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Haemorrhagic shock

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351663/mini-review-can-non-human-leucocyte-antigen-genes-determine-susceptibility-to-severe-dengue-syndromes
#1
Dorothy Ng, Aparna Ghosh, Mark Jit, Suranjith L Seneviratne
Dengue viral infections are endemic or epidemic in virtually all tropical countries. Among individuals infected with the dengue virus, severe dengue syndromes (i.e., dengue haemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndromes) tend to affect only some and this may be due to a combination of host genetic susceptibility and viral factors. In this review article we analyse and discuss the present knowledge of non-human leucocyte antigen host genetic susceptibility to severe dengue syndromes. The relevance of genetic polymorphisms in the pathways of antigen recognition, uptake, processing and presentation, activation of interferon α responses, mast cell and complement activation and T cell activation and dengue disease severity has been reviewed and analysed...
January 17, 2018: Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29324486/fibrinolysis-and-antifibrinolytic-treatment-in-the-trauma-patient
#2
Lewis S Gall, Ross A Davenport
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The role of antifibrinolytics in trauma haemorrhage and early coagulopathy remains controversial with respect to patient selection, dosage, timing of treatment, and risk of thrombotic complications. This review presents our current understanding of the mechanisms of fibrinolysis in trauma, diagnostic evaluation, and the evidence base for treatment. RECENT FINDINGS: Excessive fibrinolysis following severe injury is a major component of acute traumatic coagulopathy and contributes to the high mortality from trauma haemorrhage...
January 10, 2018: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297368/the-bloody-mess-of-red-blood-cell-transfusion
#3
REVIEW
Susilo Chandra, Hrishikesh Kulkarni, Martin Westphal
Red blood cell (RBC) transfusion might be life-saving in settings with acute blood loss, especially uncontrolled haemorrhagic shock. However, there appears to be a catch-22 situation reflected by the facts that preoperative anaemia represents an independent risk factor for postoperative morbidity and mortality, and that RBC transfusion might also contribute to adverse clinical outcomes. This dilemma is further complicated by the difficulty to define the "best" transfusion trigger and strategy. Since one size does obviously not fit all, a personalised approach is merited...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29261771/endotheliopathy-is-associated-with-higher-levels-of-cell-free-dna-following-major-trauma-a-prospective-observational-study
#4
David N Naumann, Jon Hazeldine, Robert J Dinsdale, Jon R Bishop, Mark J Midwinter, Paul Harrison, Sam D Hutchings, Janet M Lord
BACKGROUND: Cell free deoxyribonucleic acid (cfDNA) has been proposed as a biomarker of secondary complications following trauma. Raised thrombomodulin and syndecan-1 levels have been used to indicate endotheliopathy, and are associated with inflammation, coagulopathy, and mortality. The current study aimed to analyse the association between cfDNA and biomarkers of endotheliopathy in a cohort of trauma patients, and whether raised levels of cfDNA were associated with poorer clinical outcomes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29207735/pattern-of-isolated-fatal-mechanical-injury-in-homicidal-deaths-a-cross-sectional-study
#5
Kiran Kumar Patnaik, Sudeepa Das, Sachidananda Mohanty, Hemanta Panigrahi
Introduction: Homicide is the death of one human being as a result of conduct of another. Multiple assaults on the body are seen in 70% cases, which indicate determination on the part of the accused to end the life of the victim. Aim: To identify the pattern, distribution and means of inflicting fatal isolated mechanical injury on the body in cases of homicide. Materials and Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted on total 728 homicide deaths, out of which 63 cases had an isolated fatal mechanical injury over the body and the rest 665 cases had multiple injuries...
September 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197958/immunohaemostasis-a-new-view-on-haemostasis-during-sepsis
#6
REVIEW
Xavier Delabranche, Julie Helms, Ferhat Meziani
Host infection by a micro-organism triggers systemic inflammation, innate immunity and complement pathways, but also haemostasis activation. The role of thrombin and fibrin generation in host defence is now recognised, and thrombin has become a partner for survival, while it was seen only as one of the "principal suspects" of multiple organ failure and death during septic shock. This review is first focused on pathophysiology. The role of contact activation system, polyphosphates and neutrophil extracellular traps has emerged, offering new potential therapeutic targets...
December 2, 2017: Annals of Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189297/are-on-scene-blood-transfusions-by-a-helicopter-emergency-medical-service-useful-and-safe-a-multicentre-case-control-study
#7
Joost H Peters, Pascal S H Smulders, Xavier R J Moors, Stef J M Bouman, Claartje M E M Meijs, Nico Hoogerwerf, Michael J R Edwards
INTRODUCTION: In the prehospital setting, crystalloid fluids are frequently used, but only erythrocytes are capable of transporting oxygen to tissues. The aim of this study was to establish the efficacy and safety of the prehospital use of uncross matched type O rhesus-negative packed red blood cells (URBC) by the Dutch physician-staffed helicopter emergency medical service. We hypothesized that prehospital URBC transfusions are safe and more effective with respect to survival than resuscitations with crystalloids...
