occurred in France in the 1990s coincident with the introduction of two agricultural insecticides, imidacloprid and fipronil. Imidacloprid, a neonicotinoid, was widely blamed, but the differential potency of imidacloprid and fipronil has been unclear because of uncertainty over their capacity to bioaccumulate during sustained exposure to trace dietary residues and, thereby, cause time-reinforced toxicity (TRT). We experimentally quantified the toxicity of fipronil and imidacloprid to honey bees and incorporated the observed mortality rates into a demographic simulation of a honey bee colony in an environmentally realistic scenario...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Yaofa Li, Jingjie An, Zhihong Dang, Haiying Lv, Wenliang Pan, Zhanlin Gao
Wheat aphids damage wheat plants directly by feeding on them and indirectly by transmitting plant pathogenic viruses, both of which result in low yield and plant death. Due to their high root absorption and systemic characteristics, neonicotinoid insecticidal seed treatments are increasingly applied to control wheat aphids throughout the growing season in China. Ecological concerns are raised in some research, because neonicotinoids can persist and accumulate in soils. They are prone to leach into waterways, and are found in crop nectars and pollens, where they may be harmful to pollinators...
2018: PloS One
J Amala Infant Joice, S Aishwarya, T Sivakumar
Titania by sol gel and Ni-Ru titania catalysts by wet impregnation methods were prepared and characterized by XRD, UV-DRS, BET and TEM techniques. Catalytic activities of the photocatalysts were evaluated towards the degradation of three widely used neonicotinoids type insecticides namely acetamiprid, imidacloprid and thiamethoxam under UV, Visible and solar irradiations. The reaction parameters such as initial concentration of the insecticide, weight of the catalyst and pH of the system were found to influence the reaction rate...
May 1, 2019: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Silke Schmidt
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 2018: Environmental Health Perspectives
Samira Veiga Ravaiano, Wagner Faria Barbosa, Hudson Vaner Ventura Tomé, Lúcio Antônio de Oliveira Campos, Gustavo Ferreira Martins
In the present work, the effects of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid formulation on the total hemocyte counts (THC) and differential hemocyte counts (DHC) were investigated in foraging workers of the stingless bee Melipona quadrifasciata under (or not) the challenge with the bacteria Escherichia coli. The THC was not altered with the insecticide exposure and/or bacterial infection. However, the DHC of the bees changed with the imidacloprid exposure and/or bacterial infection. The number of prohemocytes (stem cells) increased in bees exposed to imidacloprid, but it did not change after the bacterial infection...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Tengfei Shi, Sawyer Burton, Yufei Wang, Shengyun Xu, Wenxin Zhang, Linsheng Yu
The cyano-substituted neonicotinoid insecticide, thiacloprid, is nowadays widely used in agriculture for controlling insect pests. However, it also simultaneously has adverse effects on the health of important pollinators, such as honey bees. Previous studies have reported that sublethal doses of neonicotinoids impaired immunocompetence, learning and memory performance, and homing behaviour in honey bees. In the present study, using LC-MS-based combined with GC-MS-based metabolomic approaches, we profiled the metabolic changes that occur in the head of honey bee after subchronic exposure to 2 mg/L thiacloprid over 3 days...
November 2018: Pesticide Biochemistry and Physiology
Samuel E Baker, Amanda Bishop Serafim, Pilar Morales-Agudelo, Meghan Vidal, Antonia M Calafat, Maria Ospina
Neonicotinoid insecticides are widely used replacements for organophosphate and carbamate insecticides, but the extent of human exposure is largely unknown. On the other hand, based on urinary concentrations of DEET metabolites, human exposure to N,N-diethyl-m-toluamide (DEET) appears to be widespread. We developed a fast online solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography-isotope dilution tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) method to measure in 200 μL of human urine the concentrations of six neonicotinoid biomarkers (acetamiprid, N-desmethyl-acetamiprid, clothianidin, imidacloprid, 5-hydroxy-imidacloprid, thiacloprid), and two DEET biomarkers (3-diethyl-carbamoyl benzoic acid, 3-ethyl-carbamoyl benzoic acid)...
November 28, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Yoshinori Ikenaka, Yuichi Miyabara, Takahiro Ichise, Shouta M M Nakayama, Collins Nimako, Mayumi Ishizuka, Chiharu Tohyama
Neonicotinoids insecticides that have been on market since 1992 have been used globally including Japan. Because they are sprayed over forests and agricultural areas, inadvertent toxicity in non-target insects (especially honey bees) and humans is a matter of public concern. However, information on exposure levels and potential health impacts of neonicotinoids in children living around sprayed areas is scarce. Thus, we determined neonicotinoid exposure levels in children living in communities where thiacloprid was used to control pine wilt disease...
November 26, 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry
J Iqbal, A S Alqarni, H S A Raweh
The indigenous bee race Apis mellifera jemenitica Ruttner of Saudi Arabia can learn and retain memories established by the classical conditioning of proboscis extension response (PER). The insecticide imidacloprid has shown a drastic effect on the olfactory behavior of A. m. jemenitica in the harsh arid climatic conditions of central Saudi Arabia. The oral feeding of single imidacloprid sub-lethal doses (1.0 ng, 0.5 ng, or 0.1 ng) under laboratory conditions significantly impaired associative learning during the 2nd and 3rd conditioning trials compared to control bees (0 ng)...
