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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30322264/the-mental-representation-of-the-human-gait-in-hip-osteoarthrosis-and-total-hip-arthroplasty-patients-a-clinical-cross-sectional-study
#1
Robert Jacksteit, Anett Mau-Moeller, Antje Völker, Rainer Bader, Wolfram Mittelmeier, Ralf Skripitz, Tino Stöckel
OBJECTIVE: To explore differences in gait-specific long-term memory structures and actual gait performance between patients with hip osteoarthrosis, patients seen six months after total hip arthroplasty and healthy controls to gain insights into the role of the gait-specific mental representation for rehabilitation. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study Subjects: Twenty hip osteoarthrosis patients, 20 patients seen six months after total hip arthroplasty and 20 healthy controls Methods: Spatio-temporal (gait speed, step length) and temporophasic (stance time, swing time, single support time, total double support time) gait parameters, and gait variability were measured with an electronic walkway (OptoGait)...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321584/17%C3%AE-hydroxysteroid-dehydrogenases-and-neurosteroid-metabolism-in-the-central-nervous-system
#2
REVIEW
Xue-Ying He, Carl Dobkin, Song-Yu Yang
17β-Hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases are indispensable for downstream enzyme steps of the neurosteroidogenesis. Neurosteroids are synthesized de novo in neurons and glia from cholesterol transported into mitochondria, or by conversion from proneurosteroids, e. g. dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and pregnenolone, through the same metabolic pathway as revealed in the de novo neurosteroidogenesis. Hormonal steroids generated from endocrine glands are transported into brain from the circulation to exert neuronal activity via genomic pathway, whereas neurosteroids produced in brain cells without genomic targets identified could bind to cell surface targets, e...
October 12, 2018: Molecular and Cellular Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321549/an-optimized-protocol-to-quantify-signaling-in-human-transitional-b-cells-by-phospho-flow-cytometry
#3
Nicholas A Zwang, Balaji B Ganesh, Kim T Cardenas, Anita S Chong, Patricia W Finn, David L Perkins
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Phospho flow cytometry is a powerful technique to analyze signaling in rare cell populations. This technique, however, requires harsh conditions for cell fixation and permeabilization, which can denature surface antigens or antibody-conjugated fluorochromes. These are among several technical limitations which have been a barrier to quantify signaling in unique B cell subsets. One such immature subset, transitional B cells (TrBs), may play a role in suppressing solid organ transplant rejection, graft-versus-host disease, autoimmunity, and even the immune response to malignancy...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Immunological Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321506/smaller-medial-temporal-lobe-volumes-in-individuals-with-subjective-cognitive-decline-and-biomarker-evidence-of-alzheimer-s-disease-data-from-three-memory-clinic-studies
#4
Xiaochen Hu, Charlotte Teunissen, Annika Spottke, Michael T Heneka, Emrah Düzel, Oliver Peters, Siyao Li, Josef Priller, Katharina Bürger, Stefan Teipel, Christoph Laske, Sander Verfaillie, Frederik Barkhof, Nina Coll-Padrós, Lorena Rami, Jose Luis Molinuevo, Wiesje van der Flier, Frank Jessen
INTRODUCTION: Previous studies showed associations of brain volume differences and biomarker evidence for Alzheimer's disease (AD) in subjective cognitive decline (SCD). The consistency of this finding across SCD studies has not been investigated. METHODS: We studied gray matter volume differences between SCD subjects with and without cerebrospinal fluid biomarker evidence for AD across three European memory clinic samples (DZNE Longitudinal Cognitive Impairment and Dementia study, Amsterdam, Barcelona)...
October 12, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321434/longitudinal-cognitive-performance-in-individuals-at-ultrahigh-risk-for-psychosis-a-10-year-follow-up
#5
Kelly Allott, Stephen J Wood, Hok Pan Yuen, Alison R Yung, Barnaby Nelson, Warrick J Brewer, Daniela Spiliotacopoulos, Annie Bruxner, Magenta Simmons, Christina Broussard, Sumudu Mallawaarachchi, Christos Pantelis, Patrick D McGorry, Ashleigh Lin
It remains unclear whether the onset of psychosis is associated with deterioration in cognitive performance. The aim of this study was to examine the course of cognitive performance in an ultrahigh risk (UHR) cohort, and whether change in cognition is associated with transition to psychosis and change in functioning. Consecutive admissions to Personal Assessment and Crisis Evaluation (PACE) Clinic between May 1994 and July 2000 who had completed a comprehensive cognitive assessment at baseline and follow-up were eligible (N = 80)...
