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Dopamine dementia

Michaeline L Hebron, Monica Javidnia, Charbel E-H Moussa
Tau hyperphosphorylation is a critical factor in neurodegenerative diseases, including dementia and Parkinsonism. Existing animal models of tauopathies express tau in neurons within the forebrain and do not often show tau accumulation in the brainstem and astrocytes. This study aims to understand the effects of differential regional expression of tau on neurotransmitter balance in the brain. To obtain an animal model that expresses tau in the brainstem, we bred hemizygous mice that express P301L tau (TauP301L) and detected hyper-phosphorylated tau (p-tau) predominantly in the hippocampus, cortex, brainstem and thalamus...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Abby Luck Parish
Neurodegenerative disorders are progressive, debilitating impairments of neurologic function. Dementia affects cognition and function. Persons with cognitive deficits should undergo a full workup and may be treated with cholinesterase inhibitors and/or memantine. Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia may be assessed and treated individually. Parkinson disease is a disorder of movement. Levodopa is the standard treatment of dopamine-related movement symptoms. Associated symptoms should be assessed and treated...
September 2018: Nursing Clinics of North America
Ibrar Anjum, Syeda S Jaffery, Muniba Fayyaz, Abdullah Wajid, Armghan H Ans
Sugar-sweetened beverages containing caffeine are widely used among humans nowadays and can have negative consequences on the overall health. Our study aims to discuss the effects of these sugar-sweetened beverages (SSB) and how they can impact the health in different ways particularly on the brain. Some of the mechanisms by which soft drinks can exert adverse effects include an increase in glutathione-6-dehydrogenase level, increased levels of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA), glutamate and dopamine alteration in brain waves on electroencephalography (EEG) eventually leading to stroke and dementia...
June 7, 2018: Curēus
Salma A El-Marasy, Reham M Abd-Elsalam, Omar A Ahmed-Farid
AIM: This study aims to elucidate the possible ameliorative effect of silymarin on scopolamine-induced dementia using the object recognition test (ORT) in rats. METHODS: The study was extended to demonstrate the role of cholinergic activity, oxidative stress, neuroinflammation, brain neurotransmitters and histopathological changes in the anti-amnestic effect of silymarin in demented rats. Wistar rats were pre-treated with silymarin (200, 400, 800 mg/kg) or donepezil (10 mg/kg) orally for 14 consecutive days...
July 20, 2018: Open Access Macedonian Journal of Medical Sciences
Hiroshige Fujishiro
Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer disease, its diagnostic sensitivity in clinical practice is sub-optimal. In 2017, the DLB clinical diagnostic criteria were modified to include the additional core feature of REM sleep behavior disorder (RBD) and three new indicative biomarkers. With this revision, clinically probable DLB is represented by two or more core features (fluctuations, parkinsonism, visual hallucinations, or RBD) or by one core feature plus one indicative biomarker (low striatal dopamine transporter uptake, reduced cardiac [<sup>123</sup>I]-metaiodobenzylguanidine uptake, or REM sleep without atonia on polysomnography)...
August 2018: Brain and Nerve, Shinkei Kenkyū No Shinpo
David S Goldstein, William P Cheshire
Sympathetic neuroimaging is based on the injection of compounds that either radiolabel sites of the cell membrane norepinephrine transporter (NET) or that are taken up into sympathetic nerves via the NET and radiolabel intra-neuronal catecholamine storage sites. Detection of the radioactivity is by planar or tomographic radionuclide imaging. The heart stands out among body organs in terms of the intensity of radiolabeling of sympathetic nerves, and virtually all of sympathetic neuroimaging focuses on the left ventricular myocardium...
