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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30545296/characterization-and-functional-biology-of-the-soybean-aleurone-layer
#1
Monica A Schmidt, Eliot M Herman
BACKGROUND: Soybean is a globally important oil seed crop. Both the high protein and oil content of soybean seeds make this crop a lucrative commodity. As in higher eukaryotic species with available genomes, the functional annotation of most of soybean's genes still remains to be investigated. A major hurdle in the functional genomics of soybean is a rapid method to test gene constructs before embarking on stable transformation experiments. RESULTS: In this paper we describe the morphology and composition of the persistent single-cell aleurone layer that derives from the endosperm of developing soybean seeds...
December 13, 2018: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30525446/fluorous-soluble-metal-chelate-for-sensitive-fluorine-19-magnetic-resonance-imaging-nanoemulsion-probes
#2
Amin Haghighat Jahromi, Chao Wang, Stephen R Adams, Wenlian Zhu, Kazim Narsinh, Hongyan Xu, Danielle L Gray, Roger Y Tsien, Eric T Ahrens
Fluorine-19 MRI is an emerging cellular imaging approach, enabling lucid, quantitative "hot-spot" imaging with no background signal. The utility of 19 F-MRI to detect inflammation and cell therapy products in vivo could be expanded by improving the intrinsic sensitivity of the probe by molecular design. We describe a metal chelate based on a salicylidene-tris(aminomethyl)ethane core, with solubility in perfluorocarbon (PFC) oils, and a potent accelerator of the 19 F longitudinal relaxation time ( T1 )...
December 7, 2018: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30523921/a-digital-acoustofluidic-device-for-on-demand-and-oil-free-droplet-generation
#3
Keke Chen, Chenxi Sui, Yue Wu, Zheng Ao, Shi Shang Guo, Feng Guo
We report a digital acoustofluidic device for on-demand and oil-free droplet generation. By applying a programmed radio frequency signal to a circular interdigital transducer, dynamically focused acoustic pressure profiles generated could raise up and dispense sample liquids from a reservoir to fast eject the droplets into the air. With optimization, our device allows on-demand droplet dispensing with precisely controlled generation time, sequence and accurate droplet volume. Moreover, we also demonstrate the generation of the droplet with a volume of 24 pL within 10 ms as well as the encapsulation of single cell into droplets...
November 26, 2018: Nanotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30509986/constitutive-boost-of-a-k-channel-via-inherent-bilayer-tension-and-a-unique-tension-dependent-modality
#4
Masayuki Iwamoto, Shigetoshi Oiki
Molecular mechanisms underlying channel-membrane interplay have been extensively studied. Cholesterol, as a major component of the cell membrane, participates either in specific binding to channels or via modification of membrane physical features. Here, we examined the action of various sterols (cholesterol, epicholesterol, etc.) on a prototypical potassium channel (KcsA). Single-channel current recordings of the KcsA channel were performed in a water-in-oil droplet bilayer (contact bubble bilayer) with a mixed phospholipid composition (azolectin)...
December 3, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30506440/oxidation-stability-of-yeast-biodiesel-using-rancimat-analysis-validation-using-infrared-spectroscopy-and-gas-chromatography-mass-spectrometry
#5
Anbarasan Tamilalagan, Jayanthi Singaram
Biodiesel and single cell oils obtained from oleaginous yeasts grown in industrial waste are attractive alternatives to the conventional fuels. However, there are only few articles dealing with the stability of the microbial biofuels. Hence, this study aimed at characterizing the storage time of biodiesels using Rancimat methods. The microbial oil and the biodiesel obtained from microbial oil have been characterized with storage stability due to various oxidizing and thermal damage. Here, the microbial fuels were subject to Rancimat analysis and found to have high thermal-oxidative stability of 18 and 8...