October 13, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30321127/beneficial-effects-of-rutin-in-diabetes-induced-deficits-in-acquisition-learning-retention-memory-and-pain-perception-in-rats
#6
Parisa Hasanein, Abbasali Emamjomeh, Nasibeh Chenarani, Mussa Bohlooli
OBJECTIVES: Cognitive impairment and hyperalgesia are among the common manifestations of diabetes. Hyperglycemia may contribute to their developments but the exact pathophysiology underlying these complications is not fully understood. Flavonoids from plants original have beneficial effects on diabetes by improving glycemic control. Rutin (RUT) is a bioflavonoid found in many plants and foods with many biological activities including neuroprotective and antidiabetic effects. In this study, we hypothesized that administration of RUT (10, 25 and 50 mg/kg, i...
October 15, 2018: Nutritional Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320572/increased-risk-of-dementia-in-subjective-cognitive-decline-if-ct-brain-changes-are-present
#7
Simona Sacuiu, Marie Eckerström, Lena Johansson, Silke Kern, Robert Sigström, Guo Xinxin, Svante Östling, Ingmar Skoog
BACKGROUND: Subjective cognitive decline (SCD) has low predictive value for incident dementia. OBJECTIVES: We examined whether CT detectable brain changes add predictive value to SCD in a population sample with high scores on the Mini-Mental State Examination. METHODS: Subjective reports of memory and executive function were gathered in a non-demented population sample ≥70 years (n = 921). CT-brain was performed at baseline (n = 626)...
September 29, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30320571/a-nomogram-for-predicting-amyloid-pet-positivity-in-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#8
Si Eun Kim, Sookyoung Woo, Seon Woo Kim, Juhee Chin, Hee Jin Kim, Byung In Lee, Jinse Park, Kyung Won Park, Do-Young Kang, Young Noh, Byoung Seok Ye, Han Soo Yoo, Jin San Lee, Yeshin Kim, Seung Joo Kim, Soo Hyun Cho, Duk L Na, Samuel N Lockhart, Hyemin Jang, Sang Won Seo
BACKGROUND: Most clinical trials focus on amyloid-β positive (Aβ+) amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI), but screening failures are high because only a half of patients with aMCI are positive on Aβ PET. Therefore, it becomes necessary for clinicians to predict which patients will have Aβ biomarker. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to compare clinical factors, neuropsychological (NP) profiles, and apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype between Aβ+ aMCI and Aβ- aMCI and to develop a clinically useful prediction model of Aβ positivity on PET (PET-Aβ+) in aMCI using a nomogram...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319648/checkpoint-inhibition-in-myeloma-opportunities-and-challenges
#9
REVIEW
Federica Costa, Rituparna Das, Jithendra Kini Bailur, Kavita Dhodapkar, Madhav V Dhodapkar
Despite major improvements in the treatment landscape, most multiple myeloma (MM) patients eventually succumb to the underlying malignancy. Immunotherapy represents an attractive strategy to achieve durable remissions due to its specificity and capacity for long term memory. Activation of immune cells is controlled by a balance of agonistic and inhibitory signals via surface and intracellular receptors. Blockade of such inhibitory immune receptors (termed as "immune checkpoints") including PD-1/PD-L1 has led to impressive tumor regressions in several cancers...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319532/zinc-camk-ii-associated-mitophagy-signaling-contributed-to-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-sprouting-and-cognitive-deficits-following-neonatal-seizures-and-its-regulation-by-chronic-leptin-treatment
#10
Li-Li Li, Mei-Fang Jin, Hong Ni
The role of leptin in the pathogenesis of epilepsy is getting more and more attention in clinical and basic research. Although there are data indicating neuroprotective effects of elevated serum/brain leptin levels following acute seizures, no study to date has dealt with the impact of chronic leptin treatment on long-term brain injury following developmental seizures. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chronic leptin treatment may have neuroprotective effects on cognitive and hippocampal mossy fiber sprouting following flurothyl-induced recurrent neonatal seizures and whether these effects are mediated by the zinc/CaMKII-associated mitophagy signaling pathway...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319468/early-onset-alzheimer-disease-eoad-with-aphasia-a-case-report
