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Sriyanka Lahiri, Phillip M Roberts, Michael D Toews
Thrips are early-season pests of cotton and can cause yield and stand losses if not managed. Strip tillage into a winter cover crop, use of a neonicotinoid seed treatment, and foliar insecticide applications are all reliable pest management tactics, but how these methods interact with each other in a thrip-cotton agroecosystem needs to be further understood. A 2-yr field study was conducted to compare thrip counts and thrip-induced plant injury as a function of tillage practice (conventional vs strip tillage with heavy rolled rye), thiamethoxam seed treatment, and foliar insecticide application for managing thrips in cotton...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Mária Mörtl, Béla Darvas, Ágnes Vehovszky, János Győri, András Székács
Neonicotinoid uptake by maize plants emerged from coated seeds and by two common weeds grown in close proximity to coated seeds has been studied. Uptake of thiamethoxam (TMX) and clothianidin (CLO) have been characterized via guttation liquid measurements. The creeping thistle (Cirsium arvense), a well-known maize weed, as well as red poppy or Flanders poppy (Papaver rhoeas) were chosen as model species. The results confirmed that cross-contamination may occur by uptake of the neonicotinoid AIs through soil from neighbouring plants that emerged from coated seeds...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
João C G Sousa, Ana R Ribeiro, Marta O Barbosa, Cláudia Ribeiro, Maria E Tiritan, M Fernando R Pereira, Adrián M T Silva
The occurrence of micropollutants in the environment is a matter of high concern. Some regulations have been published in the last years and a Watch List of contaminants of emerging concern (CECs) for European Union monitoring of surface water was launched in the Decision 2015/495, including three estrogens (estrone, E1; 17-β-estradiol, E2; and 17-α-ethinylestradiol, EE2), four pharmaceuticals (diclofenac and the macrolide antibiotics azithromycin, clarithromycin and erythromycin), an anti-oxidant (2,6-ditert-butyl-4-methylphenol, BHT), an UV filter (2-ethylhexyl 4-methoxycinnamate, EHMC), some pesticides (methiocarb and the neonicotinoids imidacloprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin and acetamiprid) and two herbicides (oxadiazon and triallate)...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Laura M Addy-Orduna, Julie C Brodeur, Rafael Mateo
Neonicotinoids have recently been demonstrated to cause direct negative impacts on birds from North America and Europe. To further understand the impact of these compounds on bird species and to improve risk assessment capacities, the current study determined the acute toxicities of imidacloprid, clothianidin, and thiamethoxam formulations on South American eared doves (Zenaida auriculata). Insecticides were administered by gavage to adult doves to determine median lethal doses (LD50) according to a standardized sequential procedure...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Nicaellen Roberta da Silva Souza, Sandro Navickiene
Background : A simple and effective extraction method based on ultrasonic solvent extraction and liquid-liquid microextraction (as the cleaning step) was developed to determine seven pesticide residues in roasted coffee ( Coffea arabica ) using ultra-performance LC-tandem MS. Objective : Different parameters of the method were evaluated, including solvent type and amount and sonication time. The best results were obtained using 1.0 g roasted coffee and acetonitrile (5 mL) as the extraction solvent with sonication for 15 min...
October 10, 2018: Journal of AOAC International
Ales Gregorc, Mohamed Alburaki, Nicholas Rinderer, Blair Sampson, Patricia R Knight, Shahid Karim, John Adamczyk
The main objective of this study was to test comparatively the effects of two common insecticides on honey bee Apis mellifera worker's lifespan, food consumption, mortality, and expression of antioxidant genes. Newly emerged worker bees were exposed to organophosphate insecticide coumaphos, a neonicotinoid imidacloprid, and their mixtures. Toxicity tests were conducted along with bee midgut immunohistological TUNEL analyses. RT-qPCR assessed the regulation of 10 bee antioxidant genes linked to pesticide toxicity...
