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New oral anticoagulant

Luke S Howard
Acute pulmonary embolism (PE) is a relatively common cardiopulmonary emergency that is a major cause of hospitalization and morbidity and is the primary cause of mortality associated with venous thromboembolism (VTE). During the last decade, one of the biggest changes in the management of PE has been the approval of four non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs; apixaban, dabigatran, edoxaban and rivaroxaban) for the treatment of PE and deep vein thrombosis and secondary prevention of VTE. Areas covered: This article reviews the evolving management of PE in the NOAC era and addresses three fundamental questions: who should receive NOACs over conventional heparin/vitamin K antagonist regimens for the treatment of acute PE; whether patients should be treated as inpatients or outpatients; and how long patients should be treated to reduce the risk of recurrence? Expert commentary: The management of PE is changing...
March 15, 2018: Expert Review of Respiratory Medicine
Rik Houben, Floris H B M Schreuder, Kim J Bekelaar, Danny Claessens, Robert J van Oostenbrugge, Julie Staals
Background: The intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) score is a commonly used prognostic model for 30-day mortality in ICH, based on five independent predictors (ICH volume, location, Glasgow Coma Scale, age, and intraventricular extension). Use of oral anticoagulants (OAC) is also associated with mortality but was not considered in the ICH score. We investigated (a) whether the predictive performance of ICH score is similar in OAC-ICH and non-OAC-ICH and (b) whether addition of OAC use to the ICH score increases the prognostic performance of the score...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Arnaud Bisson, Alexandre Bodin, Nicolas Clementy, Anne Bernard, Dominique Babuty, Gregory Y H Lip, Laurent Fauchier
AIMS: We compared thromboembolic (TE) and bleeding risks in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) according to the new 'Evaluated Heartvalves, Rheumatic or Artificial' (EHRA) valve classification. METHODS: Patients were divided into 3 categories: (i) EHRA type 1 corresponds to the previous 'valvular' AF patients, with either rheumatic mitral valve stenosis or mechanical prosthetic heart valves; (ii) EHRA type 2 includes AF patients with other valvular heart disease (VHD) and valve bioprosthesis or repair; and (iii) 'non-VHD controls' i...
March 7, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
John Burn, Munir Pirmohamed
About 1.4 British million people are at risk of strokes due to non-valvular atrial fibrillation (AF) necessitating long-term anticoagulation. The vitamin K antagonist, warfarin, has a long half-life and narrow therapeutic range necessitating regular monitoring and is a common cause of iatrogenic hospital admission. Direct-acting oral anticoagulants (DOACs), dabigatran, rivaroxaban, apixaban and edoxaban are not required to have monitoring but are sensitive to changes in renal function and are associated with poorer adherence...
2018: Open Heart
Flavia Mayer, Ursula Kirchmayer, Paola Coletta, Nera Agabiti, Valeria Belleudi, Giovanna Cappai, Mirko Di Martino, Sebastian Schneeweiss, Marina Davoli, Elisabetta Patorno
BACKGROUND: Real-time monitoring is used to the ends of postmarketing observational research on newly marketed drugs. We implemented a pilot near-real-time monitoring program on the test case of oral anticoagulants. Specifically, we evaluated the safety and effectiveness of direct oral anticoagulants compared to vitamin K antagonists in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation secondary prevention during 2013-2015 in the Lazio Region, Italy. METHODS AND RESULTS: A cohort study was conducted using a sequential propensity-score-matched new user parallel-cohort design...
March 10, 2018: Journal of the American Heart Association
Davide Imberti, Cecilia Becattini, Enrico Bernardi, Giuseppe Camporese, Claudio Cuccia, Francesco Dentali, Damiano Paretti
Despite the availability of updated guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of venous thromboembolism (VTE), the management of this disorder in clinical practice is often not standardized, given the different degree of compliance with official recommendations by the various involved specialists. The aim of this consensus paper, as a result of a board of experts in thromboembolism, is to define strategies to improve the quality of patients' care and the efficiency of healthcare resources utilization, by means of: (a) analysis of the guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of VTE; (b) analysis of diagnostic and therapeutic algorithms currently used in clinical practice by different specialists; (c) agreement on a common algorithm for diagnosis and treatment of VTE in different clinical settings; (d) definition of the possible role of the new oral anticoagulant agents (NOAC), such as rivaroxaban, based on their potential benefits for both acute and chronic therapy...
March 8, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Antonios Douros, Laurent Azoulay, Hui Yin, Samy Suissa, Christel Renoux
BACKGROUND: Non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) are relatively new drugs used for stroke prevention in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF). However, there are concerns that their use may be associated with hepatotoxic effects. OBJECTIVES: The purpose of this study was to determine whether the use of NOACs is associated with an increased risk of serious liver injury compared with the use of vitamin K antagonists (VKAs) in NVAF patients with and without prior liver disease...
