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Adipokines and cardiovascular disease

Akramsadat Mortazavi, Ebrahim Nematipoor, Mahmoud Djalali, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Simin Samavat, Mahnaz Zarei, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have both anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects through inducing the expression and production of adipokines. Adipokines such as apelin, have been observed to play a protective role in the incidence and progression of CVD. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on the serum apelin levels in patients with cardiovascular disease...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Min Shi, Liang Ma, Ping Ina Fu
Accumulating evidences indicated that obesity and metabolic syndrome were independent risk factors for the development and progression of kidney diseases. Apart from inflammation, lipotoxicity, and hemodynamic factors, adipokines have been proposed to play crucial roles in the relationship between kidney diseases and metabolic disorders. As one of key adipokines, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, has recently been shown to be associated with renal dysfunction and kidney damage...
October 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Bo-Xun Liu, Wei Sun, Xiang-Qing Kong
Although visceral obesity is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the efficacy of omental fat removal in CVD treatment is still controversial. There is a need to identify other visceral fat depots for CVD management. This review aims to provide a summary on perirenal fat as an important risk factor for CVD. Studies on epidemiology, anatomy, and function of perirenal fat were reviewed. Observational studies in humans suggest that excessive perirenal fat increases the risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease...
October 9, 2018: Angiology
Alberto A Barrios-Correa, José A Estrada, Irazú Contreras
Obesity has become a major health concern in modern times, as it significantly increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. The obesity epidemic has brought considerable attention to the molecular mechanisms through which adipocyte-secreted adipokines regulate physiological processes involved in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Among them, leptin is considered as one of the principal regulators of a variety of physiological processes, including appetite and energy metabolism, through its binding to a variety of receptors and in particular by signaling through the long isoform receptor ObRb...
October 3, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Martin J Wolley, Colin A Hutchison
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on maintenance hemodialysis are subject to a high burden of inflammation and cardiovascular disease, driven at least in part by retention of uremic solutes. Existing dialysis technologies using high-flux membranes offer limited clearance of solutes >15 kDa. New approaches to improve the removal of large uremic toxins include the novel medium cut-off dialysis membranes with pores larger than those in high-flux membranes. These new membranes provide the potential to improve the clearance of large middle molecules up to 50 kDa...
October 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Estrella Sanchez-Rebordelo, Juan Cunarro, Sonia Perez-Sieira, Luisa María Seoane, Carlos Diéguez, Ruben Nogueiras, Sulay Tovar
Chemerin (also known as tazarotene-induced gene 2 and retinoic acid receptor responder 2) has been identified as an adipokine that exerts effects on many biological processes, including adipogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammation, immune responses, and food intake. This variety of effects has led to its implication in obesity and co-morbidities including diabetes and a risk of cardiovascular disease. The biological effects are mostly mediated by a so-called G protein-coupled receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1)...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna Babinska, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Piotr Kmieć, Krzysztof Sworczak
INTRODUCTION: In recent years researchers have focused at hormonal activity in Cushing's syndrome (CS) in connection with metabolic disorders and the role of adipokines and cytokines secreted by the adipose tissue. The aim of the study was to investigate levels of adipokines and cytokines in patients with: subclinical CS (SCS) - in relation to hormonal parameters of hypercortisolemia, and, adrenocortical cancer (ACC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 20 SCS as well as 7 ACC patients, and 18 healthy participants...
September 6, 2018: Steroids
Xiao-Ling Yu, Chao Wu, Hong-Zhong Jin
Psoriasis usually combines with metabolic diseases,and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease remarkably increases in psoriatic patients. Adipokines,which play an important role in the cardiovascular diseases,also express abnormally in psoriasis and may induce or exacerbate the skin lesion. The adipokines associated with psoriasis and cardiovascular disease include adiponectin,leptin,resistin,omentin,visfatin,chemerin,and retinoid binding protein 4 (RBP-4). The levels of adiponectin and omentin apparently decrease in psoriatic patients compared to healthy controls,and thus they may play protective roles for psoriasis...
August 30, 2018: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Jing Cheng, Xing Su, Lei Qiao, Chungang Zhai, Wenqiang Chen
There is increasing evidence that serum adipokine levels are associated with higher risks of cardiovascular diseases. As an important adipokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been demonstrated to be associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, circulating level of FGF21 in patients with angina pectoris has not yet been investigated. Circulating FGF21 level was examined in 197 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP, n =66), unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n =76), and control subjects ( n =55) along with clinical variables of cardiovascular risk factors...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Elena Nikiphorou, George E Fragoulis
Obesity represents a rising global health concern, linked to significant social, psychological and physical burden to the individual affected, people around them and the society as a whole. Obesity has been described as a low-grade inflammatory condition, associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 6 and altered expression of adipokines. Adipokines, mainly produced by adipose tissue, have mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Obesity rarely exists on its own; instead, it tends to coexist with (often multiple) other comorbidities, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs)...
