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Dopamine dementia

Nicolaas I Bohnen, Prabesh Kanel, Martijn L T M Müller
One of the first identified neurotransmitters in the brain, acetylcholine, is an important modulator that drives changes in neuronal and glial activity. For more than two decades, the main focus of molecular imaging of the cholinergic system in Parkinson's disease (PD) has been on cognitive changes. Imaging studies have confirmed that degeneration of the cholinergic system is a major determinant of dementia in PD. Within the last decade, the focus is expanding to studying cholinergic correlates of mobility impairments, dyskinesias, olfaction, sleep, visual hallucinations and risk taking behavior in this disorder...
2018: International Review of Neurobiology
Claudio Babiloni, Claudio Del Percio, Roberta Lizio, Giuseppe Noce, Susanna Lopez, Andrea Soricelli, Raffaele Ferri, Maria Teresa Pascarelli, Valentina Catania, Flavio Nobili, Dario Arnaldi, Francesco Famà, Francesco Orzi, Carla Buttinelli, Franco Giubilei, Laura Bonanni, Raffaella Franciotti, Marco Onofrj, Paola Stirpe, Peter Fuhr, Ute Gschwandtner, Gerhard Ransmayr, Lucia Fraioli, Lucilla Parnetti, Lucia Farotti, Michela Pievani, Fabrizia D'Antonio, Carlo De Lena, Bahar Güntekin, Lutfu Hanoğlu, Görsev Yener, Derya Durusu Emek-Savaş, Antonio Ivano Triggiani, John Paul Taylor, Ian McKeith, Fabrizio Stocchi, Laura Vacca, Giovanni B Frisoni, Maria Francesca De Pandis
We hypothesized that dopamine neuromodulation might affect cortical excitability in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients set in quiet wakefulness, as revealed by resting state eyes-closed electroencephalographic (rsEEG) rhythms at alpha frequencies (8-12 Hz). Clinical and rsEEG rhythms in PD with dementia (N = 35), PD with mild cognitive impairment (N = 50), PD with normal cognition (N = 35), and normal (N = 50) older adults were available from an international archive. Cortical rsEEG sources were estimated by exact low-resolution brain electromagnetic tomography...
August 30, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Li Guo, Eduardo M Normando, Parth Arvind Shah, Lies De Groef, M Francesca Cordeiro
Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders and the second leading cause of dementia worldwide. With an aging population, the prevalence of the disease has dramatically increased. Clinical management has advanced through recent developments in dopaminergic imaging and genetic risk profiling. However, early and accurate diagnosis of the disorder remains a challenge, largely because of the lack of noninvasive and inexpensive reliable diagnostic tests. Besides the well-studied cerebral neurodegeneration that underlies the cardinal symptoms of PD (ie, bradykinesia, tremor, rigidity, and postural instability), ocular changes have also been described in PD, including visual dysfunction, pupil abnormality, lens opacity, and retinal neuronal loss and dysfunction...
September 2018: Movement Disorders: Official Journal of the Movement Disorder Society
Mahmudur G M Rahman, Muhammad M Islam, Tetsuya Tsujikawa, Yasushi Kiyono, Hidehiko Okazawa
OBJECTIVE: To calculate the specific binding ratio (SBR) appropriately in dopamine transporter (DAT) imaging, a method for extracting the striatal volume of interest (VOI) was developed. METHODS: This study included 200 patients (72 ± 10 years) who were suspected of parkinsonian syndromes (PS) or dementia with Lewy body (DLB). The patients were divided into three groups of PS with dopaminergic degeneration, DLB and non-PS after [123 I]ioflupane (FP-CIT) SPECT and clinical follow-up...
October 1, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
Toshihide Ogawa, Shinya Fujii, Keita Kuya, Shin-Ichiro Kitao, Yuki Shinohara, Mana Ishibashi, Yoshio Tanabe
An accurate diagnosis of Parkinson's disease (PD) is a prerequisite for therapeutic management. In spite of recent advances in the diagnosis of parkinsonian disorders, PD is misdiagnosed in between 6 and 25% of patients, even in specialized movement disorder centers. Although the gold standard for the diagnosis of PD is a neuropathological assessment, neuroimaging has been playing an important role in the differential diagnosis of PD and is used for clinical diagnostic criteria. In clinical practice, differential diagnoses of PD include atypical parkinsonian syndromes such as dementia with Lewy bodies, multiple system atrophy, progressive supranuclear palsy, corticobasal degeneration, caused by a striatal dopamine deficiency following nigrostrial degeneration...
