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Adipokines and cardiovascular disease

Fengyang Huang, Blanca Estela Del-Río-Navarro, José Leija-Martinez, Saúl Torres-Alcantara, Eliseo Ruiz-Bedolla, Leticia Hernández-Cadena, Albino Barraza-Villarreal, Rodrigo Romero-Nava, Fausto Sanchéz-Muñoz, Santiago Villafaña, Laurence A Marchat, Enrique Hong
Obesity in adolescents is considered a major public health problem; combined interventional approaches such as omega-3 supplementation with lifestyle intervention (LI) might exert synergistic effects and exceed the impact of each individual strategy. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if the supplementation of omega-3 with LI could improve metabolic and endothelial abnormality in obese adolescents with hypertriglyceridemia. The study involved sixty-nine adolescents with normal weight and seventy obese adolescents with hypertriglyceridemia...
November 7, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Larisa-Diana Mocan Hognogi, Cerasela-Mihaela Goidescu, Anca-Daniela Farcaş
Cardiovascular disease is the leading cause of death among both women and men, but there is still a great percentage of misdiagnosis and lack of clearly defined criteria. Advances in biomolecular science have proven the crucial role of inflammation and, more importantly, the role of adipokines in mediating all stages of coronary artery disease. It has also been suggested that regional fat deposits, more precisely from thoracic region, have a major influence on the development of coronary artery disease by creating a local proatherogenic environment...
2018: Disease Markers
Jeehye Sung, Chi-Tang Ho, Yu Wang
Obesity is associated with low-grade chronic inflammation of adipose tissue, which leads to the development of metabolic disorders such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD), and cancer. Obesity and a high calorie diet are associated with altered endocrine and metabolic functions of adipose tissue, contributing to systemic inflammation as a result of the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines/adipokines into the circulation and metabolic endotoxemia. Furthermore, the accumulation of proinflammatory macrophages within the visceral adipose tissue may also be a major cause of chronic inflammation of adipocytes...
November 7, 2018: Food & Function
Chrysi Koliaki, Stavros Liatis, Alexander Kokkinos
A wealth of clinical and epidemiological evidence has linked obesity to a broad spectrum of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) including coronary heart disease, heart failure, hypertension, stroke, atrial fibrillation and sudden cardiac death. Obesity can increase CVD morbidity and mortality directly and indirectly. Direct effects are mediated by obesity-induced structural and functional adaptations of the cardiovascular system to accommodate excess body weight, as well as by adipokine effects on inflammation and vascular homeostasis...
November 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Karolina Janochova, Michal Haluzik, Marek Buzga
One of the most significant challenges of current medicine is the increasing prevalence of obesity worldwide that is accompanied by a wide range of chronic health complications and increased mortality. White adipose tissue actively contributes to metabolic regulation by production of a variety of hormones and cytokines, commonly referred to as adipokines. The spectrum and quantity of adipokines produced by the adipose tissue of obese patients is directly or indirectly involved in much obesity-related pathology (type 2 diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, inflammatory response)...
November 6, 2018: Biomedical Papers of the Medical Faculty of the University Palacký, Olomouc, Czechoslovakia
Amitabha Ray
Obesity is an important risk factor for postmenopausal breast cancer and also a poor prognostic factor among cancer patients. Moreover, obesity is associated with a number of health disorders such as insulin resistance/type-2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and other cardiovascular diseases. Frequently, these health disorders exhibit as components/complications of the metabolic syndrome. Nevertheless, obesity-related diseases may coexist with postmenopausal breast cancer; and these comorbid conditions could be substantial...
October 26, 2018: World Journal of Clinical Cases
Ahmed Elhakeem, Rachel Cooper, Peter Whincup, Soren Brage, Diana Kuh, Rebecca Hardy
Background We examined associations of objectively measured physical activity ( PA ) and sedentary time with cardiovascular disease biomarkers at age 60 to 64 years. This included investigation of sex differences and the extent to which associations may be mediated by adiposity. Methods and Results Participants were 795 men and 827 women aged 60 to 64 years from the Medical Research Council National Survey of Health and Development. Combined heart rate and movement sensors worn for 5 consecutive days were used to derive overall PA energy expenditure, kJ /kg per day) and time spent sedentary (<1...