March 13, 2018: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
Maria Rosa Dalmau Llorca, Alessandra Queiroga Gonçalves, Emma Forcadell Drago, José Fernández-Sáez, Zojaina Hernández Rojas, Josep Maria Pepió Vilaubí, Dolores Rodríguez Cumplido, Rosa Maria Morral Parente, Carina Aguilar Martín
INTRODUCTION: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac arrhythmia and increases the risk of ischemic stroke 4 to 5-fold. The first choice of anticoagulant therapy (AT) is the vitamin K antagonist (VKA). Contraindication to VKA or poor control of the International Normalized Ratio leads to the administration of direct-acting oral anticoagulants. There is a trend toward inadequate AT in nonvalvular AF (NVAF) patients. AIM: To evaluate the impact of the implementation of a decision support tool linked to the digital clinical history on the adequacy of AT, the incidence of complications, and the mortality in patients with NVAF in primary care centers (PCCs) of the Catalan Institute of Health (ICS)...
January 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Sakiko Miyazaki, Katsumi Miyauchi, Hidemori Hayashi, Ryota Tanaka, Shuko Nojiri, Tadashi Miyazaki, Masataka Sumiyoshi, Satoru Suwa, Yuji Nakazato, Takao Urabe, Nobutaka Hattori, Hiroyuki Daida
BACKGROUND: The management of atrial fibrillation (AF) has evolved with the development of direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs), but data on their clinical effectiveness and safety outside clinical trial settings are limited. METHOD: The RAFFINE registry is an observational, multicenter, prospective registry of Japanese patients with AF, designed to follow clinical events over 3 years. Patient enrollment was conducted from 2013 to 2015 at university hospitals, general hospitals, and private clinics to ensure inclusion of a broad spectrum of representative AF patients...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Cardiology
Margaret Smith, Glenn Wakam, Thomas Wakefield, Andrea Obi
Anticoagulation pharmacy has been dramatically altered with US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approval of 5 direct oral anticoagulants, 1 novel reversal agent and, a second designated for fast-track approval. Trial data surrounding current trends in anticoagulant choice for VTE, reversal, and bridging are constantly redefining practice. Extended therapy for unprovoked VTE has expanded to include low-dose direct oral anticoagulants, aspirin, and the use of the HERDOO2 system to identify women who can stop anticoagulant therapy without increased risk of recurrent VTE...
April 2018: Surgical Clinics of North America
Francesco Marongiu, Doris Barcellona
Direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) represent an innovation because they avoid periodic laboratory monitoring, and also reduce cerebral bleeding. An examination of the performance of DOACs versus warfarin in randomized clinical trials dedicated to atrial fibrillation would reveal the poor performance of warfarin because the percentage of major bleeding is always above 3%; however, the percentage of major bleeding is less than half of that when the management is done in anticoagulation clinics (ACs). Several years ago, a common opinion was that ACs would disappear as soon as DOACs enter the market...
March 2, 2018: Internal and Emergency Medicine
Maja Hellfritzsch, Lotte Rasmussen, Jesper Hallas, Anton Pottegård
INTRODUCTION: Knowledge on adverse effects (AEs) related to non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants (NOACs) in real-world populations is sparse. OBJECTIVE: Our objective was to identify signals of potential AEs in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) initiating NOAC treatment using a hypothesis-free screening approach. METHODS: Using the nationwide Danish registries, we identified patients with AF initiating dabigatran, rivaroxaban, or apixaban between 2011 and 2015 (n = 50,627)...
March 1, 2018: Drug Safety: An International Journal of Medical Toxicology and Drug Experience
Kenneth Bruun Pedersen, Charlotte Madsen, Niels C F Sandgaard, Axel C P Diederichsen, Søren Bak, Axel Brandes
BACKGROUND: Atrial fibrillation (AF) is a major risk factor of stroke, but the association between AF and transient ischemic attack (TIA) is less clear. Despite this, patients with TIA are included in stroke trials. AIMS: To determine the one-year incidence of AF in TIA patients using an insertable cardiac monitor (ICM); second, to determine factors associated with incident AF in these patients. METHODS: Prospective cohort study of patients with TIA with normal standard ECG and 72h Holter monitoring (HM)...
February 25, 2018: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
Amos Lal, Megha C Dhamne, Andrew C Hui, Aftab Ahmad
We present a case of cerebral venous sinus thrombosis (CVST) as a rare complication of herpes simplex virus (HSV) encephalitis. A young man with no pertinent medical history was diagnosed with HSV encephalitis. After initial treatment, he showed improvement in symptomatology until day 6 when he acutely developed new neurological deficits. An urgent MRI brain showed changes in left temporal lobe consistent with HSV encephalitis and lack of flow void in superior sagittal sinus. Subsequent magnetic resonance venography confirmed the diagnosis of superior sagittal sinus thrombosis along with thrombosis of bilateral frontoparietal cortical draining veins...
