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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30517089/trypanosoma-cruzi-specific-ifn-%C3%AE-producing-cells-in-chronic-chagas-disease-associate-with-a-functional-il-7-il-7r-axis
#1
María A Natale, Gonzalo A César, María G Alvarez, Melisa D Castro Eiro, Bruno Lococo, Graciela Bertocchi, María C Albareda, Susana A Laucella
BACKGROUND: The severity of cardiac disease in chronic Chagas disease patients is associated with different features of T-cell exhaustion. Here, we assessed whether the ability of T cells to secrete IFN-γ in response to T. cruzi was linked to disruption in immune homeostasis and inflammation in patients with chronic Chagas disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: PBMCs from chronic Chagas disease patients and uninfected controls were examined for frequencies of T...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30516404/peripheral-blood-lymphocyte-subset-repertoires-are-biased-and-reflect-clinical-features-in-patients-with-dermatomyositis
#2
H Sasaki, A Takamura, K Kawahata, T Takashima, K Imai, T Morio, H Kohsaka
OBJECTIVE: Dermatomyositis (DM) is an idiopathic inflammatory myopathy which often involves the lungs. DM is likely to be associated with aberrant T- and B-cell activation in the pathogenesis because of the proven effectiveness of T- and B-cell-targeted treatments. Assuming that the aberrant activation is reflected by biases in the lymphocyte subset repertoires, we aimed to elucidate these biases, especially in relation to clinical features of DM. METHOD: Based on the immunophenotyping standardized by the Human Immunology Project Consortium, untreated 13 DM patients, including seven patients with interstitial lung disease (ILD), and 18 age-matched healthy donors (HDs) were examined for proportions of peripheral blood lymphocyte subsets...
December 5, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515157/antigen-specificity-and-clinical-significance-of-igg-and-iga-autoantibodies-produced-in-situ-by-tumor-infiltrating-b-cells-in-breast-cancer
#3
Soizic Garaud, Pawel Zayakin, Laurence Buisseret, Undine Rulle, Karina Silina, Alexandre de Wind, Gert Van den Eyden, Denis Larsimont, Karen Willard-Gallo, Aija Linē
An important role for tumor infiltrating B lymphocytes (TIL-B) in the immune response to cancer is emerging; however, very little is known about the antigen specificity of antibodies produced in situ . The presence of IgA antibodies in the tumor microenvironment has been noted although their biological functions and clinical significance are unknown. This study used a 91-antigen microarray to examine the IgG and IgA autoantibody repertoires in breast cancer (BC). Tumor and adjacent breast tissue supernatants and plasma from BC patients together with normal breast tissue supernatants and plasma from healthy controls (patients undergoing mammary reduction and healthy blood donors) were analyzed to investigate relationships between autoantibodies and the clinical, histological and immunological features of tumors...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30515083/influence-of-high-fat-diets-consumed-during-the-juvenile-period-on-hippocampal-morphology-and-function
#4
REVIEW
Nuria Del Olmo, Mariano Ruiz-Gayo
The negative impact of obesity on neurocognitive functioning is an issue of increasing clinical interest. Over the last decade, a number of studies have analyzed the influence of high-fat diets (HFDs) on cognitive performance, particularly in adolescent individuals. Different approaches, including behavioral, neurochemical, electrophysiological and morphological studies, have been developed to address the effect of HFDs on neural processes interfering with learning and memory skills in rodents. Many of the studies have focused on learning and memory related to the hippocampus and the mechanisms underlying these processes...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30514434/effects-of-visual-schema-displacement-therapy-vsdt-an-abbreviated-emdr-protocol-and-a-control-condition-on-emotionality-and-vividness-of-aversive-memories-two-critical-analogue-studies
#5
Suzy J M A Matthijssen, Lucinda M van Beerschoten, Ad de Jongh, Irene G Klugkist, Marcel A van den Hout