#11
Marcus Kiiti Borges, Thais Nakayama Lopes, Marina Maria Biella, Alaíse Siqueira, Sivan Mauer, Ivan Aprahamian
Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is traditionally subdivided into early onset (EOAD) and late onset (LOAD). EOAD has an onset before age 65 years and accounts for 1-5% of all cases. Two main presentation types of AD are familial and sporadic. Case presentation: The authors present the case of a 68-year-old retired white man, with a college level educational background. At 55 years of age, the patient presented cognitive decline with short-term memory impairment and slowed, hesitant speech. At 57 years, he was unable to remember the way to work, exhibiting spatial disorientation...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30319396/radiomic-features-of-hippocampal-subregions-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-amnestic-mild-cognitive-impairment
#12
Feng Feng, Pan Wang, Kun Zhao, Bo Zhou, Hongxiang Yao, Qingqing Meng, Lei Wang, Zengqiang Zhang, Yanhui Ding, Luning Wang, Ningyu An, Xi Zhang, Yong Liu
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by progressive dementia, especially in episodic memory, and amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is associated with a high risk of developing AD. Hippocampal atrophy/shape changes are believed to be the most robust magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) markers for AD and aMCI. Radiomics, a method of texture analysis, can quantitatively examine a large set of features and has previously been successfully applied to evaluate imaging biomarkers for AD. To test whether radiomic features in the hippocampus can be employed for early classification of AD and aMCI, 1692 features from the caudal and head parts of the bilateral hippocampus were extracted from 38 AD patients, 33 aMCI patients and 45 normal controls (NCs)...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318992/construct-validity-for-the-verbal-associated-pairs-screen
#13
Jonathan Dodd, Samantha Murphy, Meghan Doherty
The present study introduces the Verbal Associated Pairs Screen (VAPS) as a new measure for assessing performance validity in pediatric populations. This study presents initial data on psychometric properties and establishes construct validity for the VAPS in a sample of 30 adolescent healthy controls and 206 youths with traumatic brain injury (TBI: moderate/severe, N = 30; mild, N = 176). The control group's age (M = 14.93, SD = 1.8) was significantly higher than the moderate/severe TBI (M = 13.9, SD = 2...
October 15, 2018: Child Neuropsychology: a Journal on Normal and Abnormal Development in Childhood and Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317930/current-viral-mediated-gene-transfer-research-for-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
Andrew Octavian Sasmita
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia and has affected millions of individuals worldwide. The hallmarks of AD include the amyloid beta plaque deposits, tau neurofibrillary tangles, altered neuronal signaling, alongside decline in memory and cognitive functions. Conventional drug therapies do exist, such as donepezil or aducanumab, but these drugs mostly focus on halting AD progression instead of causing a reversal within the disease. In an effort to ameliorate and ultimately cure AD, researchers have delved into viral-mediated gene therapy to fix this disease from its root molecular causes...
October 14, 2018: Biotechnology & Genetic Engineering Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30317127/the-role-of-e-6-chloro-3-3-methyl-1-phenyl-1h-pyrazol-5-yl-2-styrylquinazolin-4-3h-one-in-the-modulation-of-cannabinoidergic-system-a-pilot-study
#15
Fabiana Plescia, Fulvio Plescia, Demetrio Raffa, Angela Cavallaro, Gianluca Lavanco, Benedetta Maggio, Maria Valeria Raimondi, Giuseppe Daidone, Anna Brancato, Carla Cannizzaro
BACKGROUND: Compounds acting on endocannabinoid system regulate different neuronal processes through the cannabinoid receptors activation. The main aim of this study was determining whether the 2-styrylquinazolin-4(3H)-one 5, a structural analogue of rimonabant, was able to counteract the behavioural signs of the activation of the endocannabinoidergic system induced by CP 55.940. METHODS: Behavioural assessment was carried out using the tetrad task and the novel object recognition test...
