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Jian-Kai Jiang, Yang Mu, Han-Qing Yu
Microbial extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) with a high polysaccharides content contribute to membrane fouling in membrane bioreactors. Sodium alginate (Alg) has been widely used as a substitute for polysaccharides in EPS to study membrane fouling; however, the rational for such a substitute is unclear and remains to be verified. In this work, the differences in the colloid properties of Alg-Ca2+ and EPS-Ca2+ were explored by integrating rheometry and dynamic light scattering with regard to distinct membrane fouling behaviors...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Mauro Ravera, Elisabetta Gabano, Diego Bonzani, Ilaria Zanellato, Aldo Arrais, Simone Cantamessa, Marco Biggiogera, Domenico Osella
Nonporous silica nanoparticles with an external shell containing the 3‑aminopropyl arm (SiNP) were further decorated with alginic acid (SiNP-ALG) as a potential biocompatible delivery system for Pt antitumor agents. Such particles were coupled with the prodrug (OC‑6‑44)‑acetato(β‑alaninato)diamminedichloridoplatinum(IV), 1, through the formation of amide bonds between the pendant carboxylate groups on SiNP-ALG and the free amino group of the complex. Cytosol extracted from tumor cells was able to quickly and efficiently reduce the Pt(IV) prodrug, and produces the active metabolite cisplatin...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Inorganic Biochemistry
Seung-Hyun Noh, Shin-Woong Kim, Jae-Won Kim, Tae-Hoon Lee, Jae-Woon Nah, Young-Gi Lee, Mi-Kyung Kim, Yoshihiro Ito, Tae-Il Son
This study demonstrated the anti-adhesion and wound healing effect of a visible light curable anti-adhesion agent using an alginate derivative modified with a furfuryl moiety. Visible light-curable furfuryl alginate (F-Alg) was prepared in conjugation with alginate and furfurylamine by an amide coupling reaction, and the conjugated F-Alg was characterized by 1 H NMR analysis. The cytotoxicity, cell adhesion, and cell permeability of the F-Alg were evaluated for use in anti-adhesion applications. Drug immobilization and protein release were assessed to verify whether the alginate derivatives and drugs were photo-immobilized...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Miji Yeo, Geun Hyung Kim
For muscle regeneration, a uniaxially arranged micropattern is important to mimic the structure of the natural extracellular matrix. Recently, cell electrospinning (CE) has been tested to fabricate cell-laden fibrous structures by embedding cells directly into micro/nanofibers. Although homogenous cell distribution and a reasonable cell viability of the cell-laden fibrous structure fabricated using the CE process are achieved, unique topographical cues formed by an aligned fibrous structure have not been applied...
October 11, 2018: Small
Xinyu Wang, Zhi Chang, Xin Nie, Yingying Li, ZhenPeng Hu, Jinlong Ma, Wei Wang, Teng Song, Pei Zhou, Huaqing Wang, Zhi Yuan
The clinical translation remains a major challenge for platinum drug loaded nanoparticle due to the complexity of composition and preparation. Here we employed only three ingredients to prepare a Pt (IV) prodrug-loaded ligand-induced self-assembled nanoparticles (GA-ALG@Pt NPs) via facile one-pot route for liver tumor treatment. GA-ALG@Pt NPs was found equipped with intelligently ligand self-shielded property in which the internal GA could be induced to expose by initial cellular recognition, resulting in strengthened cellular uptake (20%-30%) and prolonged blood circulation time (3...
October 8, 2018: Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine
Bianca N Lourenço, Tiago Dos Santos, Carla Oliveira, Cristina C Barrias, Pedro L Granja
The field of stomach-directed therapeutics and diagnosis is still hampered by the lack of reliable in vitro models that closely mimic the gastric mucosa where gastric cancer cells are generally confined. Here we propose a rapid, complex, and innovative 3D in vitro model of the gastric mucosa, by extending a conventional gastric monolayer model to an inner stratum of the mucosa - the lamina propria. The developed model comprises normal stomach fibroblasts embedded in a 3D alginate-RGD hydrogel prepared on the basolateral side of a Transwell® insert, mimicking the extracellular matrix and cellular component of the lamina propria, onto which a moderately differentiated adenocarcinoma stomach cell line (MKN74) was seeded, reproducing the physiological conditions of the gastric barrier...
October 8, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Eva González-Menéndez, Lucía Fernández, Diana Gutiérrez, Ana Rodríguez, Beatriz Martínez, Pilar García
Bacteriophages have been proven as effective antimicrobial agents in the treatment of infectious diseases and in other biocontrol applications including food preservation and disinfection. The extensive use of bacteriophages requires improved methodologies for medium- and long-term storage as well as for easy shipping. To this aim, we have determined the stability of four Staphylococcus phages (phiIPLA88, phiIPLA35, phiIPLA-RODI and phiIPLA-C1C) with antimicrobial potential at different temperatures (20°C/25°C, 4°C, -20°C, -80°C, -196°C) and during lyophilization (freeze drying) using several stabilizing additives (disaccharides, glycerol, sorbitol and skim milk)...