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Visual Schema Displacement Therapy (VSDT) is a novel therapy which has been described as a treatment for stress and dysfunction caused by a traumatic event. Although its developers claim this therapy is quicker and more beneficial than other forms of trauma therapy, its effectiveness has not been tested. METHODS: We compared the efficacy of VSDT to an abbreviated EMDR protocol and a non-active control condition (CC) in two studies. In Study 1 participants (N = 30) were asked to recall three negative emotional memories under three conditions: VSDT, EMDR, and a CC, each lasting 8 min...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30513908/administration-of-momordica-charantia-enhances-the-neuroprotection-and-reduces-the-side-effects-of-licl-in-the-treatment-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
Hei-Jen Huang, Shu-Ling Chen, Yen-Ting Chang, Jong-Ho Chyuan, Hsiu Mei Hsieh-Li
Recently, the use of natural food supplements to reduce the side effects of chemical compounds used for the treatment of various diseases has become popular. Lithium chloride (LiCl) has some protective effects in neurological diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, its toxic effects on various systems and some relevant interactions with other drugs limit its broader use in clinical practice. In this study, we investigated the in vitro and in vivo pharmacological functions of LiCl combined with Momordica charantia (MC) in the treatment of AD...
December 3, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511663/dosenet-a-volumetric-dose-prediction-algorithm-using-3d-fully-convolutional-neural-networks
#7
Vasant Kearney, Jason W Chan, Samuel Haaf, Martina Descovich, Timothy D Solberg
The goal of this study is to demonstrate the feasibility of a novel fully-convolutional volumetric dose prediction neural network (DoseNet) and test its performance on a cohort of prostate stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) patients. DoseNet is suggested as a superior alternative to U-Net and fully connected distance map-based neural networks for non-coplanar SBRT prostate dose prediction. DoseNet utilizes 3D convolutional downsampling with corresponding 3D deconvolutional upsampling to preserve memory while simultaneously increasing the receptive field of the network...
December 4, 2018: Physics in Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511603/executive-functioning-in-the-dystrophinopathies-and-the-relation-to-underlying-mutation-position
#8
Robert J Fee, Jacqueline Montes, Veronica J Hinton
OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to investigate executive skills in children with dystrophinopathy and to examine the association between executive functions and dystrophin gene mutation position. METHODS: Fifty boys with dystrophinopathy (mean age, 11 years 0 months; ages range, 5 to 17 years) completed measures of intellectual functioning (IF), working memory and executive functioning [including Digit Span (working memory) and measures from the NIH Toolbox (selective attention/inhibitory control, set shifting, working memory, and processing speed)]...
December 4, 2018: Journal of the International Neuropsychological Society: JINS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511346/migrants-seeking-help-for-cognitive-disturbances-exploratory-data-from-an-italian-memory-clinic
#9
Marco Canevelli, Valerio Zaccaria, Ciro Ruocco, Martina Valletta, Marina Gasparini, Nicola Vanacore, Matteo Cesari, Giuseppe Bruno
INTRODUCTION: The phenomenon of dementia occurring in migrants and minority groups constitutes an emerging issue for Western countries. Nevertheless, it has been poorly explored from the perspective of "real-world" clinical services. We aimed to quantify the number of migrants from LMIC attending an Italian university memory clinic and to document its modifications over time. METHODS: All the subjects undergoing a first neurological and cognitive assessment between 2001 and 2017 were considered for the present analyses...
December 4, 2018: Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511118/modifying-the-minimum-criteria-for-diagnosing-amnestic-mci-to-improve-prediction-of-brain-atrophy-and-progression-to-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
Eero Vuoksimaa, Linda K McEvoy, Dominic Holland, Carol E Franz, William S Kremen
Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is a heterogeneous condition with variable outcomes. Improving diagnosis to increase the likelihood that MCI reliably reflects prodromal Alzheimer's Disease (AD) would be of great benefit for clinical practice and intervention trials. In 230 cognitively normal (CN) and 394 MCI individuals from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, we studied whether an MCI diagnostic requirement of impairment on at least two episodic memory tests improves 3-year prediction of medial temporal lobe atrophy and progression to AD...