August 2018: Clinical Autonomic Research: Official Journal of the Clinical Autonomic Research Society
Merijn Joling, Chris Vriend, Jessica J van der Zande, Afina W Lemstra, Odile A van den Heuvel, Jan Booij, Henk W Berendse
In this retrospective cross-sectional study we compared 123 I‑ N ‑ω‑fluoropropyl‑2β‑carbomethoxy‑3β‑(4‑iodophenyl)nortropane (123 I-FP-CIT) binding to the striatal dopamine and the extrastriatal serotonin transporter (DAT and SERT, respectively) between Parkinson's disease (PD) and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) to gain more insight in the pathophysiology of the two diseases. We compared 123 I-FP-CIT single photon emission computed tomography scans of, age-, gender matched patients with cognitive decline in same range of severity with PD (n = 53) or DLB (n = 53) using a regions of interest (ROIs) approach...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Abhimanyu Mahajan, Bisena Bulica, Ayesha Ahmad, Patricia Kaminski, Peter LeWitt, Danette Taylor, Shana Krstevska, Neepa Patel
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease psychosis (PDP) is a disabling non-motor symptom of Parkinson's disease (PD) that is challenging to treat. Dopamine receptor blockers (DRB) are used to treat PDP, though these may be associated with adverse effects, including worsening of Parkinsonism. Pimavanserin, a selective 5-HT2A receptor inverse agonist, was recently FDA-approved for treatment of PDP; however, there is limited information on its long-term use in PDP patients. METHODS: A retrospective chart review of patients prescribed pimavanserin was performed in August, 2017...
July 21, 2018: Neurological Sciences
Joseph H Friedman
INTRODUCTION: Pimavanserin (Pim) is a 5HT2A inverse agonist that is the only Food and Drug Administration-approved treatment for Parkinson disease (PD) psychosis. The published open-label experience is limited. METHODS: This report is a chart review of all patients who were started on the drugs since the one earlier report on 15 patients. All patients were included, whether or not they completed 6 weeks of treatment, the time required for maximum benefit found in the published phase 3 trial...
July 13, 2018: Clinical Neuropharmacology
Ravali L Vinnakota, Deepthi Yedlapudi, Krishna Madhuri Manda, Keerti Bhamidipati, Kirthi Theja Bommakanti, G Sree RangaLakshmi, Shasi V Kalivendi
The presynaptic protein, α-synuclein (α-syn), has been shown to play a crucial role in multiple neurodegenerative diseases, such as Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). The three major domains of α-syn protein were shown to govern its membrane interaction, protein fibrillation, and chaperone activity. So far, four different alternatively spliced isoforms of α-syn, which lack either exon 3 (syn-126) or exon 5 (syn-112) or both (syn-98) resulting in altered function of the proteins, have been identified...
July 25, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Jack J Chen
Persistent psychotic symptoms will develop in up to 60% of patients with Parkinson disease (PD). The initial approach to the management of PD psychosis (PDP) begins with addressing concurrent systemic conditions associated with psychotic behavior, such as delirium, medical conditions (eg, infections), psychiatric disorders (eg, major depression with psychotic symptoms, mania, schizophrenia), and substance misuse or withdrawal. A review of current medications is recommended, and medications that may trigger psychotic symptoms should be eliminated...
November 2017: The mental health clinician
Jing Ma, Haijing Yan, Ranran Wang, Shuhong Bo, Xiaotong Lu, Jian Zhang, Ajing Xu
Subcortical ischemic vascular dementia caused by chronic cerebral hypoperfusion due to small-artery disease is a common subtype of vascular dementia, which is recognized as the second most prevalent type of dementia. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of carnosine on white matter damage in corpus striatum. Adult male mice (C57BL/6 strain) were subjected to right unilateral common carotid arteries occlusion (rUCCAO), and treated with carnosine or saline. Klüver-Barrera staining, immunohistochemical analyses, Western blots and neurochemical analysis were performed after rUCCAO...
June 19, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Z X Hu, W N Song, X D Lu, M L Zhou, J H Shao
This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of T-cell immune function and L-dopamine (L-DOPA) in patients with Parkinson’s disease (PD). Sixty subjects (included in the study group) with PD who were patients of the Neurology Department of The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University from July 2015 to March 2017 were selected. The study group was then categorized into groups according to the age of the patients, severity of disease, level of cognition, and treatment of L-DOPA. The control group (30 cases) was from the healthy population of the check-up center at The Affiliated Hospital of Hangzhou Normal University...
May 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Aman Chandra Kaushik, Shiv Bharadwaj, Sanjay Kumar, Dong-Qing Wei
Parkinson's disease (PD) arises as neurodegenerative disorder and characterized by progressive deterioration of motor functions due to forfeiture of dopamine-releasing neurons. During PD, neurons at stake loss their functionality that results into cognition impairment and forgetfulness, commonly called as dementia. Recently, nanoparticles (NPs) have been reported for easy drug delivery through blood-brain barrier (BBB) into the central nervous system (CNS) against the conventional drug delivery systems. However, present study attempted to elucidate the α-synuclein activity, a major factor casing PD, in presence of its inhibitor cerium oxide (CeO2 ) nanoparticle via computational biology approach...