December 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30503580/biotechnological-applications-of-inulin-rich-feedstocks
#6
REVIEW
R S Singh, Taranjeet Singh, Christian Larroche
Inulin is a naturally occurring second largest storage polysaccharide with a wide range of applications in pharmaceutical and food industries. It is a robust polysaccharide which consists of a linear chain of β-2, 1-linked-d-fructofuranose molecules terminated with α-d-glucose moiety at the reducing end. It is present in tubers, bulbs and tuberous roots of more than 36,000 plants belonging to both monocotyledonous and dicotyledonous families. Jerusalem artichoke, chicory, dahlia, asparagus, etc. are important inulin-rich plants...
November 9, 2018: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30501620/efficacy-of-a-long-term-home-parenteral-nutrition-regimen-containing-fish-oil-derived-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acids-a-single-centre-randomized-double-blind-study
#7
Helene Bohnert, Max Maurer, Philip C Calder, Johann Pratschke, Paul Thul, Verena Müller
BACKGROUND: Data on the use of lipid emulsions containing fish-oil (FO) derived n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) in addition to medium- and long-chain triglycerides (MCT/LCT) for long-term home parenteral nutrition (HPN) are limited. This study aimed to compare HPN regimens containing either MCT/LCT/FO-derived n-3 PUFAs (test group) or MCT/LCT (control group) with respect to efficacy and safety during 8 weeks of HPN using a non-inferiority trial design with change of body mass index (BMI) as primary endpoint...
November 30, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30473067/quantifying-phenotypes-in-single-cells-using-droplet-microfluidics
#8
Fengjiao Lyu, Lucas R Blauch, Sindy K Y Tang
This book chapter describes the use of droplet microfluidics to phenotype single cells. The basic process flow includes the encapsulation of single cells with a specific probe into aqueous micro-droplets suspended in a biocompatible oil. The probe is chosen to measure the phenotype of interest. After incubation, the encapsulated cell turns the probe fluorescent and renders the entire droplet fluorescent. Enumerating drops that are fluorescent quantifies the concentration of cells possessing the phenotype of interest...
2018: Methods in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30458168/pharmacological-inhibition-of-prolyl-hydroxylase-protects-against-inflammation-induced-anemia-via-efficient-erythropoiesis-and-hepcidin-downregulation
#9
Mukul Jain, Amit Joharapurkar, Vishal Patel, Samadhan Kshirsagar, Brijesh Sutariya, Maulik Patel, Hiren Patel, Pankaj R Patel
Chronic inflammatory diseases are often associated with anemia. In such conditions, anemia is generally treated with erythropoiesis stimulating agents (ESAs) which are associated with potentially hazardous side effects and poor outcomes. Suboptimal erythropoiesis in chronic inflammation is believed to be caused by elevated hepcidin levels, which causes blockade of iron in tissue stores. In the current work using rodent models of inflammation, an orally available small molecule prolyl hydroxylase inhibitor desidustat was assessed as an effective treatment of anemia of inflammation...
November 17, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30411063/single-cell-encapsulation-via-pickering-emulsion-for-biopesticide-applications
#10
Noga Yaakov, Karthik Ananth Mani, Reut Felfbaum, Magen Lahat, Noam Da Costa, Eduard Belausov, Dana Ment, Guy Mechrez
A new approach for single cell microencapsulation in an oil-in-water (o/w) Pickering emulsion is presented. The water/paraffin emulsions were stabilized by amine-functionalized silica nanoparticles. The droplet size of the emulsions was highly tunable, and ranged from 1 to 30 μm in diameter. The controllable droplet size along with the high colloidal stability of the Pickering emulsionswas harnessed to obtain single cell microencapsulation. Successful encapsulation of the conidia entomopathogenic fungus Metarhizium brunneum by the studied Pickering emulsions was confirmed via confocal laser scanning microscopy...