November 17, 2017: European Journal of Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the European Society for Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150998/a-whiter-shade-of-pale-the-ongoing-challenge-of-haemorrhagic-shock
#8
David J J Muckart, Manu L N G Malbrain
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 18, 2017: Anaesthesiology Intensive Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29150154/cutaneous-squamous-cell-carcinomas-scc-associated-with-cosmetic-skin-whitening-8-cases-reported-in-senegal
#9
F Ly, P Diousse, C Ndiaye, A Déme, B A Diatta, M T Ndiaye, M Diallo, A Diop, A D Kebe, F Fall, A Kane
BACKGROUND: The cosmetic use of bleaching products is common among women from sub-Saharan Africa. The most frequently used products are highly potent corticosteroids (clobetasol propionate) and hydroquinone. Herein, we report 8 cases of SCC in women using skin bleaching products for cosmetic purposes. Our aim is to describe the epidemiological, clinical and pathological aspects of the carcinomas observed during the course of skin lightening. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive multicentre study from August 2005 to January 2016 in three dermatology units in Senegal...
November 14, 2017: Annales de Dermatologie et de Vénéréologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141932/umbilical-artery-perforation-a-potentially-life-threatening-complication-of-umbilical-artery-catheterisation
#10
Daniel Molanus, Machteld van Scherpenzeel, Joep Derikx, Frank van den Dungen
Umbilical artery catheterisation is frequently performed in preterm or critically ill newborn infants for invasive monitoring of blood pressure and blood sampling for laboratory tests. It is associated with well-known complications like catheter-related infections, thromboembolic events and aneurysmal formation of the aorta. In this report, we present another major complication of umbilical artery catheterisation: umbilical artery perforation. This complication occurred in a prematurely born infant and resulted in severe haemorrhagic shock, subsequent renal failure and severe periventricular leukomalacia...
November 14, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103319/in-vivo-evaluation-of-electron-mediators-for-the-reduction-of-methemoglobin-encapsulated-in-liposomes-using-electron-energies-produced-by-red-blood-cell-glycolysis
#11
Semhar Ghirmai, Leif Bülow, Hiromi Sakai
Earlier studies have clarified that NADH and NADPH, re-energized repeatedly by red blood cell (RBC) glycolysis, can be used in extracellular chemical reactions, where electron energies are extracted by electron mediators, such as methylene blue (MB). The electron mediators, which are reduced by NAD(P)H, permeate both the membranes of RBC and phospholipid bilayer of liposomes encapsulating haemoglobin (Hb-vesicles, HbV) and reduce autoxidized ferric methemoglobin (metHb) in HbV to ferrous Hb. Moreover, in vitro screening study clarified some other potential electron mediators with comparable capacity to reduce metHb...
November 6, 2017: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079917/permissive-hypotensive-resuscitation-in-adult-patients-with-traumatic-haemorrhagic-shock-a-systematic-review
#12
REVIEW
Mohammed Albreiki, David Voegeli
BACKGROUND: Permissive hypotensive resuscitation (PHR) is an advancing concept aiming towards deliberative balanced resuscitation whilst treating severely injured patients, and its effectiveness on the survival rate remains unexplored. This detailed systematic review aims to critically evaluate the available literature that investigates the effects of PHR on survival rate. METHODS: A systematic review design searched for comparative and non-comparative studies using EMBASE, MEDLINE, PubMed, Web-of-Science and CENTRAL...
October 27, 2017: European Journal of Trauma and Emergency Surgery: Official Publication of the European Trauma Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29072635/a-systematic-review-of-neuroprotective-strategies-during-hypovolemia-and-hemorrhagic-shock
#13
REVIEW
Marius Nistor, Wilhelm Behringer, Martin Schmidt, René Schiffner
Severe trauma constitutes a major cause of death and disability, especially in younger patients. The cerebral autoregulatory capacity only protects the brain to a certain extent in states of hypovolemia; thereafter, neurological deficits and apoptosis occurs. We therefore set out to investigate neuroprotective strategies during haemorrhagic shock. This review was performed in accordance to the PRISMA (Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses) guidelines. Before the start of the search, a review protocol was entered into the PROSPERO database...
October 26, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29054903/barriers-to-safe-abortion-access-uterine-rupture-as-complication-of-unsafe-abortion-in-a-ugandan-girl
#14
Rose McKeon Olson, Solomon Kamurari
A 15-year-old girl at 18 weeks gestation by the last menstrual period presented to a rural Ugandan healthcare facility for termination of her pregnancy as a result of rape by her uncle. Skilled healthcare workers at the facility refused to provide the abortion due to fear of legal repercussions. The patient subsequently obtained an unsafe abortion by vaginal insertion of local herbs and sharp objects. She developed profuse vaginal bleeding and haemorrhagic shock. She was found to have uterine rupture and emergent hysterectomy was performed...
