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Adipokines and cardiovascular disease

Yanxia Lu, Gianni Monaco, Xavier Camous, Anand Kumar Andiappan, Olaf Rotzschke, Tze Pin Ng, Anis Larbi
Novel wide array blood biomarkers of multisystem dysregulation, compared to conventional clinical and blood biomarkers, are potentially able to provide more accurate prognostic information of long-term mortality risks. We identified biomarker signatures of all-cause and disease-specific mortality from a comprehensive range of analytes related to six major physiological functions: cytokine, chemokine, and growth factors; glucose metabolism regulators and adipokines; adhesion molecules; acute phase response; pathogen-specific antibodies; and bone remodeling...
August 6, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
Xiao-Hua Yu, Da-Wei Zhang, Xi-Long Zheng, Chao-Ke Tang
C1q tumor necrosis factor-related protein 9 (CTRP9), a newly discovered adipokine, is the closest paralog of adiponectin. After proteolytic cleavage, it can release the globular domain (gCTRP9) that serves as the major circulatory isoform. Upon binding to adiponectin receptor 1 (AdipoR1) and N-cadherin, CTRP9 can activate a variety of signaling pathways to regulate glucose and lipid metabolism, vascular relaxation and cell differentiation. Circulating CTRP9 levels are significantly decreased in patients with coronary atherosclerosis disease...
July 19, 2018: Atherosclerosis
Hon-Cheong So, Kwan-Long Chau, Fu-Kiu Ao, Cheuk-Hei Mo, Pak-Chung Sham
BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular diseases represent a major health issue in patients with schizophrenia (SCZ) and bipolar disorder (BD), but the exact nature of cardiometabolic (CM) abnormalities involved and the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Psychiatric medications are known risk factors, but it is unclear whether there is a connection between the disorders (SCZ/BD) themselves and CM abnormalities. METHODS: Using polygenic risk scores and linkage disequilibrium score regression, we investigated the shared genetic bases of SCZ and BD with 28 CM traits...
July 26, 2018: Psychological Medicine
Jaspreet Kaur, Harman S Mattu, Kamaljit Chatha, Harpal S Randeva
Adipose tissue, initially known only for storing excess fat, produces a number of active cytokine-like hormones, collectively known as adipokines or adipocytokines. These molecules are further known to elicit auto-, para- and endocrine functions in the body. In healthy bodies, the cardiovascular endothelium maintains vascular health by critically controlling the interplay between various factors. However, in diseased states such as obesity, owing to numerous metabolic malfunctions, this vascular homeostasis is disrupted...
August 3, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Stergios A Polyzos, Andrew N Margioris
Sarcopenic obesity, a chronic condition, is today a major public health problem with increasing prevalence worldwide, which is due to progressively aging populations, the increasing prevalence of obesity, and the changes in lifestyle during the last several decades. Patients usually present to healthcare facilities for obesity and related comorbidities (type 2 diabetes mellitus, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and cardiovascular disease) or for non-specific symptoms related to sarcopenia per se (e...
July 16, 2018: Hormones: International Journal of Endocrinology and Metabolism
Xabier Unamuno, Javier Gómez-Ambrosi, Amaia Rodríguez, Sara Becerril, Gema Frühbeck, Victoria Catalán
Obesity, a worldwide epidemic, confers increased risk for multiple serious conditions, including type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, nonalcoholic fatty liver disease and cancer. Adipose tissue is considered one of the largest endocrine organs in the body as well as an active tissue for cellular reactions and metabolic homeostasis rather than an inert tissue for energy storage. The functional pleiotropism of adipose tissue relies on its ability to synthesize and release a large number of hormones, cytokines, extracellular matrix proteins and growth and vasoactive factors, collectively termed adipokines that influence a variety of physiological and pathophysiological processes...
July 11, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Mohd Sayeed, Sudeep Gautam, Devesh Pratap Verma, Tayyaba Afshan, Tripti Kumari, Arvind Kumar Srivastava, Jimut Kanti Ghosh
Adiponectin is a fat tissue-derived adipokine with beneficial effects against diabetes, cardiovascular diseases, and cancer. Accordingly, adiponectin-mimetic molecules possess significant pharmacological potential. Oligomeric states of adiponectin appear to determine its biological activity. We identified a highly conserved, 13-residue segment (ADP-1) from adiponectin's collagen domain which comprises GXXG motifs and has one asparagine and two histidine residues that assist in oligomeric protein assembly. We therefore hypothesized that ADP-1 promotes oligomeric assembly and thereby mediates potential metabolic effects...
