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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121369/somatic-hnf1a-mutations-in-the-malignant-transformation-of-hepatocellular-adenomas-a-retrospective-analysis-of-data-from-msk-impact-and-tcga
#1
Jaclyn F Hechtman, Ghassan K Abou Alfa, Zsofia K Stadler, Diana L Mandelker, Michael H A Roehrl, Ahmet Zehir, Efsevia Vakiani, Sumit Middha, David S Klimstra, Jinru Shia
Mutations of Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A gene and loss of Liver-Fatty-Acid-Binding-Protein are well documented in hepatocellular adenoma. However, the role of Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A mutations in hepatocellular carcinoma remains to be determined. In this study, all hepatocellular neoplasms evaluated by our institutional Memorial Sloan Kettering-Integrated Mutational Profiling of Actionable Clinical Targets assay or the Cancer Genome Atlas sequencing, and cases reported in the literature, were queried for Hepatocyte-Nuclear-Factor-1-Homeobox-A mutations...
August 16, 2018: Human Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121207/impaired-cognitive-processing-speed-in-type-1-diabetic-patients-who-had-severe-recurrent-hypoglycaemia
#2
Stefano Bortolotti, Lisa Zarantonello, Ambra Uliana, Nicola Vitturi, Sami Schiff, Patrizia Bisiacchi, Angelo Avogaro, Piero Amodio, Alberto Maran
AIMS: To detect whether adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM) have lower cognitive performance than healthy individuals and to detect risk factors for low cognitive performance. METHODS: Twenty-six adults with T1DM and twenty-six healthy subjects matched for age, gender and educational level were compared for cognitive performance by a chronometric computerized test measuring visuo-spatial working memory (N-Back) and by two validated neuropsychological tests (Mini Mental State Examination, Animal Naming Test)...
August 10, 2018: Journal of Diabetes and its Complications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30121146/regulatory-t-cell-abundance-and-activation-status-before-and-after-priming-with-hivis-dna-and-boosting-with-mva-hiv-rgp140-gla-af-may-impact-the-magnitude-of-the-vaccine-induced-immune-responses
#3
Raquel Matavele Chissumba, Abílio Luciano, Eduardo Namalango, Asli Bauer, Nilesh Bhatt, Britta Wahren, Charlotta Nilsson, Christof Geldmacher, Gabriella Scarlatti, Ilesh Jani, Luc Kestens
Little is known about regulatory CD4 T cells (Tregs) in the context of HIV vaccines. Tregs can be differentiated into resting (FoxP3+ CD45RA+ - rTregs), activated (FoxP3High CD45RA- - aTregs) and memory (FoxP3Low CD45RA- - mTregs). Tregs, as CD4 T cells, are also frequent targets for HIV infection. We studied how the abundance and phenotypes of Tregs in terms of activation status and expression of HIV-1 binding molecules would have changed during vaccination in healthy volunteers participating in a phase IIa HIV vaccine clinical trial...
August 12, 2018: Immunobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120735/degradation-of-caytaxin-causes-learning-and-memory-deficits-via-activation-of-dapk1-in-aging
#4
Yu Guo, Hao Li, Xiao Ke, Manfei Deng, Zhuoze Wu, You Cai, Henok Kessete Afewerky, Xiaoan Zhang, Lei Pei, Youming Lu
Loss of memory is an inevitable clinic sign in aging, but its underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Here we show that death-associated protein kinase (DAPK1) is involved in the decays of learning and memory in aging via degradation of Caytaxin, a brain-specific member of BNIP-2. DAPK1 becomes activated in the hippocampus of mice during aging. Activation of DAPK1 is closely associated with degradation of Caytaxin protein. Silencing Caytaxin by the expression of small interfering RNA (siRNA) that targets specifically to Caytaxin in the hippocampus of adult mice impairs the learning and memory...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120733/near-infrared-light-treatment-reduces-synaptic-levels-of-toxic-tau-oligomers-in-two-transgenic-mouse-models-of-human-tauopathies
#5
Michele M Comerota, Batbayar Tumurbaatar, Balaji Krishnan, Rakez Kayed, Giulio Taglialatela
Tau oligomers are emerging as a key contributor to the synaptic dysfunction that drives cognitive decline associated with the clinical manifestation and progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accordingly, there is ample consensus that interventions that target tau oligomers may slow or halt the progression of AD. With this ultimate goal in mind, in the present study, we investigated tau oligomer accumulation and its synaptic and behavioral consequences after an in vivo treatment with near infrared (NIR) light (600-1000 nm) in two transgenic mouse models, overexpressing human tau either alone (hTau mice) or in combination with amyloid beta (3xTgAD mice)...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120448/learning-without-trying-the-clinical-relevance-of-statistical-learning
#6
Elena Plante, Rebecca L Gómez
Purpose: Statistical learning research seeks to identify the means by which learners, with little perceived effort, acquire the complexities of language. In the past 50 years, numerous studies have uncovered powerful learning mechanisms that allow for learning within minutes of exposure to novel language input. Method: We consider the value of information from statistical learning studies that show potential for making treatment of language disorders faster and more effective...