December 4, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30511010/clinical-and-cognitive-characteristics-of-preclinical-alzheimer-s-disease-in-the-japanese-alzheimer-s-disease-neuroimaging-initiative-cohort
#11
Ryoko Ihara, Atsushi Iwata, Kazushi Suzuki, Takeshi Ikeuchi, Ryozo Kuwano, Takeshi Iwatsubo
Introduction: The objective of this study was to determine the frequency and clinical and cognitive characteristics of preclinical Alzheimer's disease (AD) in a Japanese population to effectively design and conduct future preventive trials on preclinical AD. Methods: Three-year longitudinal data from cognitively normal participants who underwent cerebrospinal fluid biomarker measurement and/or amyloid positron emission tomography in the Japanese Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative, were analyzed...
2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Translational Research & Clinical Interventions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510966/phenotypic-characterization-of-circulating-cd4-t-cells-in-anca-associated-vasculitis
#12
Sandra Lilliebladh, Åsa Johansson, Åsa Pettersson, Sophie Ohlsson, Thomas Hellmark
T cell-mediated immune responses are thought to play an important role in the pathogenesis of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody- (ANCA-) associated vasculitides (AAV). CD4+ T cells can be divided into subsets depending on their expression of chemokine receptors. In this study, different CD4+ T cell populations in patients with AAV were analysed and compared to healthy blood donors as well as therapy controls. 18 patients with active AAV, 46 in remission, 21 healthy controls (HBD), and 15 therapy controls (TC) were enrolled...
2018: Journal of Immunology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30510917/phenotypic-and-functional-profiles-of-antigen-specific-cd4-and-cd8-t-cells-associated-with-infection-control-in-patients-with-cutaneous-leishmaniasis
#13
Adriana Egui, Darién Ledesma, Elena Pérez-Antón, Andrés Montoya, Inmaculada Gómez, Sara María Robledo, Juan José Infante, Ivan Darío Vélez, Manuel C López, M Carmen Thomas
The host immunological response is a key factor determining the pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. It is known that a Th1 cellular response is associated with infection control and that antigen-specific memory T cells are necessary for the development of a rapid and strong protective cellular response. The present manuscript reports the analysis of the functional and phenotypic profiles of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), patients with an active process of cutaneous leishmaniasis, asymptomatic individuals with a positive Montenegro test and healthy donors (HD)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509326/optic-neuritis-as-the-initial-clinical-presentation-of-limbic-encephalitis-a-case-report
#14
Stephanie S L Cheung, Gary K K Lau, Koon-Ho Chan, Ian Y H Wong, Jimmy S M Lai, Wai Kiu Tang, Kendrick C Shih
BACKGROUND: Limbic encephalitis is characterized by rapid onset of working memory deficit, mood changes, and often seizures. The condition has a strong paraneoplastic association, but not all cases are invariably due to tumors. CASE PRESENTATION: We present a case of limbic encephalitis in a Chinese patient who initially presented to our hospital with optic neuritis and no other neurological symptoms. The diagnosis was made radiologically, and cognitive and neurological symptoms did not occur until 5 months later...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509028/the-erlangen-score-algorithm-in-the-diagnosis-and-prediction-of-the-progression-from-subjective-cognitive-decline-and-mild-cognitive-impairment-to-alzheimer-type-dementia
#15
Anna Filipek-Gliszczyńska, Anna Barczak, Magdalena Budziszewska, Monika Mandecka, Tomasz Gabryelewicz, Maria Barcikowska
The evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) (β-amyloid, t-tau, p-tau) can be used to estimate the risk of developing dementia in patients at the pre-clinical stages of AD, i.e. subjective cognitive decline (SCD) and mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Erlangen Score Algorithm allows interpretation of CSF biomarker concentrations and is cut-off value independent. The aim of this study was to establish if this algorithm can be applied for routine diagnostic testing in clinical and preclinical subjects and has prognostic value...