July 10, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Lu Zhang, Qi Liu, Hui Zhang, Xue-Dong Wang, Shu-Yuan Chen, Yang Yang, Hang Lv, Jing-Bo Hou, Bo Yu
During the pathogenesis of early atherosclerosis, lipid-loaded macrophages are involved in plaque development and progression. As a novel adipokine, C1q/tumor necrosis factor-related protein-9 (CTRP9) has beneficial effects in cardiovascular disease. However, previous reports have not studied whether the formation of macrophage foam cell induced by ox-LDL is affected by CTRP9. According to our study, in ox-LDL-induced THP-1 macrophages, CTRP9 could reduce the quantity of lipid droplets, lower the level of cholesteryl ester (CE), promote cholesterol efflux as well as increase the expression level of the cholesterol transport receptors ATP-binding membrane cassette transporter A1 (ABCA1) and G1 (ABCG1)...
July 3, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
María Molina-Vega, Araceli Muñoz-Garach, Miguel Damas-Fuentes, José Carlos Fernández-García, Francisco J Tinahones
Male hypogonadism associated with obesity is a very prevalent condition and is increasing in parallel with the epidemic prevalence of obesity. Low testosterone levels promote higher fat mass with reduced lean mass. Male hypogonadism is related to an increase in associated cardiometabolic complications, such as hypertension, type 2 diabetes mellitus, the metabolic syndrome, and cardiovascular disease. Its influence as a comorbidity of obesity is becoming more evident and should be evaluated and treated in at-risk patients...
July 3, 2018: Asian Journal of Andrology
Emma V Morris, Claire M Edwards
Obesity has become a global epidemic influencing the establishment and progression of a wide range of diseases, such as diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and cancer. In 2016, International Agency for Research on Cancer reported that obesity is now associated with 13 different cancers, one of which is multiple myeloma (MM), a destructive cancer of plasma cells that predominantly reside in the bone marrow. Obesity is the accumulation of excess body fat, which causes metabolic, endocrine, immunologic, and inflammatory-like changes...
June 26, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Stephanie W Watts, Emma S Darios, Adam E Mullick, Hannah Garver, Thomas L Saunders, Elizabeth D Hughes, Wanda E Filipiak, Michael G Zeidler, Nichole McMullen, Christopher J Sinal, Ramya K Kumar, David J Ferland, Gregory D Fink
Measures of the adipokine chemerin are elevated in multiple cardiovascular diseases, including hypertension, but little mechanistic work has been done to implicate chemerin as being causative in such diseases. The chemerin knockout (KO) rat was created to test the hypothesis that removal of chemerin would reduce pressure in the normal and hypertensive state. Western analyses confirmed loss of chemerin in the plasma and tissues of the KO vs. wild-type (WT) rats. Chemerin concentration in plasma and tissues was lower in WT females than in WT males, as determined by Western analysis...
June 15, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Rohith N Thota, Jessica J A Ferguson, Kylie A Abbott, Cintia B Dias, Manohar L Garg
Lower incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) in the Greenland Inuit, Northern Canada and Japan has been attributed to their consumption of seafood rich in long chain omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCn-3PUFA). While a large majority of pre-clinical and intervention trials have demonstrated heart health benefits of LCn-3PUFA, some studies have shown no effects or even negative effects. LCn-3PUFA have been shown to favourably modulate blood lipid levels, particularly a reduction in circulating levels of triglycerides...
July 17, 2018: Food & Function
Sumihiko Hagita, Maximillian A Rogers, Tan Pham, Jennifer R Wen, Andrew K Mlynarchik, Masanori Aikawa, Elena Aikawa
The sorting receptor Sortilin functions in the regulation of glucose and lipid metabolism. Dysfunctional lipid uptake, storage, and metabolism contribute to several major human diseases including atherosclerosis and obesity. Sortilin associates with cardiovascular disease; however, the role of Sortilin in adipose tissue and lipid metabolism remains unclear. Here we show that in the low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) atherosclerosis model, Sortilin deficiency (Sort1-/- ) in female mice suppresses Niemann-Pick type C1-Like 1 (Npc1l1) mRNA levels, reduces body and white adipose tissue weight, and improves brown adipose tissue function partially via transcriptional downregulation of Krüppel-like factor 4 and Liver X receptor...