August 14, 2018: Language, Speech, and Hearing Services in Schools
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120417/-18-f-fibt-may-expand-pet-for-%C3%AE-amyloid-imaging-in-neurodegenerative-diseases
#7
Timo Grimmer, Kuangyu Shi, Janine Diehl-Schmid, Bianca Natale, Alexander Drzezga, Stefan Förster, Hans Förstl, Markus Schwaiger, Igor Yakushev, Hans-Jürgen Wester, Alexander Kurz, Behrooz Hooshyar Yousefi
18 F-FIBT, 2-(p-Methylaminophenyl)-7-(2-[18 F]fluoroethoxy)imidazo-[2,1-b]benzothiazole, is a new selective PET tracer under clinical investigation to specifically image β-amyloid depositions (Aβ) in humans in-vivo that binds to Aβ with excellent affinity (Kd 0.7 ± 0.2) and high selectivity over tau and α-synuclein aggregates (Ki > 1000 nM). We aimed to characterize 18 F-FIBT in a series of patients with different clinical-pathophysiological phenotypes and to compare its binding characteristics to the reference compound PiB...
August 17, 2018: Molecular Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30120295/characterization-of-induced-tissue-specific-stem-cells-from-pancreas-by-a-synthetic-self-replicative-rna
#8
Chika Miyagi-Shiohira, Yoshiki Nakashima, Naoya Kobayashi, Issei Saitoh, Masami Watanabe, Hirofumi Noguchi
Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells have significant implications for overcoming most of the ethical issues associated with embryonic stem (ES) cells. Furthermore, our recent study demonstrated the generation of induced tissue-specific stem (iTS) cells by transient overexpression of the reprogramming factors using a plasmid combined with tissue-specific selection. In this study, we were able to generate RNA-based iTS cells that utilize a single, synthetic, self-replicating VEE-RF RNA replicon expressing four reprogramming factors (OCT4, KLF4, SOX2, and GLIS1)...
August 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30119618/single-center-experience-with-liver-transplant-using-donors-with-very-high-transaminase-levels
#9
Paulo N Martins, Amanda Rawson, Babak Movahedi, Isabel M A Brüggenwirth, Natasha H Dolgin, Ann-Britt Martins, Paria Mahboub, Adel Bozorgzadeh
OBJECTIVES: Elevation of transaminases has been used as a marker of hepatic ischemic injury and as a crucial parameter for liver graft assessment. However, analysis of serum transaminases has limitations regarding the quantitative assessment of liver necrosis and is not a reliable predictor of outcomes. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of all liver transplants (N = 238) performed at the UMass Memorial Medical Center from 2009 to 2013...
August 17, 2018: Experimental and Clinical Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30118823/the-opioid-system-in-stress-induced-memory-disorders-from-basic-mechanisms-to-clinical-implications-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#10
REVIEW
Angélica Torres-Berrio, Mauricio O Nava-Mesa
Cognitive and emotional impairment are a serious consequence of stress exposure and are core features of neurological and psychiatric conditions that involve memory disorders. Indeed, acute and chronic stress are high-risk factors for the onset of posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), two devastating brain disorders associated with memory dysfunction. Besides the sympathetic nervous system and the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, stress response also involves the activation of the opioid system in brain regions associated with stress regulation and memory processing...