September 2018: Yonago Acta Medica
Shoichi Sasaki
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to examine the prevalence of the coexistence of parkinsonism in patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) or mild Alzheimer's disease (AD). METHODS: Outpatients were evaluated with Mini-Mental State Examination, Clinical Dementia Rating Scale, NIA-AA criteria, MRI, and 123 I-IMP SPECT (3D-SSP). Parkinsonism in patients diagnosed with MCI (Mini-Mental State Examination ≥24, n = 63) or mild AD (Mini-Mental State Examination 20-23, n = 43) was examined using the Unified Parkinson's Disease Rating Scale-III and 123 I-FP-CIT dopamine transporter SPECT...
September 14, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
T E Schwasinger-Schmidt, M Macaluso
This chapter addresses the following FDA-approved medications for the treatment of major depressive disorder available for use in the United States including bupropion, mirtazapine, trazodone, vortioxetine, and vilazodone. These medications do not belong to one of the previously featured classes of antidepressants discussed in the preceding chapters. Each medication featured in this chapter has a unique structure and properties that target diverse receptors in the central nervous system. These diverse targets are distinct from other classes of medications used to treat major depressive disorder...
September 8, 2018: Handbook of Experimental Pharmacology
Yasuhisa Ano, Tatsuhiro Ayabe, Toshiko Kutsukake, Rena Ohya, Yuta Takaichi, Shinichi Uchida, Koji Yamada, Kazuyuki Uchida, Akihiko Takashima, Hiroyuki Nakayama
Alongside the rapid growth in aging populations, prevention of age-related memory decline and dementia has become a high priority. Several epidemiological and clinical studies have concluded that fermented dairy products can help to prevent cognitive decline; furthermore, intake of Camembert cheese prevents Alzheimer's pathology in model mice. To elucidate molecular mechanisms underlying the preventive effects of fermented dairy products, here we screened peptides from digested fermented dairy products for ability to improve memory function in a scopolamine-induced amnesia mouse model...
August 6, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
Lana M Chahine, Liz Urbe, Chelsea Caspell-Garcia, Dag Aarsland, Roy Alcalay, Paolo Barone, David Burn, Alberto J Espay, Jamie L Hamilton, Keith A Hawkins, Shirley Lasch, James B Leverenz, Irene Litvan, Irene Richard, Andrew Siderowf, Christopher S Coffey, Tanya Simuni, Daniel Weintraub
INTRODUCTION: Several characteristics associated with increased risk for Parkinson's disease (PD) have been identified, including specific genotypes and various non-motor symptoms. Characterizing non-motor features, such as cognitive abilities, among individuals considered at-risk for PD is essential to improving prediction of future neurodegeneration. METHODS: Participants belonging to the following cohorts of the Parkinson Progression Markers Initiative (PPMI) study were included: de novo PD with dopamine transporter binding deficit (n = 423), idiopathic REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD, n = 39), hyposmia (n = 26) and non-PD mutation carrier (NMC; Leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) G2019S (n = 88) and glucocerebrosidase (GBA) gene (n = 38) mutations))...
2018: PloS One
David Montgomery, Alexandra Campbell, Holli-Joi Sullivan, Chun Wu
The Dopamine D2 Receptor (D2R) is the primary target for antipsychotic drugs. Besides schizophrenia, this receptor is linked to dementia, Parkinson's disease, and depression. Recent studies have shown that β-arrestin biased agonists at this receptor treat schizophrenia with less side effects. Although the high resolution structure of this receptor exists, the mechanism of biased agonism at the receptor is unknown. In this study, dopamine, the endogenous unbiased G-protein agonist, MLS1547, a G-protein biased agonist, and UNC9975, a G-protein antagonist and a β-arrestin biased agonist, were docked to a homology model of the whole D2R including all flexible loops, and molecular dynamics simulations were conducted to study the potential mechanisms of biased agonism...
