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Arnon Lavi, Michael Cohen
Prostate cancer (Pca) is the most common malignancy in men and the second cause of death from cancer. The prostate specific antigen (PSA) assay has been used for Pca screening since the beginning of the 1990's and has brought a 40% reduction in mortality. Since Pca is a diverse disease, early detection can lead to overdetection and overtreatment. Pca treatment has significant adverse effects, namely incontinence and erectile dysfunction. How is it then that a simple and inexpensive test that probably caused the most significant reduction in mortality from cancer ever, is regarded to be "not recommended" by some health organizations? Why did the use of PSA testing fall drastically in the US in the last couple of years, while, at the same time, the tendency for diagnosis of higher risk diseases is noticed through large controlled studies, showing the efficacy of PSA testing in mortality reduction? Will PSA serve as a milestone for early detection and mass population screening in general? This review will deal with aspects of PSA screening and will bring the latest updates and dilemmas concerning this evolving topic...
March 2017: Harefuah
Tuhina Goel, Reeta Mahey, Neerja Bhatla, Mani Kalaivani, Sangeeta Pant, Alka Kriplani
PURPOSE: To study the effect of endometrial scratching in infertile couples undergoing ovulation induction and intrauterine insemination (IUI) cycles. METHODS: A prospective randomized controlled trial was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and Gynaecology, AIIMS, New Delhi, India. One hundred forty-four women with primary/secondary infertility were recruited. Couples were either unexplained or male factor infertility. Subjects were randomized into intervention (scratching) and control group...
May 27, 2017: Journal of Assisted Reproduction and Genetics
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Alicia E Consolini, María I Ragone, Patricia Bonazzola, Germán A Colareda
During ischemia and reperfusion (I/R) mitochondria suffer a deficiency to supply the cardiomyocyte with chemical energy, but also contribute to the cytosolic ionic alterations especially of Ca(2+). Their free calcium concentration ([Ca(2+)]m) mainly depends on mitochondrial entrance through the uniporter (UCam) and extrusion in exchange with Na(+) (mNCX) driven by the electrochemical gradient (ΔΨm). Cardiac energetic is frequently estimated by the oxygen consumption, which determines metabolism coupled to ATP production and to the maintaining of ΔΨm...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Felix T Kurz, Miguel A Aon, Brian O'Rourke, Antonis A Armoundas
The spatio-temporal organization of mitochondria in cardiac myocytes facilitates myocyte-wide, cluster-bound, mitochondrial inner membrane potential oscillatory depolarizations, commonly triggered by metabolic or oxidative stressors. Local intermitochondrial coupling can be mediated by reactive oxygen species (ROS) that activate inner membrane pores to initiate a ROS-induced-ROS-release process that produces synchronized limit cycle oscillations of mitochondrial clusters within the whole mitochondrial network...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
Shirin Katoozi, Nadia Skauli, Soulmaz Rahmani, Laura M A Camassa, Henning B Boldt, Ole P Ottersen, Mahmood Amiry-Moghaddam
Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the predominant water channel in the brain and is expressed in high density in astrocytes. By fluxing water along osmotic gradients, AQP4 contributes to brain volume and ion homeostasis. Here we ask whether deletion of Aqp4 leads to upregulation of the gap junctional proteins connexin-43 (Cx43) and connexin-30 (Cx30). These molecules couple adjacent astrocytes to each other and allow water and ions to redistribute within the astrocyte syncytium. Immunogold analysis of parietal cortex and hippocampus showed that the number of gap junctions per capillary profile is increased in AQP4 knockout (AQP4 KO) mice...
May 27, 2017: Brain Structure & Function
Pollyana S Castro, Mauro Bertotti, Alliny F Naves, Luiz Henrique Catalani, Daniel R Cornejo, Georgia D Bloisi, Denise F S Petri
Magnetic scaffolds with different charge densities were prepared using magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and xanthan gum (XG), a negatively charged polysaccharide, or hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC), an uncharged cellulose ether. XG chains were crosslinked with citric acid (cit), a triprotic acid, whereas HPMC chains were crosslinked either with cit or with oxalic acid (oxa), a diprotic acid. The scaffolds XG-cit, HPMC-cit and HPMC-oxa were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES), superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometry, contact angle and zeta-potential measurements...