August 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Sahar Vahdat
Kidney diseases are categorized as the highest prevalent ones with worldwide noticeable incidence. They cause accelerated cardiovascular diseases and noticeable mortalities. Adipose tissue and its messengers, adipokines, are reported to have the highest relationship with end-stage renal diseases or chronic kidney diseases. Over recent years, with shifting of scientists' mindset from a simple overview of adipose tissue as a fat store to the complex paradigm of this issue as a multipotential secretory organ, the importance of studies on this tissue has emerged...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
Antonella Fioravanti, Sara Tenti, Maria Romana Bacarelli, Arianna Damiani, Francesca Li Gobbi, Francesca Bandinelli, Sara Cheleschi, Mauro Galeazzi, Maurizio Benucci
OBJECTIVES: Adipokines play an important role in the pathophysiology of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), provide a link between the disease and overweight, contributing to explain the enhanced cardiovascular (CV) risk and influence the response to disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs. The aim of this study was to determine the possible effects of intravenous (IV) tocilizumab (TCZ), an interleukin-6 receptor antagonist, on serum levels of leptin, adiponectin, resistin, visfatin, and chemerin...
August 27, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology
Tuula Saukkonen, Shivaprakash Jagalur Mutt, Jari Jokelainen, Anna-Maria Saukkonen, Ghulam Shere Raza, Toni Karhu, Pirjo Härkönen, Jürgen Eckel, Karl-Heinz Herzig, Ulla Rajala, Sirkka Keinänen-Kiukaanniemi
Inflammation plays a significant role in pathogenesis of diabetes and atherosclerosis. Increased adiposity with an upregulation of cytokines in prediabetes has been associated with vascular inflammation and considered a leading causal factor for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Information on adipokines and inflammatory markers in prediabetes, defined by hemoglobin A1C (HbA1c) 5.7-6.4% in addition to impaired fasting glucose (IFG) and impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), are sparse. We conducted a population-based cross-sectional study (part of a follow-up study) of inhabitants of Oulu, Finland, born in 1935...
August 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
Seema Kumar, Md Jobayer Hossain, Thomas Inge, P Babu Balagopal
BACKGROUND: Spexin is a novel peptide predominantly produced in human white adipose tissue and has recently been implicated as a potential signal in the regulation of body weight, energy homeostasis, and satiety. The effect of bariatric surgery on spexin is unknown. OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery on endogenous spexin concentration and various risk factors of type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in youth with severe obesity...
July 20, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
Alessandra Feraco, Andrea Armani, Riccardo Urbanet, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat, Vincenzo Marzolla, Frederic Jaisser, Massimiliano Caprio
Obesity is a major risk factor that contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) expression is increased in the adipose tissue of obese patients and several studies provide evidence that MR pharmacological antagonism improves glucose metabolism in genetic and diet-induced mouse models of obesity. In order to investigate whether the lack of adipocyte MR is sufficient to explain these beneficial metabolic effects, we generated a mouse model with inducible adipocyte-specific deletion of Nr3c2 gene encoding MR (adipo-MRKO)...
August 18, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Yanxia Lu, Gianni Monaco, Xavier Camous, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Olaf Rotzschke, Tze Pin Ng, Anis Larbi
Novel wide array blood biomarkers of multisystem dysregulation, compared to conventional clinical and blood biomarkers, are potentially able to provide more accurate prognostic information of long-term mortality risks. We identified biomarker signatures of all-cause and disease-specific mortality from a comprehensive range of analytes related to six major physiological functions: cytokine, chemokine, and growth factors; glucose metabolism regulators and adipokines; adhesion molecules; acute phase response; pathogen-specific antibodies; and bone remodeling...
August 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Xiao-Hua Yu, Da-Wei Zhang, Xi-Long Zheng, Chao-Ke Tang
C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (CTRP9), a newly discovered adipokine, is the closest paralog of adiponectin. After proteolytic cleavage, it can release the globular domain (gCTRP9) that serves as the major circulatory isoform. Upon binding to adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and N-cadherin, CTRP9 can activate a variety of signaling pathways to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, vascular relaxation and cell differentiation. Circulating CTRP9 levels are significantly decreased in patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease...
September 2018: Atherosclerosis
Hon-Cheong So, Kwan-Long Chau, Fu-Kiu Ao, Cheuk-Hei Mo, Pak-Chung Sham
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases represent a major health issue in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), but the exact nature of cardiometabolic (CM) abnormalities involved and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Psychiatric medications are known risk factors, but it is unclear whether there is a connection between the disorders (SCZ/BD) themselves and CM abnormalities. METHODS: Using polygenic risk scores and linkage disequilibrium score regression, we investigated the shared genetic bases of SCZ and BD with 28 CM traits...
July 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jaspreet Kaur, Harman S Mattu, Kamaljit Chatha, Harpal S Randeva
Adipose tissue, initially known only for storing excess fat, produces a number of active cytokine-like hormones, collectively known as adipokines or adipocytokines. These molecules are further known to elicit auto-, para- and endocrine functions in the body. In healthy bodies, the cardiovascular endothelium maintains vascular health by critically controlling the interplay between various factors. However, in diseased states such as obesity, owing to numerous metabolic malfunctions, this vascular homeostasis is disrupted...
November 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Stergios A Polyzos, Andrew N Margioris
Sarcopenic obesity, a chronic condition, is today a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide, which is due to progressively aging populations, the increasing prevalence of obesity, and the changes in lifestyle during the last several decades. Patients usually present to healthcare facilities for obesity and related comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) or for non-specific symptoms related to sarcopenia per se (e...
September 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
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