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Single Cell Oil

Todd L Stincic, Pasha Grachev, Martha A Bosch, Oline K Rønnekleiv, Martin J Kelly
Energy balance is regulated by anorexigenic proopiomelanocortin (POMC) and orexigenic neuropeptide Y/agouti-related peptide (NPY/AgRP) neurons of the hypothalamic arcuate nucleus. POMC neurons make extensive projections and are thought to release both amino acid and peptide neurotransmitters. However, whether they communicate directly with NPY/AgRP neurons is debated. Initially, using single-cell RT-PCR, we determined that mouse POMCeGFP neurons express Slc17a6 ( Vglut2 ) and Slc18a2 ( Vmat2 ), but not Slc31a1 ( Vgat ) mRNA, suggesting glutamate and non-canonical GABA release...
July 2018: ENeuro
Ramasamy Karthikeyan, Govindasamy Kanimozhi, Nagarajan Rajendra Prasad, Balupillai Agilan, Muthusamy Ganesan, Gunaseelan Srithar
AIMS: This study aims to evaluate the protective effect of alpha pinene (AP), an essential oil monoterpene, against ultraviolet-A (UVA; 320-400 nm) induced cellular damages in human skin epidermal keratinocytes (HaCaT cells). MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, HaCaT cells were subjected to single UVA-irradiation (10 J/cm2 ) in the presence and absence of AP (30 μM) then different cellular end points were analyzed. The protective effect of AP against UVA-induced cytotoxicity was evaluated by MTT-based metabolic assay...
October 4, 2018: Life Sciences
Monika Tomczykowa, Magdalena Wróblewska, Katarzyna Winnicka, Piotr Wieczorek, Piotr Majewski, Katarzyna Celińska-Janowicz, Róża Sawczuk, Wojciech Miltyk, Elżbieta Tryniszewska, Michał Tomczyk
The genus Bidens L. (Asteraceae) refers to several species of plants used in traditional phytotherapeutic preparations. B. tripartita , also known as bur marigold, is the most familiar plant and has been known as a remedy for chronic dysentery. The hydrodistilled essential oil of the aerial parts of the Polish B. tripartita was analyzed using gas chromatography (GC) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) techniques. To exclude any potential toxic effects of the oil on human dermal fibroblasts, the MTT test (methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium) and COMET assay (single-cell gel electrophoresis) were performed...
October 1, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Sascha Siebenhaller, Jennifer Kirchhoff, Frank Kirschhöfer, Gerald Brenner-Weiß, Claudia Muhle-Goll, Burkhard Luy, Fabian Haitz, Thomas Hahn, Susanne Zibek, Christoph Syldatk, Katrin Ochsenreither
Lignocellulose can be converted sustainably to fuels, power and value-added chemicals like fatty acid esters. This study presents a concept for the first eco-friendly enzymatic synthesis of economically important fatty acid sugar esters based on lignocellulosic biomass. To achieve this, beech wood cellulose fiber hydrolysate was applied in three manners: as sugar component, as part of the deep eutectic solvent (DES) reaction system and as carbon source for the microbial production of the fatty acid component...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
Suvi Santala, Elena Efimova, Ville Santala
For improving the microbial production of fuels and chemicals, gene knock-outs and overexpression are routinely applied to intensify the carbon flow from substrate to product. However, their possibilities in dynamic control of the flux between the biomass and product synthesis are limited, whereas dynamic metabolic switches can be used for optimizing the distribution of carbon and resources. The production of single cell oils is especially challenging, as the synthesis is strictly regulated, competes directly with biomass, and requires defined conditions, such as nitrogen limitation...
December 2018: Metabolic Engineering Communications
Lambert Baij, Joen J Hermans, Katrien Keune, Piet D Iedema
In the restoration of paintings, solvent diffusion and swelling of polymeric oil paint binding media are important factors to consider. Common cleaning methods with organic solvents or aqueous solutions could lead to undesirable physicochemical changes in the paint in the long term, though the extent of this effect is not yet clear. We used tailored nonporous model systems for aged oil paint to measure paint swelling and solvent diffusion for a wide range of relevant solvents. Using dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), the glass transition temperature of our model systems was found to be close to room temperature...
September 25, 2018: Macromolecules
Caitlin E Randolph, David J Foreman, Stella K Betancourt, Stephen J Blanksby, Scott A McLuckey
Fatty acids (FA) play vital biological roles as energy sources, signaling molecules and key building blocks of complex lipids in cell membranes. Modifications to FA structure and composition are associated with the onset and progression of a number of chronic diseases. Consequently, the sensitive detection and unambiguous structure elucidation of FA is integral to the advance-ment of biomedical sciences. Recent advances in FA analysis have taken advantage of wet chemical derivatization to enhance detection and drive unique fragmentation in tandem mass spectrometry protocols...