2018: PloS One
Bo-Hye Nam, Jisung Jang, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Young-Ok Kim, Jung Youn Park, Hawsun Sohn, Sook Hee Yoon, Heebal Kim, Woori Kwak
Haliotis discus hannai, a species of Pacific abalone, is a highly valuable food source throughout Northeast Asia. As H. discus hannai primarily feed on brown algae and largely extract their energy from algal polysaccharides, understanding the mechanisms by which they digest algal polysaccharides is essential for elucidating their energy metabolism. Gut microbes, as well as the host animal, are involved in the process of polysaccharide degradation. To identify algal polysaccharide-digestion mechanisms and their origin, we analyzed the metagenome and metatranscriptome of abalone visceral extracts...
2018: PloS One
Xiaozhang Zhang, Gang Zhao, Yuan Cao, Zeeshan Haider, Meng Wang, Jianping Fu
Constructs of magnetic nanocomposite hydrogels microencapsulated with stem cells are of great interest as smart materials for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Due to the short shelf life of such biocomposites at an ambient temperature, their long-term storage and banking at cryogenic temperatures are essential for the "off-the-shelf" availability of such biocomposites for widespread clinical applications. However, high-quality cryogenic recovery of stem cell-nanocomposite hydrogel constructs has not yet been achieved due to the damage to cells and/or microstructures of hydrogel constructs caused by ice formation, particularly during warming from cryogenic temperatures...
October 11, 2018: Biomaterials Science
Lahcène Bekri, Mourad Zouaoui-Rabah, Michael Springborg, Majda Sekkal Rahal
The density functional theory method using the B3LYP/6-31G(d,p) level of theory was used to perform isoenergetic maps in order to determine the lower energy conformers of four disaccharides constituting alginic acids, which are based on β-D-mannuronic (M) and α-L-guluronic acid (G), called MM, GG, MG, and GM. The preferred structures are combined to monovalent (Li+ , Na+ , and K+ ) cations and further fully optimized, and an isoenergetic map corresponding to the complex (MG2- , 2Na+ ) was performed. Then, the reactivity of MG complexes with mono- and bivalent cations was studied using the global nucleophilic index...
October 10, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Suk Ho Hong, Yan Li, Joo Beom Eom, Yongdoo Choi
Background: Atherosclerosis is a major global health concern. Targeting macrophages is hypothesized as an alternative treatment for atherosclerosis. Methods: We synthesized alginate-based cisplatin-loaded nanogels (TANgel) as a pH-responsive drug-releasing theranostic nanoplatform for macrophage cells. Carboxylic acid groups of alginic acid were modified with iminodiacetic acid (IDA) to enhance chelation of platinum ions. The near infrared (NIR) fluorophore ATTO655 was conjugated to the modified alginic acid...
September 2018: Quantitative Imaging in Medicine and Surgery
Guang-Zhen Jin, Hae-Won Kim
Dedifferentiation of chondrocytes remains a major problem in cartilage tissue engineering. The development of hydrogels that can preserve chondrogenic phenotype and prevent chondrocyte dedifferentiation is a meaningful strategy to solve dedifferentiation problem of chondrocytes. In the present study, three gels were prepared (alginate gel (Alg gel), type I collagen gel (Col gel), and their combination gel (Alg/Col gel)), and the in vitro efficacy of chondrocytes culture while preserving their phenotypes was investigated...
January 2018: Journal of Tissue Engineering
Ines De Mesmaeker, Thomas Robert, Krista G Suenens, Geert M Stangé, Freya Van Hulle, Zhidong Ling, Peter Tomme, Daniel Jacobs-Tulleneers-Thevissen, Bart Keymeulen, Daniel G Pipeleers
Alginate-encapsulated porcine islet cell grafts are developed to overcome limitations of human islet transplantation. They can generate functional implants in animals when prepared from fetal, perinatal and adult pancreases. Implants have not yet been examined for efficacy to establish sustained metabolically-adequate functional beta cell mass (FBM) with comparison to human islet cells. This study in immune-compromised mice demonstrates that subcutaneous implants of Alg-porcine-prenatal islet cells with 4x105 beta cells form, over 10 weeks, a FBM that results in glucose-induced plasma C-peptide >2 ng/mL and metabolic control over the following 10 weeks, with higher efficiency than non-encapsulated, while failing in peritoneum...