October 31, 2018: ACS Omega
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30375625/microfluidic-diamagnetic-water-in-water-droplets-a-biocompatible-cell-encapsulation-and-manipulation-platform
#11
Maryam Navi, Niki Abbasi, Morteza Jeyhani, Vaskar Gnyawali, Scott S H Tsai
Droplet microfluidics enables cellular encapsulation for biomedical applications such as single-cell analysis, which is an important tool used by biologists to study cells on a single-cell level, and understand cellular heterogeneity in cell populations. However, most cell encapsulation strategies in microfluidics rely on random encapsulation processes, resulting in large numbers of empty droplets. Therefore, post-sorting of droplets is necessary to obtain samples of purely cell-encapsulating droplets. With the recent advent of aqueous two-phase systems (ATPS) as a biocompatible alternative of the conventional water-in-oil droplet systems for cellular encapsulation, there has also been a focus on integrating ATPS with droplet microfluidics...
October 30, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30374280/trans-arterial-embolization-of-renal-cell-carcinoma-prior-to-percutaneous-ablation-technical-aspects-institutional-experience-and-brief-review-of-the-literature
#12
Andrew J Gunn, Benjamin J Mullenbach, May M Poundstone, Jennifer B Gordetsky, Edgar S Underwood, Soroush Rais-Bahrami
This report describes the technical aspects of trans-arterial embolization (TAE) of renal cell carcinoma prior to percutaneous ablation. All patients (n = 11) had a single renal mass (mean tumor diameter = 50.2 mm; range: 28-84 mm). Selective TAE was performed via the common femoral artery. Embolic materials included: particles alone (n = 4), coils alone (n = 1), particles + ethiodized oil (n = 2), particles + coils (n = 1), ethiodized oil + ethanol (n = 2), and particles + ethanol (n = 1). All embolizations were technically successful and no complications have been reported...
October 2018: Current Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30362490/microfluidic-bead-encapsulation-above-20-khz-with-triggered-drop-formation
#13
Iain C Clark, Adam R Abate
Microsphere beads are functionalized with oligonucleotides, antibodies, and other moieties to enable specific detection of analytes. Droplet microfluidics leverages this for single-molecule or -cell analysis by pairing beads and targets in water-in-oil droplets. Pairing is achieved with devices operating in the dripping regime, limiting throughput. Here, we describe a pairing method that uses beads to trigger the breakup of a jet into monodispersed droplets. We use the method to pair 105 Human T cells with polyacrylamide beads ten times faster than methods operating in the dripping regime...
October 26, 2018: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30356141/pore-geometry-control-of-apparent-wetting-in-porous-media
#14
Harris Sajjad Rabbani, Benzhong Zhao, Ruben Juanes, Nima Shokri
Wettability, or preferential affinity of a fluid to a solid substrate in the presence of another fluid, plays a critical role in the statics and dynamics of fluid-fluid displacement in porous media. The complex confined geometry of porous media, however, makes upscaling of microscopic wettability to the macroscale a nontrivial task. Here, we elucidate the contribution of pore geometry in controlling the apparent wettability characteristics of a porous medium. Using direct numerical simulations of fluid-fluid displacement, we study the reversal of interface curvature in a single converging-diverging capillary, and demonstrate the co-existence of concave and convex interfaces in a porous medium-a phenomenon that we also observe in laboratory micromodel experiments...
October 24, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30349343/can-emollients-of-similar-composition-be-assumed-to-be-therapeutically-equivalent-a-comparison-of-skin-occlusivity-and-emulsion-microstructure
#15
Milan D Antonijević, Ovidiu Novac, Barry Mg O'Hagan
Introduction: Emollient therapy is the mainstay for treating skin conditions such as atopic dermatitis and psoriasis. New emollients have been introduced recently and are assumed to be therapeutically interchangeable with the innovator products because, superficially, they appear to have similar compositions. This study compares a) the ex vivo human skin occlusion performance and b) the visual and microscopic properties of Isomol gel (IMG) and Doublebase gel (DBG). Materials and Methods: Occlusion was measured gravimetrically by reduction in cumulative 48-hour evaporative weight loss from ex vivo human skin samples following single applications of the two test emollients and Vaseline® ...