June 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
Nobuhito Abe, Iori Kawasaki, Hiroaki Hosokawa, Toru Baba, Atsushi Takeda
Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder characterized by loss of dopamine neurons. Since a seminal report was published in the early twentieth century, a growing body of literature has suggested that patients with PD display characteristic personality traits, such as cautiousness and inflexibility. Notably, PD patients have also been described as "honest," indicating that they have a remarkable tendency to avoid behaving dishonestly. In this study, we predicted that PD patients show reduced cheating behavior in opportunities for dishonest gain due to dysfunction of the dopaminergic reward system...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Karoline Knudsen, Tatyana D Fedorova, Allan K Hansen, Michael Sommerauer, Marit Otto, Kristina B Svendsen, Adjmal Nahimi, Morten G Stokholm, Nicola Pavese, Christoph P Beier, David J Brooks, Per Borghammer
BACKGROUND: Accumulating evidence suggests that α-synuclein aggregates-a defining pathology of Parkinson's disease-display cell-to-cell transmission. α-synuclein aggregation is hypothesised to start in autonomic nerve terminals years before the appearance of motor symptoms, and subsequently spread via autonomic nerves to the spinal cord and brainstem. To assess this hypothesis, we investigated sympathetic, parasympathetic, noradrenergic, and dopaminergic innervation in patients with idiopathic rapid eye movement (REM) sleep behaviour disorder, a prodromal phenotype of Parkinson's disease...
July 2018: Lancet Neurology
Arun Parashar, Vineet Mehta, Udayabanu Malairaman
Objective: Diabetic neuropathy is a chronic and often disabling condition that affects a significant number of individuals with diabetes mellitus (DM). It is now established that DM causes various CNS complications like Alzheimer's, dementia, anxiety, depression, neurodegeneration, mood disorders, cognitive dysfunctioning, and so on. Since amygdala and dopaminergic circuitry are critical in controlling several aspects of social behavior, even social recognition memory (SRM), we aimed to study the expression analysis of dopaminergic circuitry in amygdala using real-time polymerase chain reaction...
May 2018: Annals of Neurosciences
Eunju Nam, Jeffrey S Derrick, Seunghee Lee, Juhye Kang, Jiyeon Han, Shin Jung C Lee, Su Wol Chung, Mi Hee Lim
A catecholamine neurotransmitter, dopamine (DA), is suggested to be linked to the pathology of dementia; however, the involvement of DA and its structural analogues in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia, composed of multiple pathogenic factors has not been clear. Herein, we report that DA and its rationally designed structural derivatives (1-6) based on DA's oxidative transformation are able to modulate multiple pathological elements found in AD [i.e., metal ions, metal-free amyloid-β (Aβ), metal-bound Aβ (metal-Aβ), and reactive oxygen species (ROS)], with demonstration of detailed molecular-level mechanisms...
June 8, 2018: ACS Chemical Neuroscience
Masanori Kurihara, Takuya Sasaki, Hiroyuki Ishiura, Shoji Tsuji
Cardiac 123 I-metaiodobenzylguanidine (MIBG) scintigraphy is a promising biomarker for dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). However, we experienced a patient with cognitive decline, parkinsonism, and a decreased MIBG uptake who turned out to have HIV dementia. Normal dopamine transporter single-photon emission computed tomography reduced the possibility of comorbid Lewy body pathology causing the patient' s parkinsonism. The decreased MIBG uptake was most likely due to postganglionic sympathetic nerve denervation, which can also be caused by HIV...
May 18, 2018: Internal Medicine
Scott Ugras, Malcolm J Daniels, Hossein Fazelinia, Neal S Gould, Anastasia K Yocum, Kelvin C Luk, Esteban Luna, Hua Ding, Chris McKennan, Steven Seeholzer, Dan Martinez, Perry Evans, Daniel Brown, John E Duda, Harry Ischiropoulos
Accumulation of aggregated α-synuclein into Lewy bodies is thought to contribute to the onset and progression of dopaminergic neuron degeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) and related disorders. Although protein aggregation is associated with perturbation of proteostasis, how α-synuclein aggregation affects the brain proteome and signaling remains uncertain. In a mouse model of α-synuclein aggregation, 6% of 6215 proteins and 1.6% of 8183 phosphopeptides changed in abundance, indicating conservation of proteostasis and phosphorylation signaling...
May 2018: EBioMedicine
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