May 17, 2017: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Jianghu Cui, Tongxu Liu, Fangbai Li, Jicai Yi, Chuanping Liu, Huanyun Yu
Although it was recently determined that silicon can alleviate cadmium (Cd) toxicity in rice, the effects of silicon properties and the molecular mechanisms are still unclear. Here, the effect of silica nanoparticles (SiNPs) on Cd toxicity in rice was examined using cells cultured in suspension in the presence or absence of SiNPs (19 nm, 48 nm and 202 nm). The results showed that the presence of SiNPs substantially enhanced the proportion of live cells to 95.4%, 78.6% and 66.2%, respectively, suggesting that the extent of alleviation of Cd toxicity decreased gradually with size of SiNPs...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Tingting Ku, Yingying Zhang, Xiaotong Ji, Guangke Li, Nan Sang
Atmospheric fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is a serious threat to human health. As a toxicant constituent, metal leads to significant health risks in a population, but exposure to PM2.5-bound metals and their biological impacts are not fully understood. In this study, we determined the metal contents of PM2.5 samples collected from a typical coal-burning city and then investigated the metabolic distributions of six metals (Zn, Pb, Mn, As, Cu, and Cd) following PM2.5 inhalation in mice in different developmental windows...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
Itziar Lekunberri, Marta Villagrasa, José Luis Balcázar, Carles M Borrego
In this study, we quantified eleven antibiotic compounds and nine antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in water samples collected upstream and downstream of the discharge point from a municipal wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) into the Ter River. Antibiotics were analyzed by liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry, whereas the concentration of ARGs in bacterial, phage and plasmid DNA fractions was determined by real-time PCR to explore their contribution to environmental antibiotic resistance. WWTP discharges resulted in higher concentrations of antibiotic residues as well as ARGs in water samples collected downstream the impact point...
May 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
Sajid Ali Ansari, H Fouad, S G Ansari, Md Palashuddin Sk, Moo Hwan Cho
The development of electrically conductive metal sulfide-based polymer nanocomposites for energy storage materials has been a major focus by researchers to solve the energy crisis. In this study, a simple and facile method was used to construct a nanocomposite by combining a mechanically exfoliated MoS2 (M-MoS2) sheet with polyaniline (Pani) using a simple and scalable in-situ chemical oxidative polymerization method. The as-prepared nanocomposite (M-MoS2-Pani nanocomposite) was characterized further by usual basic spectroscopic techniques, such as X-ray powder diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller surface area analysis...
May 20, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Hongwei Huang, Chao Zeng, Ke Xiao, Yihe Zhang
We herein describe the coupling of solid-solution and heterojunction in a 2D-1D BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I hierarchical architecture for optimizing photoabsorption, energy band levels and charge separation, thereby promoting the photo-oxidation and molecular oxygen activation performance. BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I shows a core-shell-like structure with BiOCl0.5I0.5 thin nanoflakes (∼3 to 8 layers) homogeneously vertical coating on the surface of Bi5O7I strips. The photo-responsive range of BiOCl0.5I0.5/Bi5O7I can be orderly tuned from 450nm to 650nm by increasing the BiOCl0...
May 18, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
He Zhang, Lingling Zhang, Yujie Han, You Yu, Miao Xu, Xueping Zhang, Liang Huang, Shaojun Dong
In this study, three-dimensional reduced graphene oxide/Au NPs/nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes (RGO/Au NPs/N-doped CNTs) assembly supported on nickel foam was utilized as an anode for enzymatic biofuel cells (EBFCs). 3D RGO/Au NPs was obtained by electrodepositing reduced graphene oxide on nickel foam (Ni foam), while Au NPs were co-deposited during the process. Afterwards, nitrogen doped CNTs (N-CNTs) were allowed to grow seamlessly on the surfaces of 3D RGO/Au NPs via a simple chemical vapor deposition (CVD) process...
