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Critical ilness

Yaoyao Xia, Shuai Chen, Guoqiang Zhu, Ruilin Huang, Yulong Yin, Wenkai Ren
Betaine is a critical nutrient for mammal health, and has been found to alleviate inflammation by lowering interleukin (IL)-1β secretion; however, the underlying mechanisms by which betaine inhibits IL-1β secretion remain to be uncovered. In this review, we summarize the current understanding about the mechanisms of betaine in IL-1β production and release. For IL-1β production, betaine affects canonical and non-canonical inflammasome-mediated processing of IL-1β through signaling pathways, such as NF-κB, NLRP3 and caspase-8/11...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Karen Fairlie-Clarke, Mark Barbour, Chelsey Wilson, Shehla U Hridi, Debbie Allan, Hui-Rong Jiang
Interleukin-33 (IL-33) is a well-recognized immunomodulatory cytokine which plays critical roles in tissue function and immune-mediated diseases. The abundant expression of IL-33 in brain and spinal cord prompted many scientists to explore its unique role in the central nervous system (CNS) under physiological and pathological conditions. Indeed emerging evidence from over a decade's research suggests that IL-33 acts as one of the key molecular signaling cues coordinating the network between the immune and CNS systems, particularly during the development of neurological diseases...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Meng-Meng Jin, Fen Wang, Di Qi, Wen-Wen Liu, Chao Gu, Cheng-Jie Mao, Ya-Ping Yang, Zhong Zhao, Li-Fang Hu, Chun-Feng Liu
Neuroinflammation and autophagy dysfunction are closely related to the development of neurodegeneration such as Parkinson's disease (PD). However, the role of autophagy in microglia polarization and neuroinflammation is poorly understood. TNF-α, which is highly toxic to dopaminergic neurons, is implicated as a major mediator of neuroinflammation in PD. In this study, we found that TNF-α resulted in an impairment of autophagic flux in microglia. Concomitantly, an increase of M1 marker (iNOS/NO, IL-1β, and IL-6) expression and reduction of M2 marker (Arginase1, Ym1/2, and IL-10) were observed in TNF-α challenged microglia...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
Pramod Kumar Gupta, Savita Kulkarni
Plethora of clinical and scientific information obtained in recent past has strengthened the idea that targeting critical constituents of host immune system may have beneficial outcomes for the treatment of tuberculosis. Macrophages being the primary host for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, offer an attractive target for modulation. Owing to their negligible toxicity, plant derived polysaccharides with the ability to activate macrophages; are suitable candidates for immunomodulation. In the present study, effects of polysaccharide rich extract (PRE) isolated from Tinospora cordifolia, on the survival of intracellular MTB strains and activation of macrophages were investigated...
December 2018: Tuberculosis
Ding-Hong Wu, Miao-Miao Zhang, Ning Li, Xiong Li, Quan-Wei Cai, Wan-Lin Yu, Li-Ping Liu, Wei Zhu, Chuan-Jian Lu
The IL-17-producing CD4+ T cell and γδT cells play critical roles in the pathogenesis of psoriasis (PS). PSORI-CM02 is a representative herbal formula for the treatment for PS in South China. It was confirmed to improve PS without obvious side effects in the clinic. Here we sought to clarify whether and how PSORI-CM02 regulates T cell differentiation and functions in IMQ-induced psoriasis-like BALB/c mouse model. Mice pre-treated 3 days with PSORI-CM02 significantly alleviated skin inflammation, as reduced in PASI score and classic psoriatic characteristics in pathological sections...
December 1, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
François Huaux
Fibrosis, cancer, and autoimmunity developing upon particle exposure have been exclusively linked with uncontrolled inflammatory processes. The critical role of inflammation is now challenged by several contradictory observations indicating that the emergence of these chronic disorders may result from non-inflammatory events. A growing number of studies reveals that micro- and nano-particles can cause exaggerated and persistent immunosuppression characterized by the release of potent anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10 and TGF-β), and the recruitment of major regulatory immune cells (M2 macrophages, T and B regs, and MDSC)...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Hee-Jin Kim, Tae-Wook Kang, Keeok Haam, Mirang Kim, Seon-Kyu Kim, Seon-Young Kim, Sang-Il Lee, Kyu-Sang Song, Hyun-Yong Jeong, Yong Sung Kim
DNA methylation is a regulatory mechanism in epigenetics that is frequently altered during human carcinogenesis. To detect critical methylation events associated with gastric cancer (GC), we compared three DNA methylomes from gastric mucosa (GM), intestinal metaplasia (IM), and gastric tumor (GT) cells that were microscopically dissected from an intestinal-type early gastric cancer (EGC) using methylated DNA binding domain sequencing (MBD-seq) and reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) analysis...