October 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
Julia Grassl, Shannon Holt, Naomi Cremen, Marianne Peso, Dorothee Hahne, Boris Baer
Declines in native insect pollinator populations and substantial losses in managed honey bees have been reported on a global scale and become a widespread concern because of the importance of these insects for human food production and ecosystem stability. Several potential factors have been studied as possible causes of declining pollinator health, such as parasites and pathogens, exposure to agricultural pesticides, habitat loss and/or climate change. More recently, a combination of these factors rather than a single cause have been blamed for observed pollinator losses, but field studies of such interactions are challenging, especially in the presence of confounding environmental stressors...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Invertebrate Pathology
Verena Christen, Petra Y Kunz, Karl Fent
Exposure to plant protection products (PPPs) is one of the causes for the population decline of pollinators. In addition to direct exposure, pollinators are exposed to PPPs by pollen, nectar and honey that often contain residues of multiple PPPs. While in legislation PPPs are regarded mainly for their acute toxicity in bees, other effects such as neurotoxicity, immunotoxicity, behavioural changes, stress responses and chronic effects that may harm different physiologically and ecologically relevant traits are much less or not regarded...
September 25, 2018: Environmental Pollution
Melissa W Mobley, Robert J Gegear
Neonicotinoid insecticides have been implicated in the rapid global decline of bumblebees over recent years, particularly in agricultural and urban areas. While there is much known about neonicotinoid toxicity effects at the colony stage of the bumblebee annual cycle, far less is known about such effects at other stages critical for the maintenance of wild populations. In the present work, individual-based feeding assays were used to show that chronic consumption of the widely used neonicotinoid clothianidin at a field-realistic average rate of 3...
2018: PloS One
C N Rao, Anjitha George, S Rahangadale
Field populations of thrips (Scirtothrips dorsalis Hood) from citrus nurseries and psyllids (Diaphorina citri Kuwayama) from commercial citrus orchards of three districts in Maharashtra State in India were evaluated for levels of resistance to organophosphates (acephate, chlorpyrifos, quinalphos, and dimethoate), neonicotinoids (thiamethoxam, imidacloprid), abamectin and spinosad between 2012 and 2017. Leaf dip bioassays for thrips and shoot tip bioassay for nymph and adult psyllids were used to assess levels of insecticide resistance as indicated by resistance ratios (RRs)...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Dao Bach Khoa, Bui Xuan Thang, Nguyen Van Liem, Niels Holst, Michael Kristensen
The brown planthopper (BPH), Nilaparvata lugens, is a serious threat to rice production in Vietnam and insecticides are widely used for its control. Migration of the BPH have one of its roots in tropical Vietnam in the Mekong River Delta and the insecticide resistance status of BPH populations from Vietnam is thus important for East Asia. In the present investigation, we evaluate the susceptibility of BPH populations from nine provinces from the Red River Delta, the Central Coastal region and the Mekong River Delta of eight insecticides during 2015-17...
2018: PloS One
Benjamin Z Bradford, Anders S Huseth, Russell L Groves
Neonicotinoids are a popular and widely-used class of insecticides whose heavy usage rates and purported negative impacts on bees and other beneficial insects has led to questions about their mobility and accumulation in the environment. Neonicotinoid compounds are currently registered for over 140 different crop uses in the United States, with commercial growers continuing to rely heavily on neonicotinoid insecticides for the control of key insect pests through a combination of in-ground and foliar applications...
2018: PloS One
Chelsie Darnell-Crumpton, Angus L Catchot, Donald R Cook, Jeffrey Gore, Darrin M Dodds, Shannon C Morsello, Fred R Musser
Insecticidal efficacy of neonicotinoid insecticides used against tobacco thrips, Frankliniella fusca (Hinds) (Thysanoptera: Thripidae), in cotton, Gossypium hirisutum L. (Malvales: Malvaceae), was evaluated for field populations collected in Mississippi during 2014-2016. Resistance was documented in 16 and 57% of populations to imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, respectively. Resistance levels did not vary by host plant for any neonicotinoid, but resistance levels varied between the two main agricultural areas (Delta and Hills) of Mississippi and among years for some neonicotinoids...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Clay M Perkins, Sandra J Steckel, Scott D Stewart
Several species of aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) infesting wheat may reduce yield by the transmission of barley yellow dwarf (BYD). Neonicotinoid seed treatments and foliar application of insecticides are two common methods to control aphid infestations and reduce BYD. An analysis was carried out across 33 insecticide efficacy tests performed in west Tennessee during the last 11 yr to determine how insecticide seed treatments and/or a late-winter foliar insecticide application affected aphid populations, incidence of BYD, and yield...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Xingchuan Jiang, Zhengwei Wang, Qibao He, Qiongqiong Liu, Xinyang Li, Linsheng Yu, Haiqun Cao
Neonicotinoid insecticides are in widespread use around the world, cause pollinator decline. We used semi-field conditions to determine the effect of sublethal insecticide, thiamethoxam, exposure on orientation behavior and sugar responsiveness. Bees could not reject the non-treated flower or the insecticide or insecticide/fungicide treated flower. After bees consumed the insecticide or insecticide/fungicide treated nectar, they could not discriminate between a flower odor or blank control in a Y-maze when making a first choice...