May 17, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Raouf El Cheikh, Samuel Bernard, Nader El Khatib
We present a multiscale mathematical model for the regulation of the cell cycle by the circadian clock. Biologically, the model describes the proliferation of a population of heterogeneous cells connected to each other. The model consists of a high dimensional transport equation structured by molecular contents of the cell cycle-circadian clock coupled oscillator. We propose a computational method for resolution adapted from the concept of particle methods. We study the impact of molecular dynamics on cell proliferation and show an example where discordance of division rhythms between population and single cell levels is observed...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Wai Mun Kong, Zahurin Mohamed, Mohammed A Alshawsh, Zamri Chik
A microdialysis system coupled with a sensitive ultra-fast liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (UFLC-MS) method was developed for the pharmacokinetic analysis of mitragynine in rat blood and striatum. Mitragynine is an active alkaloid of Mitragyna speciosa and has been proposed to be used for opioid withdrawal therapy. In this study, chromatographic separation was performed in a gradient elution mode with 0.1% formic acid and acetonitrile on a Zorbax Eclipse C18 column. The mass spectrometric (MS) analysis was carried out in a positive electrospray mode and mitragynine ion (m/z 399...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Marianna Martinello, Alice Borin, Roberto Stella, Davide Bovo, Giancarlo Biancotto, Albino Gallina, Franco Mutinelli
Awareness about pyrrolizidine alkaloids (PAs) and tropane alkaloids (TAs) in food was recently raised by the European Food Safety Authority stressing the lack of data and gaps of knowledge required to improve the risk assessment strategy. The present study aimed at the elaboration and validation of a method to determine PAs and TAs in honey. QuEChERS sample treatment and liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid high resolution mass spectrometry, were used. The method resulted in good linearity (R(2)>0.99) and low limits of detection and quantification, ranging from 0...
November 1, 2017: Food Chemistry
Yuan Chen, Jiajiang Lin, Zuliang Chen
The treatment of a synthetically prepared wastewater containing diesel oil has been investigated using combined treatment schemes based on the biological treatment followed by an advanced oxidation process. 78% of diesel oil was degraded by Acinetobacter venetianus in 96 h, while the removal efficiency of chemical oxygen demand (COD) in the aqueous phase was only 56.8%, indicating that degraded metabolites existed in solution. To solve this problem, a Fenton-like system consisting of nanoscale zero-valent iron (nZVI) and hydrogen peroxide was used for further oxidation of the metabolites after biodegradation...
May 22, 2017: Chemosphere
T Amirabadi Farahani, H Amanlou, M Kazemi-Bonchenari
This experiment was conducted to compare conventional (CON; 21 d) and shortened (SH; 10 d) close-up period, and evaluate the effect of shortened close-up period combined with feeding different metabolizable protein (MP) levels on dry matter (DM) intake, metabolic status, and performance of dairy cows. Forty-eight multiparous Holstein cows with similar parity, body weight (BW), and previous lactation milk yield were divided into 2 groups. The first group (n = 24) received the far-off diet from -60 to -21 d (CON), and the second group (n = 24) received same far-off diet from -60 to -10 d (SH) relative to expected parturition...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
B Westfalewicz, M A Dietrich, A Mostek, A Partyka, W Bielas, W Niżański, A Ciereszko
Despite recent advances in bull epididymal fluid proteome research, significant numbers of proteins secreted to epididymal lumen remain unidentified. The objective of this study was to expand the number of identified cauda epididymal fluid proteins in bulls and to contextualize them in a broader view of their mutual interactions and involvement in biological processes and pathways, to fully elucidate the ways in which epididymal fluid proteins are involved in storage and maturation of spermatozoa in epididymis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
Nicole Riddell, Bert van Bavel, Ingrid Ericson Jogsten, Robert McCrindle, Alan McAlees, Brock Chittim
During an investigation of the potential associated with coupling packed column supercritical fluid chromatography (pSFC) to mass spectrometry for the analysis of Dechlorane Plus and related compounds, it was found that negative ion atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) was a promising ionization technique. In the course of maximizing the responses associated with the target analytes, it proved useful to examine some aspects of the complex nature and reactivity of the corona discharge plasma generated to explain the observed ionization products...
August 15, 2017: Talanta
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