December 3, 2018: Experimental & Molecular Medicine
Xin Wang, Xinglei Liu, Yanan Zhao, Hongyan Sun, Yimin Wang
Skin provides the protective barrier for our body and undergoes the continuous regeneration in order to overcome damage from exposure to harmful environments and wounds. Epidermal stem cells (ESCs) play critical roles in skin regeneration. Humanin analogue, S14G-humanin (HNG), a prominent member of a newly discovered family of mitochondrial-derived peptides, has been shown to be a cytoprotective derivative in multiple cell types. In this study, we isolated mouse epidermal stem cells and investigated the cytoprotective effects of HNG on ESCs upon ultraviolet (UV)-B treatment...
November 30, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Bin Xiang, Renrong You, Yinfeng Kang, Peng Xie, Wenxian Zhu, Minhua Sun, Pei Gao, Yaling Li, Tao Ren
Newcastle disease (ND), affecting over 250 bird species, is caused by the Newcastle disease virus (NDV). ND is one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality in pigeons. Most studies investigating NDV in pigeons have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenicity of the virus. However, the host immune responses in pigeons infected with NDVs remains largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the host immune responses in pigeons infected with two NDV stains, a pigeon paramyxovirus type 1(PPMV-1) strain, GZH14, and a genotype II virus, KP08...
November 30, 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Ichiro Tojima, Takeshi Shimizu
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS) is a heterogeneous disease and is recently classified into two phenotypes, eosinophilic CRS (ECRS) and non-ECRS. ECRS is characterized by Th2-biased eosinophilic inflammation, and non-ECRS is characterized by Th1-biased neutrophilic inflammation. Group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2s) rapidly produce large amounts of Th2 cytokines and exert critical roles in Th2-type immune responses. We summarize our current knowledge about the pathogenic roles of ILC2s in ECRS...
November 29, 2018: Current Opinion in Allergy and Clinical Immunology
Tomoko Matsuda, Fumikazu Yamazaki, Ikuko Ueda-Hayakawa, Naotomo Kambe, Hiroyuki Okamoto
We report herein a case of a 72-year-old man with pityriasis rubra pilaris (PRP) that was refractory to conventional therapies. His skin lesions progressed to generalized erythroderma despite anti-interleukin (IL)-17A antibody therapy. Topical corticosteroids, emollients, systemic retinoid, methotrexate, cyclosporin and phototherapy yielded no therapeutic response. However, blockade of IL-12/23 p40 dramatically improved his cutaneous lesions. Complete remission was achieved 4 weeks after the first injection of ustekinumab and maintained for more than 48 weeks...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Dermatology
Linda Wampach, Anna Heintz-Buschart, Joëlle V Fritz, Javier Ramiro-Garcia, Janine Habier, Malte Herold, Shaman Narayanasamy, Anne Kaysen, Angela H Hogan, Lutz Bindl, Jean Bottu, Rashi Halder, Conny Sjöqvist, Patrick May, Anders F Andersson, Carine de Beaufort, Paul Wilmes
The rate of caesarean section delivery (CSD) is increasing worldwide. It remains unclear whether disruption of mother-to-neonate transmission of microbiota through CSD occurs and whether it affects human physiology. Here we perform metagenomic analysis of earliest gut microbial community structures and functions. We identify differences in encoded functions between microbiomes of vaginally delivered (VD) and CSD neonates. Several functional pathways are over-represented in VD neonates, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS) biosynthesis...
November 30, 2018: Nature Communications
Sindy Hu, Chien-Wei Chen, Szu-Tah Chen, Ke-Hung Tsui, Tswen-Kei Tang, Hao-Tsai Cheng, Guey-Shyang Hwang, Ju-Wen Yu, Yi-Chieh Li, Paulus S Wang, Shyi-Wu Wang
Berberine is an isoquinoline alkaloid isolated from herb plants, such as Cortex phellodendri (Huangbai) and Rhizoma coptidis (Huanglian). Huanglian and Huangbai have been used as "heat-removing" agents. In addition, berberine has been reported to exert anti-inflammatory effect both in vivo and in vitro, where mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expressions are critically implicated. We herein tested the hypothesis that berberine exerts an anti-inflammatory effect through MAPK and COX-2 signaling pathway in T-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (T-ALL)...