October 10, 2018: Diabetes
Fehmi Kacmaz, Adnan Kaya, Muhammed Keskin, Serdar Keceoglu, Ibrahim Halil Algin, Bayram Yilmazkaya, Erdogan Ilkay
Objective Buerger's disease is one of the worst diseases causing peripheral artery occlusions (especially lower extremity) with increased morbidity and mortality. Endovascular treatment of the diseased arteries gains preference over bypass surgery nowadays. Here, we aimed to present the clinical outcomes of 16 consecutive Buerger's disease patients underwent extended endovascular recanalization which is a new technique to restore direct blood flow to at least one foot artery, with the performance of angioplasty for each tibial and foot artery obstructions...
October 10, 2018: Vascular
Daniel Alonso-Domínguez, María Pilar Pico, Inmaculada Álvarez-Serrano, María Luisa López
New iron-oxide-based anodes are prepared by an environmentally-friendly and low-cost route. The analysis of the composition, structure, and microstructure of the samples reveals the presence of a major hematite phase, which is accompanied by a certain concentration of an oxyhydroxide phase, which can act as a "lithium-reservoir". By using sodium alginate as a binder, the synthesized anodes display superior electrochemical response, i.e., high specific capacity values and high stability, not only versus Li but also versus a high voltage cathode in a full cell...
October 9, 2018: Nanomaterials
Matthias Sauter, Mark Robert Fox
Increased acid reflux after meals is a key feature of gastro-esophageal reflux disease (GERD) and is the most important cause for patient symptoms, particularly heartburn and acid regurgitation. Chronic acid exposure also predisposes to associated pathologies including reflux esophagitis, esophageal stricture, Barrett's esophagus, and Barrett's carcinoma (esophageal adenocarcinoma). The severity of esophageal symptoms and mucosal damage is related to two key factors, (i) the acidity of the refluxate, which depends primarily on the gastric secretory output and its distribution within the stomach, and (ii) the frequency and duration of reflux events which depends on the efficacy of the reflux barrier at the gastro-esophageal junction and the esophageal clearance function...
October 2018: Zeitschrift Für Gastroenterologie
Rocío Santiago, Mônica C B Martins, Matheus D Vilaça, Luiz F B de Barros, Tais Nascimento, Nicácio H da Silva, Emerson P S Falcão, María-Estrella Legaz, Carlos Vicente, Eugênia C Pereira
In this work, new biotechnological procedures have been optimized on the basis of immobilization in alginate of bionts isolated from the lichen C. substellata. From these immobilizates, soluble and biologically active phenolics can be obtained. During bionts-immobilization, stictic, norstictic and usnic acids were secreted to the medium. The amount produced of each of them differed depending on the immobilization time, the precursor supplied and the type of biont used. Greater amounts of stictic acid were detected and maintained over time in all bioreactors...
October 7, 2018: Fitoterapia
Heriot Marine, Nottelet Benjamin, Garric Xavier, D'Este Matteo, Richards R Geoff, Moriarty T Fintan, Eglin David, Guillaume Olivier
BACKGROUND: Alginate is one of the main extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms of Cystic Fibrosis (CF) patients suffering from pulmonary infections. Gentamicin sulfate (GS) can strongly bind to alginate resulting in loss of pharmacological activity; however neither the mechanism nor its repercussion is fully understood. In this study, we investigated how GS modifies the alginate macromolecular network and its microenvironment. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Alginate gels of two different compositions (either enriched in guluronate units (G) or enriched in mannuronate units (M)) were crosslinked with Ca2+ and exposed to GS at varying times and concentrations...
October 7, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Asmaa Mawad, Yosra A Helmy, Abdel-Gawad Shalkami, Dipak Kathayat, Gireesh Rajashekara
Microencapsulation enhances the oral delivery of probiotic bacteria. In this study, the probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 (EcN) was microencapsulated using alginate and chitosan nanoparticles. The result showed 90% encapsulation yield of EcN, and the encapsulated EcN displayed significantly (P < 0.05) increased survival in low pH (1.5), high bile salt concentration (4%), and high temperature (70 °C). The most effective cryopreservatives of EcN during freezing and thawing was skim milk and sucrose...
October 9, 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Ragab Esmail Abou-Zeid, Ramzi Khiari, Davide Beneventi, Alain Dufresne
3D printed scaffolds were prepared by partial crosslinking of TEMPO-oxidized cellulose nanofibril/alginate hydrogel using calcium ions for printing the hydrogel while maintaining its shape, fidelity and preventing collapse of the filaments. The prepared scaffolds were fully crosslinked using calcium ions immediately after printing to provide the rigidity of the hydrogel and give it long-term stability. The composition of the prepared pastes was optimized based on the characterization of the hydrogel and 3D printing experiments...
October 9, 2018: Biomacromolecules
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