August 21, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
D L Brovin, O D Belyaeva, S N Pchelina, A V Berezina, T L Karonova, E A Bazhenova, D A Kolodina, A S Bakulina, E A Polyakova, O V Listopad, E I Nikolaichuk, O A Berkovich, E I Baranova, E V SHlyakhto
OBJECTIVE: to investigate influence of different forms of adiponectin on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in women with abdominal obesity (AO) in St.‑Petersburg. It has been recognized before that AO is associated with cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, but mechanism of this association remains unclear. AO leads to imbalance of adipokines, in particularly decrease of adiponectin, which may lead to atherosclerotic lesion of carotid arteries. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We investigated 81 women with AO (IDF criteria, 2005) and 21 women with normal waist circumference...
June 2018: Kardiologiia
Anaïs Bouchara, Dan Yi, Myriam Pastural, Samuel Granjon, Jean-Christophe Selag, Maurice Laville, Walid Arkouche, Solenne Pelletier, Denis Fouque, Christophe O Soulage, Laetitia Koppe
Wasting has been associated with increased cardiovascular and all-cause mortality in chronic kidney disease (CKD). We investigated whether serum zinc-alpha2-glycoprotein (ZAG), a potent cachectic and lipid-mobilizing factor that is increased in patients with CKD, predicts clinical outcomes in patients on chronic hemodialysis. We quantified serum ZAG at baseline in a prospective cohort of 252 patients undergoing maintenance hemodialysis. Serum ZAG concentrations were inversely associated with serum albumin, creatinine, and triglycerides and, conversely, positively associated with age...
November 2018: Kidney International
Akramsadat Mortazavi, Ebrahim Nematipoor, Mahmoud Djalali, Seyed Ali Keshavarz, Simin Samavat, Mahnaz Zarei, Mohammad Hassan Javanbakht
Background: Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is the leading cause of mortality worldwide. Omega-3 fatty acids have been shown to have both anti-atherogenic and anti-inflammatory effects through inducing the expression and production of adipokines. Adipokines such as apelin, have been observed to play a protective role in the incidence and progression of CVD. The aim of this study was to assess the influence of omega-3 fatty acids supplementation on the serum apelin levels in patients with cardiovascular disease...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Min Shi, Liang Ma, Ping Fu
Accumulating evidences indicated that obesity and metabolic syndrome were independent risk factors for the development and progression of kidney diseases. Apart from inflammation, lipotoxicity, and hemodynamic factors, adipokines have been proposed to play crucial roles in the relationship between kidney diseases and metabolic disorders. As one of key adipokines, fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4), which is mainly expressed in adipocytes and macrophages, has recently been shown to be associated with renal dysfunction and kidney damage...
October 8, 2018: Current Medicinal Chemistry
Bo-Xun Liu, Wei Sun, Xiang-Qing Kong
Although visceral obesity is recognized as a risk factor for cardiovascular diseases (CVDs), the efficacy of omental fat removal in CVD treatment is still controversial. There is a need to identify other visceral fat depots for CVD management. This review aims to provide a summary on perirenal fat as an important risk factor for CVD. Studies on epidemiology, anatomy, and function of perirenal fat were reviewed. Observational studies in humans suggest that excessive perirenal fat increases the risk of hypertension and coronary heart disease...
October 9, 2018: Angiology
Alberto A Barrios-Correa, José A Estrada, Irazú Contreras
Obesity has become a major health concern in modern times, as it significantly increases the risk for the development of cardiovascular diseases, type 2 diabetes mellitus, and some types of cancer. The obesity epidemic has brought considerable attention to the molecular mechanisms through which adipocyte-secreted adipokines regulate physiological processes involved in metabolic and inflammatory diseases. Among them, leptin is considered as one of the principal regulators of a variety of physiological processes, including appetite and energy metabolism, through its binding to a variety of receptors and in particular by signaling through the long isoform receptor ObRb...
November 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Martin J Wolley, Colin A Hutchison
Patients with end-stage kidney disease (ESKD) on maintenance hemodialysis are subject to a high burden of inflammation and cardiovascular disease, driven at least in part by retention of uremic solutes. Existing dialysis technologies using high-flux membranes offer limited clearance of solutes >15 kDa. New approaches to improve the removal of large uremic toxins include the novel medium cut-off dialysis membranes with pores larger than those in high-flux membranes. These new membranes provide the potential to improve the clearance of large middle molecules up to 50 kDa...