November 26, 2018: Neotropical Entomology
Daiana Antonia Tavares, Thaisa Cristina Roat, Elaine Cristina Mathias Silva-Zacarin, Roberta Cornélio Ferreira Nocelli, Osmar Malaspina
Thiamethoxam (TMX) is a neurotoxic insecticide widely used for insect pest control. TMX and other neonicotinoids are reported to be potential causes of honey bee decline. Due to its systematic action, TMX may be recovered in pollen, bee bread, nectar, and honey, which make bees likely to be exposed to contaminated diet. In this study, we used immunolabeling to demonstrate that sublethal concentrations of TMX decrease the protein levels of synapsin in the mushroom bodies (MBs) and the antennal lobes (ALs) of pupae and newly emerged worker bees that were exposed through the food to TMX during the larval phase...
November 23, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Jakob Wolfram, Sebastian Stehle, Sascha Bub, Lara Luisa Petschick, Ralf Schulz
Agricultural insecticides occur in U.S. surface waters, yet our knowledge of their current and potential future large-scale risks for biodiversity is restricted. Here, we conducted a meta-analysis of measured insecticide concentrations (MICs; n=5817; 1962-2017) in U.S. surface waters and sediments reported in 259 peer-reviewed scientific studies for 32 important insecticide compounds and their degradation products (n=6). To assess overall and substance-specific ecological risks and future implications, MICs were compared with official U...
November 26, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Shaoying Wu, Denghui Deng, Wayne Jiang, Kun Zhang, Jianglong Guo, Wenbo Duan, Hao Wang
In this study, two CYP genes, CYP395G1 and CYP4EY1, were analyzed in Apolygus lucorum (Hemiptera: Miridae). The expression pattern in different developmental stages of both CYP395G1 and CYP4EY1 revealed that first instar nymphs possessed the highest gene-transcript levels. After 12 h of dinotefuran treatments, the expression levels of CYP395G1 increased by 1.92-fold, while the CYP4EY1 expression decreased. It was observed that the sensitivities of dinotefuran to laboratory strains from F0 to F9 and the mRNA expression levels of CYP395G1 in the F9 dinotefuran selected strain were higher when compared to the control strain...
November 21, 2018: Bulletin of Environmental Contamination and Toxicology
John H North, Jeffrey Gore, Angus L Catchot, Donald R Cook, Darrin M Dodds, Fred R Musser
Current assessments from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency suggest that some current insecticides may be lost or severely restricted in the near future. An experiment was conducted from 2014 to 2015 at two locations in Mississippi to determine the impact of losses of insecticide classes on integrated pest management of insect pests in cotton. The treatments included cotton treated with all available classes of insecticides, cotton treated with all classes except neonicotinoids, cotton treated with all classes except pyrethroids, cotton treated with all classes except carbamates and organophosphates, and an untreated control...
November 20, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Charles C Coslor, Christine Vandervoort, John C Wise
BACKGROUND: Trunk injection is an established method for delivering pesticides in ornamental and shade trees, but further research is needed to determine efficacy and pollinator safety in tree fruit crops. Apple trees were injected in 2013 and 2014 with the insecticides emamectin benzoate, imidacloprid, dinotefuran, spinosad, chlorantraniliprole, or abamectin. Additional emamectin benzoate and imidacloprid injections were performed in the spring and fall of 2015. Nectar and pollen were sampled in the following spring to compare effects of application timings on insecticide loading into flowers...
November 18, 2018: Pest Management Science
Harry Siviter, Julia Koricheva, Mark J F Brown, Ellouise Leadbeater
Most insecticides are insect neurotoxins. Evidence is emerging that sublethal doses of these neurotoxins are affecting the learning and memory of both wild and managed bee colonies, exacerbating the negative effects of pesticide exposure and reducing individual foraging efficiency.Variation in methodologies and interpretation of results across studies has precluded the quantitative evaluation of these impacts that is needed to make recommendations for policy change. It is not clear whether robust effects occur under acute exposure regimes (often argued to be more field-realistic than the chronic regimes upon which many studies are based), for field-realistic dosages, and for pesticides other than neonicotinoids...
November 2018: Journal of Applied Ecology
Helen Thompson, Jay Overmyer, Max Feken, Natalie Ruddle, Sarah Vaughan, Emily Scorgie, Sigrun Bocksch, Marcus Hill
Neonicotinoid insecticides have been used in a wide range of crops through seed treatment, soil and foliar applications and a large database exists on both their lethal and sub-lethal effects on honey bees under controlled laboratory conditions. However, colony-level studies on the effects of neonicotinoids in field studies are limited, primarily due to their complexity and the resources required. This paper reports the combined results of two large-scale colony-feeding studies, each with 6 weeks of continuous dosing of 12 colonies per treatment (24 control) to 12...
November 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Chao Zhang, Di Tian, XiaoHui Yi, Tao Zhang, Jujun Ruan, Renren Wu, Chen Chen, Mingzhi Huang, GuangGuo Ying
Occurrence and distribution of five neonicotinoids (NEOs) in surface water and sediment were studied in the Pearl Rivers, including three trunk streams, Dongjiang, Beijiang, Xijiang River (DR, BR and XR), South China. At least one neonicotinoid was detected in surface water and sediment of the Pearl Rivers, with imidacloprid (IMI) and thiamethoxam (THM) being the frequently detected NEOs. Total amount of NEOs (∑5 neonics) in surface water and sediment ranged from 24.0 to 322 ng/L, and from 0.11 to 11.6 ng/g dw, respectively...
November 3, 2018: Chemosphere
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