October 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29049750/spontaneous-intra-abdominal-haemorrhage-due-to-segmental-arterial-mediolysis-following-oesophagocolojejunostomy
#15
Jonggeun Lee, Hyo Yeong Ahn, Hoseok I, Chang Won Kim
Segmental arterial mediolysis is a rare vascular disease that leads to spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage, which causes shock and bowel ischaemia, and is associated with a high mortality rate. Here, we present a case of spontaneous intra-abdominal haemorrhage due to segmental arterial mediolysis in a patient who underwent oesophagocolojejunostomy for synchronous triple primary cancer, which was treated successfully by coil embolization. We conclude that a preoperative angiogram is necessary to detect vascular abnormalities, and in cases with severe haemorrhage, an urgent endovascular procedure is the treatment of choice...
July 20, 2017: Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29047413/itactic-implementing-treatment-algorithms-for-the-correction-of-trauma-induced-coagulopathy-study-protocol-for-a-multicentre-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
Kjersti Baksaas-Aasen, Lewis Gall, Simon Eaglestone, Claire Rourke, Nicole P Juffermans, J Carel Goslings, Paal Aksel Naess, Susan van Dieren, Sisse Rye Ostrowski, Jakob Stensballe, Marc Maegele, Simon J Stanworth, Christine Gaarder, Karim Brohi, Per I Johansson
BACKGROUND: Traumatic injury is the fourth leading cause of death globally. Half of all trauma deaths are due to bleeding and most of these will occur within 6 h of injury. Haemorrhagic shock following injury has been shown to induce a clotting dysfunction within minutes, and this early trauma-induced coagulopathy (TIC) may exacerbate bleeding and is associated with higher mortality and morbidity. In spite of improved resuscitation strategies over the last decade, current transfusion therapy still fails to correct TIC during ongoing haemorrhage and evidence for the optimal management of bleeding trauma patients is lacking...
October 18, 2017: Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029632/fatal-haemorrhage-and-neoplastic-thrombosis-in-a-captive-african-lion-panthera-leo-with-metastatic-testicular-sex-cord-stromal-tumour
#17
Omar Antonio Gonzales-Viera, Angélica María Sánchez-Sarmiento, Natália Coelho Couto de Azevedo Fernandes, Juliana Mariotti Guerra, Rodrigo Albergaria Ressio, José Luiz Catão-Dias
BACKGROUND: The study of neoplasia in wildlife species contributes to the understanding of cancer biology, management practices, and comparative pathology. Higher frequencies of neoplasms among captive non-domestic felids have been reported most commonly in aging individuals. However, testicular tumours have rarely been reported. This report describes a metastatic testicular sex cord-stromal tumour leading to fatal haemorrhage and thrombosis in a captive African lion (Panthera leo). CASE PRESENTATION: During necropsy of a 16-year-old male African lion, the left testicle and spermatic cord were found to be intra-abdominal (cryptorchid), semi-hard and grossly enlarged with multiple pale-yellow masses...
October 13, 2017: Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023857/preceding-haemorrhagic-shock-as-a-detrimental-risk-factor-for-respiratory-distress-after-excessive-allogeneic-blood-transfusion
#18
R Masuda, T Iijima, R Kondo, Y Itoda, M Matsuhashi, S Hashimoto, T Kohira, N Kobayashi, H Okazaki
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Whether transfusion-associated circulatory overload arises as a simple result of over-transfusion or requires another trigger remains unclear. Here, we examined whether respiratory distress could be reproduced by massive transfusion alone in an animal model. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 20 anaesthetized swine were equipped with monitors. Allogeneic blood was obtained from 10 donor swine. A 4-stage loading protocol with each stage equivalent to 25% of the blood volume (BV) in the recipient swine was then used to infuse crystalloid (CR), hydroxyethyl starch (HES) or allogeneic blood (TR) (n = 5 each)...
October 11, 2017: Vox Sanguinis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28977019/effectiveness-of-a-fluid-chart-in-outpatient-management-of-suspected-dengue-fever-a-pilot-study
#19
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Nazrila Hairin Nasir, Mohazmi Mohamad, Lucy Chai See Lum, Chirk Jenn Ng
INTRODUCTION: Dengue infection is the fastest spreading mosquito-borne viral disease in the world. One of the complications of dengue is dehydration which, if not carefully monitored and treated, may lead to shock, particularly in those with dengue haemorrhagic fever. WHO has recommended oral fluid intake of five glasses or more for adults who are suspected to have dengue fever. However, there have been no published studies looking at self-care intervention measures to improve oral fluid intake among patients suspected of dengue fever...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28975653/analysis-of-skeletal-muscle-microcirculation-in-a-porcine-polytrauma-model-with-haemorrhagic-shock
#20
Zhi Qiao, Klemens Horst, Michel Teuben, Johannes Greven, Luxu Yin, Yannik Kalbas, René H Tolba, Hans-Christoph Pape, Frank Hildebrand, Roman Pfeifer
Polytraumatised patients with haemorrhagic shock are prone to develop systemic complications, such as SIRS (systemic inflammatory response syndrome), ARDS (acute respiratory distress syndrome) and MOF (multiple organ failure). The pathomechanism of severe complications following trauma is multifactorial, and it is believed that microcirculatory dysfunction plays an important role. The aim of this study was to determine the changes in the microcirculation in musculature over time during shock and subsequent resuscitation in a porcine model of haemorrhagic shock and polytrauma...
October 3, 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Research: Official Publication of the Orthopaedic Research Society
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