September 27, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
John P S Mowat, Mark A Miller, Melissa Galey, Wharton Sinkler, Sesh Prabhakar, Lijun Xu, Collette Nicholas, Christopher P Nicholas
Zeolites are porous aluminosilicate materials utilized in a variety of sorption, separation, and catalytic applications. The oil refining industry in particular has seen a number of significant advances due to the introduction of new technologies enabled by new zeolites. Of particular importance are zeolites with 10- or 12- membered ring pores resulting in pore shapes and sizes appropriate for the interaction with small hydrocarbon molecules. Here, we have synthesized the new zeolite UZM-55 and present the idealized structure thereof...
September 23, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Marjorie R Willner, Kay S McMillan, Duncan Graham, Peter J Vikesland, Michele Zagnoni
The integration of surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) with droplet microfluidics has the potential to improve our understanding of cellular systems. Herein, we present the first application of SERS droplet microfluidics for single-cell analysis. A microfluidic device was used to encapsulate single prostate cancer cells and wheat germ agglutin (WGA)-functionalized SERS nanoprobes in water-in-oil droplets that were subsequently locked into a storage droplet array for spectroscopic investigation. The stationary droplets enabled the rapid identification of SERS regions of interest in live cancer cells by allowing collection of "fast" coarse maps over an area of several square millimeters followed by "slower" detailed interrogation of the identified hotspots...
October 5, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Geetika Verma, Chandra Sekhar Mukhopadhyay, Ramneek Verma, Baljit Singh, R S Sethi
Ethion, an organophosphorus pesticide, is used worldwide and has potential for toxicity and inflammation. There are very limited data on the pulmonary and genotoxic effects of ethion especially when the exposure is combined with lipopolysaccharide. Therefore, we used a mouse model to test the hypothesis that prolonged exposure to ethion alone or in conjunction with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) will cause lung inflammation and genotoxicity in a mouse model. Swiss albino (n = 30) were divided into a control (n = 10) and two treatment groups (n = 10; each group)...
September 17, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
Jake Astill, Tamiru Alkie, Alexander Yitbarek, Khaled Taha-Abdelaziz, Bahram Shojadoost, James John Petrik, Éva Nagy, Shayan Sharif
Low pathogenic avian influenza virus (AIV) infection in chickens can result in economic losses and has impacts on human health. Poultry vaccination is a tool that can be used to decrease infection and transmission of AIVs. Prior research has demonstrated that Toll-like receptor (TLR) ligands can act as vaccine adjuvants and their addition to inactivated AIV vaccines can enhance immune responses elicited in chickens. The objective of this study was to compare the adjuvant capabilities of TLR5 ligand (flagellin) and TLR21 ligand (CpG ODN 2007) administered either alone or in combination with an intramuscular formaldehyde inactivated H9N2 whole virus vaccine in chickens...
September 15, 2018: Viral Immunology
Guilherme Ribeiro Romualdo, Gabriel Bacil Prata, Tereza Cristina da Silva, Ana Angélica Henrique Fernandes, Fernando Salvador Moreno, Bruno Cogliati, Luís Fernando Barbisan
Hepatocellular carcinoma causes ~10% of all cancer-related deaths worldwide, usually emerging in a background of liver fibrosis/cirrhosis (70%-90% of cases). Chemically-induced mouse models for fibrosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis are widely-applied, resembling the corresponding human disease. Nonetheless, a long time is necessary for the development of preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions. Thus, we proposed an early fibrosis-associated hepatocarcinogenesis model for male and female mice separately, focusing on reducing the experimental time for preneoplastic/neoplastic lesions development and establishing standard models for both sexes...
2018: PloS One
Bonnie A McNeil, David T Stuart
Oils and oleochemicals produced by microbial cells offer an attractive alternative to petroleum and food-crop derived oils for the production of transport fuel and oleochemicals. An emerging candidate for industrial single cell oil production is the oleaginous yeast Lipomyces starkeyi. This yeast is capable of accumulating storage lipids to concentrations greater than 60% of the dry cell weight. From the perspective of industrial biotechnology L. starkeyi is an excellent chassis for single-cell oil and oleochemical production as it can use a wide variety of carbon and nitrogen sources as feedstock...
September 12, 2018: World Journal of Microbiology & Biotechnology
Daiane Gonzaga Ribeiro, Raphael Ferreira de Almeida, Wagner Fontes, Mariana de Souza Castro, Marcelo Valle de Sousa, Carlos André Ornelas Ricart, Raimundo Nonato Vieira da Cunha, Ricardo Lopes, Jonny Everson Scherwinski-Pereira, Angela Mehta
Oil palm is an oleaginous plant of relevant economic importance since its fruits are rich in vegetable oil. These plants have a single apical meristem and the main method for vegetative propagation is somatic embryogenesis. The aim of this study was to identify differentially abundant proteins from oil palm genotypes contrasting in the capacity of embryogenic competence acquisition, using shotgun proteomics. Oil palm leaves were subjected to callus induction and the material was collected in biological triplicates at 14 and 90 days of callus induction...