2018: Clinical, Cosmetic and Investigational Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30344834/miniaturized-flow-cell-with-pneumatically-actuated-vertical-nanoconfinement-for-single-molecule-imaging-and-manipulation
#16
Daniel J Berard, Sabrina R Leslie
Convex Lens-induced Confinement (CLiC) is a single-molecule imaging technique that uses a deformable glass flow cell to gently trap, manipulate, and visualize single molecules within micro- and nano-structures, to enable a wide range of applications. Here, we miniaturize the CLiC flow cell, from <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www.w3.org/1998/Math/MathML"> <mml:mn>25</mml:mn> <mml:mo>×</mml:mo> <mml:mn>25</mml:mn> </mml:math> to <mml:math xmlns:mml="http://www...
September 2018: Biomicrofluidics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30343605/ganoderma-lucidum-derived-polysaccharide-enhances-coix-oil-based-microemulsion-on-stability-and-lung-cancer-targeted-therapy
#17
Jian Guo, Chengtian Yuan, Mengmeng Huang, Yuping Liu, Yunyan Chen, Congyan Liu, Yan Chen
The aim of this study is to explore the influence of Ganoderma lucidum-derived polysaccharides (GLP) to coix oil-based microemulsion on pharmaceutical performance and anti-lung cancer treatment. GLP-integrated coix oil-based microemulsion (MEs(PS-GLP)) exhibited a clear spherical shape, small particle size, and good hydrodynamics similar to the coix oil-based microemulsion, but showed a lower zeta potential and a better stability. Fluorescence resonance energy transfer analysis presented that GLP was integrated with microemulsion as a single system...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30339978/nasturtium-officinale-r-br-effectively-reduces-the-skin-inflammation-induced-by-croton-oil-via-glucocorticoid-receptor-dependent-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-pathways-without-causing-toxicological-effects-in-mice
#18
Camila Camponogara, Cássia R Silva, Indiara Brusco, Mariana Piana, Henrique Faccin, Leandro Machado de Carvalho, André Schuch, Gabriela Trevisan, Sara Marchesan Oliveira
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Inflammatory skin diseases treatments currently used cause adverse effects. Nasturtium officinale (watercress) is used popularly as an anti-inflammatory. However, until now, no study proved its effectiveness as a topical treatment to inflammatory skin diseases. The topical anti-inflammatory activity of N. officinale crude extract leaves (NoE) on an irritant contact dermatitis (ICD) model croton oil-induced in mice was investigated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: ICD models were induced by a single (1 mg/ear; acute) or repeated (0...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30318027/review-alternative-and-novel-feeds-for-ruminants-nutritive-value-product-quality-and-environmental-aspects
#19
A Halmemies-Beauchet-Filleau, M Rinne, M Lamminen, C Mapato, T Ampapon, M Wanapat, A Vanhatalo
Ruminant-based food production faces currently multiple challenges such as environmental emissions, climate change and accelerating food-feed-fuel competition for arable land. Therefore, more sustainable feed production is needed together with the exploitation of novel resources. In addition to numerous food industry (milling, sugar, starch, alcohol or plant oil) side streams already in use, new ones such as vegetable and fruit residues are explored, but their conservation is challenging and production often seasonal...
October 15, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30310864/estradiol-drives-the-anorexigenic-activity-of-proopiomelanocortin-neurons-in-female-mice
#20
Todd L Stincic, Pasha Grachev, Martha A Bosch, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Energy balance is regulated by anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. POMC neurons make extensive projections and are thought to release both amino acid and peptide neurotransmitters. However, whether they communicate directly with NPY/AgRP neurons is debated. Initially, using single-cell RT-PCR, we determined that mouse POMCeGFP neurons express Slc17a6 ( Vglut2 ) and Slc18a2 ( Vmat2 ), but not Slc31a1 ( Vgat ) mRNA, suggesting glutamate and non-canonical GABA release...
July 2018: ENeuro
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