October 1, 2018: Nephrology, Dialysis, Transplantation
Estrella Sanchez-Rebordelo, Juan Cunarro, Sonia Perez-Sieira, Luisa María Seoane, Carlos Diéguez, Ruben Nogueiras, Sulay Tovar
Chemerin (also known as tazarotene-induced gene 2 and retinoic acid receptor responder 2) has been identified as an adipokine that exerts effects on many biological processes, including adipogenesis, angiogenesis, inflammation, immune responses, and food intake. This variety of effects has led to its implication in obesity and co-morbidities including diabetes and a risk of cardiovascular disease. The biological effects are mostly mediated by a so-called G protein-coupled receptor, chemokine-like receptor 1 (CMKLR1)...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Anna Babinska, Mariusz Kaszubowski, Piotr Kmieć, Krzysztof Sworczak
INTRODUCTION: In recent years researchers have focused at hormonal activity in Cushing's syndrome (CS) in connection with metabolic disorders and the role of adipokines and cytokines secreted by the adipose tissue. The aim of the study was to investigate levels of adipokines and cytokines in patients with: subclinical CS (SCS) - in relation to hormonal parameters of hypercortisolemia, and, adrenocortical cancer (ACC). MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study included 20 SCS as well as 7 ACC patients, and 18 healthy participants...
September 6, 2018: Steroids
Xiao-Ling Yu, Chao Wu, Hong-Zhong Jin
Psoriasis usually combines with metabolic diseases,and the prevalence of cardiovascular disease remarkably increases in psoriatic patients. Adipokines,which play an important role in the cardiovascular diseases,also express abnormally in psoriasis and may induce or exacerbate the skin lesion. The adipokines associated with psoriasis and cardiovascular disease include adiponectin,leptin,resistin,omentin,visfatin,chemerin,and retinoid binding protein 4 (RBP-4). The levels of adiponectin and omentin apparently decrease in psoriatic patients compared to healthy controls,and thus they may play protective roles for psoriasis...
August 30, 2018: Zhongguo Yi Xue Ke Xue Yuan Xue Bao. Acta Academiae Medicinae Sinicae
Jing Cheng, Xing Su, Lei Qiao, Chungang Zhai, Wenqiang Chen
There is increasing evidence that serum adipokine levels are associated with higher risks of cardiovascular diseases. As an important adipokine, fibroblast growth factor 21 (FGF21) has been demonstrated to be associated with atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease (CAD). However, circulating level of FGF21 in patients with angina pectoris has not yet been investigated. Circulating FGF21 level was examined in 197 patients with stable angina pectoris (SAP, n =66), unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n =76), and control subjects ( n =55) along with clinical variables of cardiovascular risk factors...
October 31, 2018: Bioscience Reports
Elena Nikiphorou, George E Fragoulis
Obesity represents a rising global health concern, linked to significant social, psychological and physical burden to the individual affected, people around them and the society as a whole. Obesity has been described as a low-grade inflammatory condition, associated with increased production of pro-inflammatory mediators like tumor necrosis factor alpha or interleukin 6 and altered expression of adipokines. Adipokines, mainly produced by adipose tissue, have mixed pro- and anti-inflammatory properties. Obesity rarely exists on its own; instead, it tends to coexist with (often multiple) other comorbidities, including metabolic, cardiovascular, and rheumatic and musculoskeletal diseases (RMDs)...
August 2018: Therapeutic Advances in Musculoskeletal Disease
Sahar Vahdat
Kidney diseases are categorized as the highest prevalent ones with worldwide noticeable incidence. They cause accelerated cardiovascular diseases and noticeable mortalities. Adipose tissue and its messengers, adipokines, are reported to have the highest relationship with end-stage renal diseases or chronic kidney diseases. Over recent years, with shifting of scientists' mindset from a simple overview of adipose tissue as a fat store to the complex paradigm of this issue as a multipotential secretory organ, the importance of studies on this tissue has emerged...
2018: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
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