September 5, 2018: Journal of Proteomics
Junqing Wang, Jian Peng, Han Fan, Xiang Xiu, Le Xue, Lei Wang, Jing Su, Xiaohui Yang, Ruiming Wang
Candida tropicalis can grow with alkanes or plant oils as the sole carbon source, and its industrial application thus has great potential. However, the choice of a suitable genetic operating system can effectively increase the speed of metabolic engineering. MazF functions as an mRNA interferase that preferentially cleaves single-stranded mRNAs at ACA sequences to inhibit protein synthesis, leading to cell growth arrest. Here, we constructed a suicide plasmid named pPICPJ-mazF that uses the mazF gene of Escherichia coli as a counterselectable marker for the markerless editing of C...
November 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Hüseyin Fındık, Levent Tumkaya, Adnan Yılmaz, Mehmet Gökhan Aslan, Murat Okutucu, Kerimali Akyildizi, Tolga Mercantepe
This study investigated the toxic effects of an antineoplastic agent, Cisplatin (CIS), on retinal cells and the potential capacity of Astaxanthin (ASTA) to elicit a future therapeutic protocol in CIS-induced retinal toxicity. Six groups were formed for the assessment; control (healthy; Group 1), olive oil (olive oil only; Group 2), ASTA control group (ASTA only, Group 3), the single intraperitoneal (IP) dose of 16 mg/kg CIS (CIS only group; Group 4), 16 mg/kg CIS + 25 mg/kg (IP) ASTA (Group 5) and 16 mg/kg CIS + 75 mg/kg (IP) ASTA (Group 6)...
September 5, 2018: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
Abulikemu Aobuli, Jumai Maitusong, Mahinur Bakri, Xueying Lu, Maitinuer Maiwulanjiang, Haji Akber Aisa
Vernonia anthelmintica Willd. seeds have been used in folk medicine for the treatment of leukoderma in Xinjiang, China, for more than 300 years. The promoting activities of its volatile oil (AVO) in melanogenesis and its chemical composition were investigated in this paper. The bioactivities of AVO were examined by melanin synthesis and tyrosinase activity assay in B16 cells. Using GC-QTOF-MS technology, each compound of AVO contains a single separated peak in GC and the retention indices of every GC peak were calculated by the retention times of C7~C30 n -alkanes that were injected at the same chromatographic conditions...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
Ana Carolina S Chagas, Amanda Figueiredo, Flávio A S Politi, Isabela J Moro, Sérgio N Esteves, Humberto R Bizzo, Paola E Gama, Francisco C M Chaves
The excessive use of anthelmintics to control nematodes has resulted in anthelminthic resistance. Essential oils (EOs) are a rich source of bioactive molecules that can be assessed for their ability to control resistant parasite populations. The aims of this study were to screen EOs from 10 plant species in vitro for anthelmintic activity against Haemonchus contortus , evaluate the cytotoxicity of those EOs in a human immortalized keratinocyte cell line (HaCaT), and test the most promising EO candidate in vivo in Santa Inês sheep...
September 2018: Journal of Parasitic Diseases: Official Organ of the Indian Society for Parasitology
Orly B Tarun, Maksim Yu Eremchev, Sylvie Roke
The interaction of oils and lipids is relevant for membrane biochemistry since the cell uses bilayer membranes, lipid droplets, and oily substances in its metabolic cycle. In addition, a variety of model lipid membrane systems, such as freestanding horizontal membranes and droplet interface bilayers, are made using oil to facilitate membrane monolayer apposition. We characterize the behavior of excess oil inside horizontal freestanding lipid bilayers using different oils, focusing on hexadecane and squalene...
September 25, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
K Dziendzikowska, M Gajewska, J Wilczak, R Mruk, M Oczkowski, E Żyła, T Królikowski, M Stachoń, J Øvrevik, O Myhre, M Kruszewski, M Wojewódzka, A Lankoff, J Gromadzka-Ostrowska
Diesel exhaust emissions (DEE), being one of the main causes of ambient air pollution, exert a detrimental effect on human health and increase morbidity and mortality related to cardiovascular and pulmonary diseases. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to investigate potential adverse effects of exhausts emissions from B7 fuel, the first-generation biofuel containing 7% of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME), and SHB20 fuel, the second-generation biofuel containing 20% FAME/hydrotreated vegetable oil (HVO), after a whole-body exposure with and without diesel particle filter (DPF)...
October 2018: Environmental Toxicology and Pharmacology
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