August 14, 2018: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30117532/plasma-adiponectin-array-in-women-with-alzheimer-s-disease
#11
Agnieszka Baranowska-Bik, Małgorzata Kalisz, Lidia Martyńska, Ewa Wolińska-Witort, Maria Styczyńska, Małgorzata Chodakowska-Żebrowska, Maria Barcikowska, Bogusława Baranowska, Wojciech Bik
Introduction Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. Typical features of AD include memory loss, social dysfunction and physical impairment. Although the pathological findings in the central nervous system are well established, the etiological factors are poorly known. Recent studies suggested the role of metabolic disturbances in the development of AD neurodegeneration. Adiponectin, an anti-inflammatory and metabolism regulating factor, was linked to AD. Aim The aim was to examine whether adiponectin fractions combined with insulin/insulin resistance-associated metabolic parameters correlate with AD progression...
August 17, 2018: Endokrynologia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116769/rem-sleep-and-safety-signal-learning-in-posttraumatic-stress-disorder-a-preliminary-study-in-military-veterans
#12
Laura D Straus, Sonya B Norman, Victoria B Risbrough, Dean T Acheson, Sean P A Drummond
Background: Posttraumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) is associated with a number of negative physical and mental health consequences. Fear conditioning plays an important mechanistic role in PTSD, and PTSD patients also show deficits in safety signal learning. Sleep, particularly REM sleep, is linked to improved safety learning and extinction processes in animal models and healthy humans. No studies have examined the link between REM sleep and safety signal learning or extinction memory in clinical populations...
November 2018: Neurobiology of Stress
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116504/neurocognitive-impairment-after-acute-coronary-syndrome-prevalence-and-characterization-in-a-hospital-based-cardiac-rehabilitation-program-sample
#13
Muriela Silva, Eduarda Pereira, Afonso Rocha, Dulce Sousa, Bruno Peixoto
Introduction: Prospective studies have shown the relation between acute coronary syndrome (ACS) and neurocognitive dysfunction with prevalence ranging between 10.51% and 66.8%. The present study aims to determine the prevalence level of neurocognitive dysfunction; the relations between sociodemographic, clinical and emotional variables and neurocognitive functioning in a sample of ACS patients. Methods: The sample comprised of 53 patients engaged in cardiac rehabilitation within 3 months after an ACS. Patients with any medical history of neuropsychiatric problems prior to the ACS and illiterate subjects were not included in the study...
2018: Journal of Cardiovascular and Thoracic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116300/can-inflammation-be-resolved-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#14
REVIEW
Mingqin Zhu, Xiuzhe Wang, Li Sun, Marianne Schultzberg, Erik Hjorth
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive memory loss and dementia. Accumulating evidence suggests that inflammation is involved in the pathogenesis of AD. Epidemiological studies suggest that use of anti-inflammatory drugs is associated with a lower incidence of AD. However, clinical trials with anti-inflammatory drugs have not been successful. Recent studies have shown that inflammation is resolved by a process that is mediated by a group of lipid mediators, so called specialized pro-resolving lipid mediators (SPMs)...