September 29, 2018: Insects
Zhou Tong, Jinsheng Duan, Yancan Wu, Qiongqiong Liu, Qibao He, Yanhong Shi, Linsheng Yu, Haiqun Cao
Honeybees are major pollinators of agricultural crops and many other plants in natural ecosystems alike. In recent years, managed honeybee colonies have decreased rapidly. The application of pesticides is hypothesized to be an important route leading to colony loss. Herein, a quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged, and safe (QuEChERS) method was used to determine eight highly detectable pesticides (carbendazim, prochloraz, pyrimethanil, fenpropathrin, chlorpyrifos, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam, and acetamiprid) in rape flowers...
September 27, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Zuyi C Gooley, Aaron C Gooley, Richard D Fell
Neonicotinoid insecticide use has been suggested as a cause of honey bee colony decline; however, detection rates and concentrations of neonicotinoid insecticide residues in field-collected honey bees have been low. We collected honey bee and beebread samples from apiaries in agricultural, developed, and undeveloped areas during 2 years in Virginia to assess whether landscape type or county pesticide use was predictive of honey bee colony exposure to neonicotinoid insecticides. Trace concentrations of the neonicotinoid imidacloprid were detected in honey bees (3 of 84 samples, 2...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Shenhang Cheng, Ronghua Lin, Limin Wang, Qianying Qiu, Mengmeng Qu, Xiaodong Ren, Fulin Zong, Hui Jiang, Caihong Yu
The parasitoid Trichogramma species are indispensable natural enemies of many lepidopterans and it plays an important role in integrated pest management (IPM) programs throughout the world. Laboratory studies were conducted to compare the susceptibility of three Trichogramma egg parasitoid species to ten common insecticides and three herbicides. The adults of Trichogramma dendrolimi, T. chilonis, and T. ostriniae were exposed to the above-mentioned pesticides by a glass-vial residue method. Among the four neonicotinoids, dinotefuran and thiamethoxam exhibited extremely toxic effects on the Trichogramma dendrolimi and T...
September 21, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Andreu Rico, Alba Arenas-Sánchez, Julia Pasqualini, Ariadna García-Astillero, Laura Cherta, Leonor Nozal, Marco Vighi
Neonicotinoid insecticides are considered contaminants of concern due to their high toxicity potential to non-target terrestrial and aquatic organisms. In this study we evaluated the sensitivity of aquatic invertebrates to a single application of imidacloprid and an equimolar mixture of five neonicotinoids (imidacloprid, acetamiprid, thiacloprid, thiamethoxam, clothianidin) using mesocosms under Mediterranean conditions. Cyclopoida, Cloeon dipterum and Chironomini showed the highest sensitivity to neonicotinoids, with calculated NOECs below 0...
September 12, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Alex Otesbelgue, Charles Fernando Dos Santos, Betina Blochtein
Virgin queens (gynes) exhibit a range of behaviors in order to be accepted as the leader of colony. However, environmental neurotoxic insecticides as neonicotinoids may affect the social performance of the bees. Here, we evaluated the sublethal effects of neonicotinoid imidacloprid on the larval food of queens from Plebeia droryana, a species of neotropical stingless bee. Several behaviors were analyzed as multivariate response variables in a Hotelling test, as well as generalized additive mixed models. Our findings demonstrate that treated queens perform less wing vibration and trophallaxis with their workers...
September 20, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
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