February 24, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Mette Søgaard, Peter Brønnum Nielsen, Flemming Skjøth, Jette Nordstrøm Kjældgaard, Craig I Coleman, Torben Bjerregaard Larsen
BACKGROUND: The effectiveness of rivaroxaban to reduce post-thrombotic syndrome in patients with venous thromboembolism is largely unknown. We compared rates of post-thrombotic syndrome in patients given rivaroxaban versus warfarin in a cohort of routine clinical care patients with incident venous thromboembolism. METHODS: We linked Danish nationwide registries to identify all patients with incident venous thromboembolism who were new users of rivaroxaban or warfarin and compared rates of post-thrombotic syndrome using an inverse probability of treatment weighting approach to account for baseline confounding...
February 21, 2018: American Journal of Medicine
Shamir R Mehta, Kevin R Bainey, Warren J Cantor, Marie Lordkipanidzé, Guillaume Marquis-Gravel, Simon D Robinson, Matthew Sibbald, Derek Y So, Graham C Wong, Joseph G Abunassar, Margaret L Ackman, Alan D Bell, Raymond Cartier, James D Douketis, Patrick R Lawler, Michael S McMurtry, Jacob A Udell, Sean van Diepen, Subodh Verma, G B John Mancini, John A Cairns, Jean-François Tanguay
Antiplatelet therapy (APT) has become an important tool in the treatment and prevention of atherosclerotic events, particularly those associated with coronary artery disease. A large evidence base has evolved regarding the relationship between APT prescription in various clinical contexts and risk/benefit relationships. The Guidelines Committee of the Canadian Cardiovascular Society and Canadian Association of Interventional Cardiology publishes regular updates of its recommendations, taking into consideration the most recent clinical evidence...
March 2018: Canadian Journal of Cardiology
Xuefeng Hu, Ying Xiao, Chuan Yu, Yinglin Zuo, Wen Yang, Xinan Wang, Baohua Gu, Jing Li
Factor Xa (FXa) is a serine protease that plays key roles in linking the intrinsic and extrinsic coagulation pathways to the final common pathway. DJT06001 is an oral, highly specific and direct FXa inhibitor for the prevention and treatment of thromboembolic diseases. We characterized the compound in vitro and studied its in vivo activity in rat thrombosis models, as well as bleeding risk and Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics (PK/PD) relationship. DJT06001 inhibited free FXa with an inhibitory constant (Ki) of 0...
February 21, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Dmitry Tarasov, Dmitry Tovbin, Dmitry Malakhov, Arseniy Aybush, Natalia Tserkovnikova, Marina Savelyeva, Dmitry Sychev, Natalia Drozd, Alla Savchenko
BACKGROUND: Factor Xa (FXa) is known to play a central role in a blood coagulation cascade and considered to be one of the most attractive targets for oral anticoagulants of new generation. OBJECTIVE: Our approach for the development of directly acting oral anticoagulants (DOAC), FXa inhibitors was demonstrated in this work. METHOD: Chemical synthesis is the base of our approach for the development of potential inhibitors. In this work, the substances like R1-(CONH)-R2-(CONH)-R3 are being developed, using previously described docking and screening methods, where R1, R2, R3 are some chemical groups, (CONH) are amid bonds connecting R1, R2 and R3...
February 14, 2018: Current Drug Discovery Technologies
N M Vorobyeva
The article contains an outline of the 2017 ACC Expert Consensus Decision Pathway for Periprocedural Management of Anticoagulation in Patients With Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation. This document considers in detail problems of necessity and safety of temporary interrupting of anticoagulation for the period of procedure, main principles of interruption and restarting anticoagulant therapy after procedure, indications to the transitional (bridging) therapy in the periprocedural period, as well as possible strategies of periprocedural management of patients in dependence of risk of bleeding and thromboembolic complications...
February 2018: Kardiologiia
Megan K Phelps, Tracy E Wiczer, H Paige Erdeljac, Kelsey R Van Deusen, Kyle Porter, Gary Philips, Tzu-Fei Wang
Introduction Low-molecular-weight heparins are the standard treatment for cancer-associated thrombosis. Recently, direct oral anticoagulants are a new option for thrombosis treatment; however, data supporting the use of direct oral anticoagulants for cancer-associated thrombosis are limited. Objectives The primary objective of this study was to determine the rate of recurrent cancer-associated thrombosis and major bleeding within 6 months of starting either low-molecular-weight heparin or direct oral anticoagulant for treatment of cancer-associated thrombosis...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
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