June 19, 2018: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316893/sex-specific-deficits-in-biochemical-but-not-behavioral-responses-to-delay-fear-conditioning-in-prenatal-alcohol-exposure-mice
#16
Kevin K Caldwell, Elizabeth R Solomon, Jane J W Smoake, Chrys D Djatche de Kamgaing, Andrea M Allan
BACKGROUND: Studies in clinical populations and preclinical models have shown that prenatal alcohol exposure (PAE) is associated with impairments in the acquisition, consolidation and recall of information, with deficits in hippocampal formation-dependent learning and memory being a common finding. The glucocorticoid receptor (GR), mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 2 (ERK2) are key regulators of hippocampal formation development, structure and functioning and, thus, are potential mediators of PAE's effects on this brain region...
October 11, 2018: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316742/transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-in-ultra-treatment-resistant-schizophrenia
#17
J P Lindenmayer, Mila Kirstie C Kulsa, Tania Sultana, Amandeep Kaur, Ran Yang, Isidora Ljuri, Benedicto Parker, Anzalee Khan
BACKGROUND: Transcranial direct-current stimulation (tDCS), a non-invasive neurostimulation treatment, has been reported in a number of sham-controlled studies to show significant improvements in treatment-resistant auditory hallucinations in schizophrenia patients, primarily in ambulatory and higher-functioning patients, but little is known of the effects of tDCS on hospitalized, low-functioning inpatients. OBJECTIVE/HYPOTHESIS: The purpose of this study was to examine the efficacy and safety of tDCS for auditory hallucinations in hospitalized ultra-treatment-resistant schizophrenia (TRS) and to evaluate the effects of tDCS on cognitive functions...
October 2, 2018: Brain Stimulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30316701/eurobehavioral-and-oxidative-stress-alterations-following-methylmercury-and-retinyl-palmitate-co-administration-in-pregnant-and-lactating-rats-and-their-offspring
#18
Pedro Espitia-Pérez, Suelen Marin Albino, Lyda Espitia-Pérez, Hugo Brango, Helen da Rosa, Alexandre Kleber Silveira, Diogo Pompéu Moraes, Camila Cerveira, Moara Mingori, Camila Tiefensee Ribeiro, Daniel Pens Gelain, Carlos Eduardo Schnorr, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
Fish consumption and ubiquitous methylmercury (MeHg) exposure represent a public health problem globally. Micronutrients presented in fish affects MeHg uptake/distribution. Vitamin A (VitA), another fish micronutrient is used in nutritional supplementation, especially during pregnancy. However, there is no information about the health effects arising from their combined exposure. The present study aimed to examine the effects of both MeHg and retinyl palmitate administered to pregnant and lactating rats. Thirty Wistar female rats were orally supplemented with MeHg (0,5 mg/Kg/day) and retinyl palmitate (7500 µg RAE1 /Kg/day), either individually or in combination from the gestational day 0 to weaning...
October 11, 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315720/neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-adult-cerebellar-medulloblastoma
#19
Rebecca A Harrison, Shelli R Kesler, Jason M Johnson, Marta Penas-Prado, Catherine M Sullaway, Jeffrey S Wefel
OBJECTIVE: Impaired neurocognitive function (NCF) is a well-established consequence of pediatric medulloblastoma (MB) and its treatments. However, the frequency and features of neurocognitive dysfunction in adult-onset MB patients is largely unknown. METHODS: Adult patients (> 18 years) with MB who had received formal neurocognitive evaluation (N=27) were identified. Demographic, medical, and treatment histories were extracted from the medical record. Lesion properties on MRI were analyzed and used to evaluate lesion-symptom mapping further...
October 13, 2018: Psycho-oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30315499/impact-of-glatiramer-acetate-on-b-cell-mediated-pathogenesis-of-multiple-sclerosis
#20
REVIEW
Stefanie Kuerten, Leila J Jackson, Joel Kaye, Timothy L Vollmer
Growing evidence indicates that B cells play a key role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). B cells occupy distinct central nervous system (CNS) compartments in MS, including the cerebrospinal fluid and white matter lesions. Also, it is now known that, in addition to entering the CNS, B cells can circulate into the periphery via a functional lymphatic system. Data suggest that the role of B cells in MS mainly involves their in situ activation in demyelinating lesions, leading to altered pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine secretion, and a highly effective antigen-presenting cell function, resulting in activation of memory or naïve T cells...
October 12, 2018: CNS Drugs
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