2018: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508923/extensive-traumatic-axonal-injury-of-brain-due-to-violence-a-case-report
#16
Sung Ho Jang, Seong Ho Kim, Young Hyeon Kwon
RATIONALE: Many studies using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) have demonstrated traumatic axonal injury (TAI) in patients whose conventional brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) results are negative following head trauma. Injury mechanism for TAI in these patients has been mainly associated with motor vehicle accident, whereas very little is known about TAI by violence. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 42-year-old male patient presented after experiencing head trauma due to violence...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508909/effects-of-exercise-interventions-for-specific-cognitive-domains-in-old-adults-with-mild-cognitive-impairment-a-protocol-of-subgroup-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#17
Xiang-Lian Zhou, Li-Na Wang, Jie Wang, Xin-Hua Shen, Xia Zhao
BACKGROUND: Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is the clinical prognosis that leads to dementia. Early intervention of MCI is critical to protect against dementia. Exercise intervention has gained popularity for the management of MCI. Most current studies have focused only on improvements made by exercise interventions on the global/general cognitive function and/or a specific cognitive function. However, no studies have been performed on a subgroup analysis of the effects of exercise interventions on different cognitive domains of the elderly with MCI...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508904/the-role-of-cognitive-rehabilitation-in-limbic-encephalitis-a-case-report
#18
Francesco Corallo, Viviana Lo Buono, Marcella Di Cara, Simona De Salvo, Caterina Formica, Rosa Morabito, Daniela Floridia, Concetta Pastura, Carmela Rifici, Giangaetano D'Aleo, Edoardo Sessa, Placido Bramanti, Silvia Marino
RATIONALE: Limbic encephalitis is a parenchymal inflammation caused by viral, bacterial, or other microbial and postinfectious agents, which is usually expressed by multifocal neurological signs and cognitive impairment. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old female was admitted in postacute phase, at our rehabilitative Center, to undertake neuro-motor treatment for a period of 4 months. DIAGNOSES: The patient was affected by limbic encephalitis...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508746/brain-mechanisms-of-stress-and-depression-in-coronary-artery-disease
#19
J Douglas Bremner, Carolina Campanella, Zehra Khan, Negar Fani, Nicole Kasher, Sarah Evans, Collin Reiff, Sanskriti Mishra, Stacy Ladd, Jonathon A Nye, Paolo Raggi, Viola Vaccarino
INTRODUCTION: Major depression is associated with an increased risk for and mortality from coronary artery disease (CAD), however the mechanisms by which this occurs are not clear. Depression, which is linked to stress, is associated with changes in brain areas involved in memory and the stress response, and it is likely that these regions play an important role in this increased risk. This study assessed the effects of stress on brain and cardiac function in patients with CAD with and without depression...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30508732/administration-of-the-benzodiazepine-midazolam-increases-tau-phosphorylation-in-the-mouse-brain
#20
Robert A Whittington, László Virág, Maud Gratuze, Hilana Lewkowitz-Shpuntoff, Mehdi Cheheltanan, Franck Petry, Isabelle Poitras, Françoise Morin, Emmanuel Planel
Preclinical studies have shown that anesthesia might accelerate the clinical progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and can have an impact on tau pathology, a hallmark of AD. Although benzodiazepines have been suggested to increase the risk of incident dementia, their impact on tau pathology in vivo is unknown. We thus examined the impact of midazolam, a benzodiazepine that is often administered perioperatively as an anxiolytic, on tau hyperphosphorylation in nontransgenic and in hTau mice, the latter a model of AD-like tau pathology...
November 8, 2018: Neurobiology of Aging
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