November 28, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Sun-A Choi, You-Kwan Oh, Jiye Lee, Sang Jun Sim, Min Eui Hong, Ji-Yeon Park, Min-Sik Kim, Seung Wook Kim, Jin-Suk Lee
Energy-saving, high-efficiency cell disruption is a critical step for recovery of thermolabile antioxidant astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis cyst cells of rigid cell-wall structure. In this study, as room-temperature green solvents, 10 types of 1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium ([Emim])-based ionic liquids (ILs) were compared and evaluated for their abilities to disrupt H. pluvialis cyst cells for astaxanthin/lipid extraction. Among the 10 ILs tested, 3 [Emim]-based ILs with HSO4 , CH3 SO3 , and (CF3 SO2 )2 N anions were selected based on astaxanthin/lipid extraction performance and synthesis cost...
November 23, 2018: Bioresource Technology
S Fraňová, I Kazimierová, L Pappová, M Molitorisová, M Jošková, M Šutovská
INTRODUCTION: Mucoactive agent, erdosteine, besides mucolytic activity, is characterized by many other pharmacodynamic properties which could be beneficial in the management of inflammatory conditions. BACKGROUND: s: Using guinea pig experimental model of allergic inflammation, we evaluated the ability of erdosteine to modulate airway defence mechanisms and inflammation after 10 days (10 mg/kg/day) administration. METHODS: In vivo changes in specific airway resistance and amplitude of tracheal contraction were estimated to evaluate the bronchodilatory effect...
November 28, 2018: Pulmonary Pharmacology & Therapeutics
Alex Corches, Alex Hiroto, Tyler W Bailey, John H Speigel, Justin Pastore, Mark Mayford, Edward Korzus
Fear discrimination is critical for survival, while fear generalization is effective for avoiding dangerous situations. Overgeneralized fear is a typical symptom of anxiety disorders, including generalized anxiety disorder and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Previous research demonstrated that fear discrimination learning is mediated by prefrontal mechanisms. While the prelimbic (PL) and infralimbic (IL) subdivisions of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) are recognized for their excitatory and inhibitory effects on the fear circuit, respectively, the mechanisms driving fear discrimination are unidentified...
November 28, 2018: Behavioural Brain Research
Vito Dozio, Jean-Charles Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system and are responsible for a wide range of functions critical to normal neuronal development, synapse formation, blood-brain barrier regulation, and brain homeostasis. They are also actively involved in initiating and perpetuating neuroinflammatory responses. However, information about their proteomic phenotypes under inflammation is currently limited. METHOD: Data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry was applied to extensively characterize the profile of more than 4000 proteins in immortalized human fetal astrocytes under distinct inflammatory conditions induced by TNF, IL-1β, and LPS, while multiplex immunoassay-based screening was used to quantify a wide range of cytokines released under these inflammatory conditions...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Shuai Xing, Xue Zhang, Xia Huang, Lin Xie, Fengchao Jiang, Ping Zhou
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) remains the least curable complication after allogeneic bone marrow transplantation (BMT). Myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88) is an adaptor molecule critically involved in the toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling pathway. The Toll/IL-1 receptor (TIR) domains of MyD88 and TLR are interactional modules responsible for sorting and signaling via direct or indirect TIR-TIR interactions, which can contribute to all phases of GVHD progression. Here, we describe the mechanisms of the novel MyD88 inhibitor, TJ-M2010-5, and the discovery of its immunosuppressive properties in the context of GVHD and the graft-versus-tumor (GVT) effect in a fully MHC-mismatched murine model...
December 3, 2018: Leukemia & Lymphoma
Luisa Helena Monteiro de Miranda, Marina Meli, Fátima Conceição-Silva, Marilisa Novacco, Rodrigo Caldas Menezes, Sandro Antonio Pereira, Sarah Sugiarto, Érica Guerino Dos Reis, Isabella Dib Ferreira Gremião, Regina Hofmann-Lehmann
Feline sporotrichosis due to Sporothrix brasiliensis is frequently severe and often correlated to zoonotic transmission. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV) and Feline Leukemia Virus (FeLV) cause immunodeficiency in cats; no association has been identified with critical cases of sporotrichosis. Moreover, the cytokine profile in Sporothrix-infected cats and a potential impact of retrovirus co-infections on their immunity is unknown. This study assessed immunological parameters in cats with sporotrichosis with and without FIV or FeLV co-infection...
2018: PloS One
Hidde Douna, Jacob Amersfoort, Frank H Schaftenaar, Sanne Kroon, Gijs H M van Puijvelde, Johan Kuiper, Amanda C Foks
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Limiting the pro-inflammatory immune response is critical for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Regulatory B cells (Bregs) can modulate the immune response through interleukin-10 (IL-10). Current data regarding Bregs and atherosclerosis is scarce and conflicting. METHODS: In this study, we investigated the frequency of IL-10+ B cells during the development of atherosclerosis in low-density lipoprotein receptor-deficient (Ldlr-/- ) mice and studied the effect of adoptive transfer of IL-10+ B cells on atherosclerosis...
November 9, 2018: Atherosclerosis
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