2018: Therapeutic Advances in Neurological Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30116207/cognitive-impairment-and-endoplasmic-reticulum-stress-induced-by-repeated-short-term-sevoflurane-exposure-in-early-life-of-rats
#15
Fu-Yi Shen, Ying-Cai Song, Fei Guo, Zhen-Dong Xu, Qian Li, Bing Zhang, Yu-Qin Ma, Yue-Qi Zhang, Rong Lin, Yang Li, Zhi-Qiang Liu
Sevoflurane is one of the most commonly used volatile anaesthetics for children, but the safety of prolonged or repeated clinical use of sevoflurane in infants or children is controversial. Here, we investigated the effects of sevoflurane on rats in early life and the time scale of those effects. Our behavioral results indicated that repeated short-term exposure of new-born rats to sevoflurane caused learning and memory impairment, while a single exposure of rats to sevoflurane was relatively safe. Further mechanistic investigation revealed that repeated sevoflurane exposure impaired long-term potentiation (LTP), downregulated the expression of certain synaptogenesis-related proteins (GluR1, PSD95) and upregulated proteins related to endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in the hippocampus...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115862/cognitive-functioning-of-geriatric-patients-is-hypovitaminosis-d-the-next-marker-of-cognitive-dysfunction-and-dementia
#16
Ewelina Łukaszyk, Katarzyna Bień-Barkowska, Barbara Bień
The study objective is to investigate whether vitamin D is associated with the cognitive function of geriatric patients. This cross-sectional study involved 357 patients hospitalized in the geriatric ward who complained of memory problems (mean age: 82.3 years). The level of cognitive function was measured with the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) and the clinical diagnosis of dementia was established according to the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) criteria. The serum 25-hydroxy vitamin D was measured with liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry...
August 16, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115771/reconsolidation-blockade-for-the-treatment-of-addiction-challenges-new-targets-and-opportunities
#17
Marc T J Exton-McGuinness, Amy L Milton
Addiction is a chronic, relapsing disorder. The progression to pathological drug-seeking is thought to be driven by maladaptive learning processes which store and maintain associative memory, linking drug highs with cues and actions in the environment. These memories can encode Pavlovian associations which link predictive stimuli (e.g., people, places, and paraphernalia) with a hedonic drug high, as well as instrumental learning about the actions required to obtain drug-associated incentives. Learned memories are not permanent however, and much recent interest has been generated in exploiting the process of reconsolidation to erase or significantly weaken maladaptive memories to treat several mental health disorders, including addictions...
September 2018: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30115118/cerebrospinal-fluid-synaptosomal-associated-protein-25-is-a-key-player-in-synaptic-degeneration-in-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#18
Hua Zhang, Joseph Therriault, Min Su Kang, Kok Pin Ng, Tharick A Pascoal, Pedro Rosa-Neto, Serge Gauthier
BACKGROUND: There is accumulating evidence that synaptic loss precedes neuronal loss and correlates best with impaired memory formation in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP-25) is a newly discovered marker indicating synaptic damage. We here test CSF SNAP-25 and SNAP-25/amyloid-β42 (Aβ42) ratio as a diagnostic marker for predicting cognitive decline and brain structural change in the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI) database...
August 16, 2018: Alzheimer's Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30114430/the-absence-of-maternal-pineal-melatonin-rhythm-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-impairs-offspring-physical-growth-neurodevelopment-and-behavior
#19
Lívia Clemente Motta-Teixeira, Aline Vilar Machado-Nils, Daniella Sabino Battagello, Giovanne Baroni Diniz, Jéssica Andrade-Silva, Sinésio Silva-Junior, Raphael Afonso Matos, Fernanda Gaspar do Amaral, Gilberto Fernando Xavier, Jackson Cioni Bittencourt, Russel J Reiter, Paul Jonh Lucassen, Aniko Korosi, José Cipolla-Neto
Maternal melatonin provides photoperiodic information to the fetus and thus influences the regulation and timing of the offspring's internal rhythms and preparation for extra-uterine development. There is clinical evidence that melatonin deprivation of both mother and fetus during pregnancy, and of the neonate during lactation, results in negative long-term health outcomes. As a consequence, we hypothesized that the absence of maternal pineal melatonin might determine abnormal brain programming in the offspring, which would lead to long-lasting implications for behavior and brain function...
August 13, 2018: Hormones and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30113550/effectiveness-of-multisensory-stimulation-in-managing-neuropsychiatric-symptoms-in-older-adults-with-major-neurocognitive-disorder-a-systematic-review
#20
Rosa Silva, Sérgio Abrunheiro, Daniela Cardoso, Paulo Costa, Filipa Couto, Cátia Agrenha, João Apóstolo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to synthesize the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD). INTRODUCTION: Major neurocognitive disorder is characterized by changes in specific cognitive domains with a progressive deterioration in cognitive ability and capacity for independent living. Most older adults with this condition have one or more concomitant symptoms known as NPS...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
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