August 19, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
Michaeline L Hebron, Monica Javidnia, Charbel E-H Moussa
Tau hyperphosphorylation is a critical factor in neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia and Parkinsonism. Existing animal models of tauopathies express tau in neurons within the forebrain and do not often show tau accumulation in the brainstem and astrocytes. This study aims to understand the effects of differential regional expression of tau on neurotransmitter balance in the brain. To obtain an animal model that expresses tau in the brainstem, we bred hemizygous mice that express P301L tau (TauP301L) and detected hyper-phosphorylated tau (p-tau) predominantly in the hippocampus, cortex, brainstem and thalamus...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Abby Luck Parish
Neurodegenerative disorders are progressive, debilitating impairments of neurologic function. Dementia affects cognition and function. Persons with cognitive deficits should undergo a full workup and may be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia may be assessed and treated individually. Parkinson disease is a disorder of movement. Levodopa is the standard treatment of dopamine-related movement symptoms. Associated symptoms should be assessed and treated...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Abdullah Wajid, Armghan H Ans
Sugar-sweetened beverages containing caffeine are widely used among humans nowadays and can have negative consequences on the overall health. Our study aims to discuss the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and how they can impact the health in different ways particularly on the brain. Some of the mechanisms by which soft drinks can exert adverse effects include an increase in glutathione-6-dehydrogenase level, increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and dopamine alteration in brain waves on electroencephalography (EEG) eventually leading to stroke and dementia...
June 7, 2018: Curēus
Salma A El-Marasy, Reham M Abd-Elsalam, Omar A Ahmed-Farid
AIM: This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT) in rats. METHODS: The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pre-treated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hiroshige Fujishiro
Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease, its diagnostic sensitivity in clinical practice is sub-optimal. In 2017, the DLB clinical diagnostic criteria were modified to include the additional core feature of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and three new indicative biomarkers. With this revision, clinically probable DLB is represented by two or more core features (fluctuations, parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, or RBD) or by one core feature plus one indicative biomarker (low striatal dopamine transporter uptake, reduced cardiac [<sup>123</sup>I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake, or REM sleep without atonia on polysomnography)...
August 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
David S Goldstein, William P Cheshire
Sympathetic neuroimaging is based on the injection of compounds that either radiolabel sites of the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) or that are taken up into sympathetic nerves via the NET and radiolabel intra-neuronal catecholamine storage sites. Detection of the radioactivity is by planar or tomographic radionuclide imaging. The heart stands out among body organs in terms of the intensity of radiolabeling of sympathetic nerves, and virtually all of sympathetic neuroimaging focuses on the left ventricular myocardium...
August 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Merijn Joling, Chris Vriend, Jessica J van der Zande, Afina W Lemstra, Odile A van den Heuvel, Jan Booij, Henk W Berendse
In this retrospective cross-sectional study we compared 123 I‑ N ‑ω‑fluoropropyl‑2β‑carbomethoxy‑3β‑(4‑iodophenyl)nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) binding to the striatal dopamine and the extrastriatal serotonin transporter (DAT and SERT, respectively) between Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) to gain more insight in the pathophysiology of the two diseases. We compared 123 I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography scans of, age-, gender matched patients with cognitive decline in same range of severity with PD (n = 53) or DLB (n = 53) using a regions of interest (ROIs) approach...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Bisena Bulica, Ayesha Ahmad, Patricia Kaminski, Peter LeWitt, Danette Taylor, Shana Krstevska, Neepa Patel
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) is a disabling non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is challenging to treat. Dopamine receptor blockers (DRB) are used to treat PDP, though these may be associated with adverse effects, including worsening of Parkinsonism. Pimavanserin, a selective 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist, was recently FDA-approved for treatment of PDP; however, there is limited information on its long-term use in PDP patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients prescribed pimavanserin was performed in August, 2017...
October 2018: Neurological Sciences
Joseph H Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Pimavanserin (Pim) is a 5HT2A inverse agonist that is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for Parkinson disease (PD) psychosis. The published open-label experience is limited. METHODS: This report is a chart review of all patients who were started on the drugs since the one earlier report on 15 patients. All patients were included, whether or not they completed 6 weeks of treatment, the time required for maximum benefit found in the published phase 3 trial...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Ravali L Vinnakota, Deepthi Yedlapudi, Krishna Madhuri Manda, Keerti Bhamidipati, Kirthi Theja Bommakanti, G Sree RangaLakshmi, Shasi V Kalivendi
The presynaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), has been shown to play a crucial role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The three major domains of α-syn protein were shown to govern its membrane interaction, protein fibrillation, and chaperone activity. So far, four different alternatively spliced isoforms of α-syn, which lack either exon 3 (syn-126) or exon 5 (syn-112) or both (syn-98) resulting in altered function of the proteins, have been identified...
July 25, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
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