June 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Niki Katsiki, Dimitri P Mikhailidis, Maciej Banach
Leptin, an adipokine that is implicated in the control of food intake via appetite suppression, may also stimulate oxidative stress, inflammation, thrombosis, arterial stiffness, angiogenesis and atherogenesis. These leptin-induced effects may predispose to the development of cardiovascular diseases. In the present review we discuss the evidence linking leptin levels with the presence, severity and/or prognosis of both coronary artery disease and non-cardiac vascular diseases such as stroke, carotid artery disease, peripheral artery disease (PAD) and abdominal aortic aneurysms (AAA) as well as with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM)...
July 2018: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
Anna Babinska, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Krzysztof Sworczak
Due to the fact that overweight or obesity is accompanied by hormonally active adrenal tumors: Cushing Syndrome-(CS) and Subclinical Cushing Syndrome (SCS), it is of high interest the correlation between different adipokines and cytokines secreted by adipose tissue, with metabolic disorders and hormonal activity in this group. Even in non-functioning adrenal incidentalomas (NFAI) elevated risk for cardiovascular disease and metabolic syndrome was demonstrated. The aim of the study was to investigate plasma adiponectin, leptin, resistin, tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6) and monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP1) levels in patients with NFAIs and healthy subjects...
June 5, 2018: Endocrine Journal
Marta B Wysocka, Katarzyna Pietraszek-Gremplewicz, Dorota Nowak
Apelin is an endogenous peptide identified as a ligand of the G protein-coupled receptor APJ. Apelin belongs to the family of adipokines, which are bioactive mediators released by adipose tissue. Extensive tissue distribution of apelin and its receptor suggests, that it could be involved in many physiological processes including regulation of blood pressure, body fluid homeostasis, endocrine stress response, cardiac contractility, angiogenesis, and energy metabolism. Additionally, this peptide participates in pathological processes, such as heart failure, obesity, diabetes, and cancer...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Clara Lefranc, Malou Friederich-Persson, Roberto Palacios-Ramirez, Aurelie Nguyen Dinh Cat
Obesity is a multifaceted, chronic, low-grade inflammation disease characterized by excess accumulation of dysfunctional adipose tissue. It is often associated with the development of cardiovascular (CV) disorders, insulin resistance and diabetes. Under pathological conditions like in obesity, adipose tissue secretes bioactive molecules called 'adipokines', including cytokines, hormones and reactive oxygen species (ROS). There is evidence suggesting that oxidative stress, in particular, the ROS imbalance in adipose tissue, may be the mechanistic link between obesity and its associated CV and metabolic complications...
September 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Gisela Helfer, Qing-Feng Wu
Metabolic syndrome is a global public health problem and predisposes individuals to obesity, diabetes and cardiovascular disease. Although the underlying mechanisms remain to be elucidated, accumulating evidence has uncovered a critical role of adipokines. Chemerin, encoded by the gene Rarres2 , is a newly discovered adipokine involved in inflammation, adipogenesis, angiogenesis and energy metabolism. In humans, local and circulating levels of chemerin are positively correlated with BMI and obesity-related biomarkers...
August 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Eunjung Lee, So-Ra Jung, So-Young Lee, Na-Kyoung Lee, Hyun-Dong Paik, Seong-Il Lim
The prevalence of obesity and associated metabolic disorders, including diabetes and cardiovascular disease, is rapidly becoming a severe global health problem. Recent reports have suggested that the alteration of the gut ecosystem through the consumption of probiotics and fermented foods, such as yogurt and Kimchi, can significantly impact obesity and Type 2 diabetes (T2D)-related biomarkers. In this study, we screened over 400 strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) that were isolated from fermented foods to identify potent anti-obesogenic and diabetic probiotics in vitro...
May 19, 2018: Nutrients
Felice Sirico, Antonio Bianco, Giovanni D'Alicandro, Clotilde Castaldo, Stefania Montagnani, Rocco Spera, Franca Di Meglio, Daria Nurzynska
BACKGROUND: New findings on adipose tissue physiology and obesity-associated inflammation status suggest that modification of the adipokine level can be relevant for the long-term prevention of obesity-associated chronic disease. OBJECTIVES: The scope of the present study was to investigate the effectiveness of physical exercise in reducing the systemic inflammation related to obesity in children. METHODS: We conducted a systematic review with meta-analysis of controlled randomized trials, identified through electronic database search, which investigated the effect of physical exercise, without concomitant dietary intervention, on adiponectin, leptin, and/or other inflammatory markers in children up to age 18 years with a body mass index greater than the 95th percentile for age and sex...
May 2018: Childhood Obesity
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