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sustainable development

Daniel M Hirai, Trenton D Colburn, Jesse C Craig, Kazuki Hotta, Yutaka Kano, Timothy I Musch, David C Poole
The oxygen transport pathway from air to mitochondria involves a series of transfer steps within closely integrated systems (pulmonary, cardiovascular and tissue metabolic). Small and finite O2 stores in most mammalian species require exquisitely controlled changes in O2 flux rates to support elevated ATP turnover. This is especially true for the contracting skeletal muscle where O2 requirements may increase two orders of magnitude above rest. This brief review focuses on the mechanistic bases for increased microvascular blood-myocyte O2 flux (V̇O2 ) from rest-to-contractions...
August 18, 2018: Microcirculation: the Official Journal of the Microcirculatory Society, Inc
Kathryn P Derose, Malcolm V Williams, Cheryl A Branch, Karen R Flórez, Jennifer Hawes-Dawson, Michael A Mata, Clyde W Oden, Eunice C Wong
Faith and public health partnerships offer promise to addressing health disparities, but examples that incorporate African-Americans and Latino congregations are lacking. Here we present results from developing a multi-ethnic, multi-denominational faith and public health partnership to address health disparities through community-based participatory research (CBPR), focusing on several key issues: (1) the multi-layered governance structure and activities to establish the partnership and identify initial health priority (obesity), (2) characteristics of the congregations recruited to partnership (n = 66), and (3) the lessons learned from participating congregations' past work on obesity that informed the development of a multi-level, multi-component, church-based intervention...
August 17, 2018: Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities
Axel Schick, Christina Sandig, Anja Krause, Peter R Hobson, Stefan Porembski, Pierre L Ibisch
Growing levels of uncertainty and vulnerability generated by land use conversion and climate change set demands on local communities and national institutions to build synergies between the diverse array of knowledge systems in order to provide policy makers and practitioners with the best available information to decide what urgent actions must be taken. Science policy arenas and agreements such as the Intergovernmental Platform on Biodiversity and Ecosystem Services (IPBES) and the Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD) recognize the importance of different types of knowledge and the need for broad stakeholder involvement, yet the use of indigenous and local knowledge (ILK) in environmental decision-making processes is still underdeveloped...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Management
Lisa A Holland, Jeffrey S Carver, Lindsay M Veltri, Rachel J Henderson, Kimberly D Quedado
Nanotechnology is a broad field combining traditional scientific disciplines; however, analytical chemistry plays an important role in material design, synthesis, characterization, and application. This article emphasizes the uniqueness of nanotechnology and the importance of providing high-quality undergraduate research experiences to both attract and retain talented individuals to the field of nanotechnology. In response to this need to develop a strong and sustainable nanotechnology work force, strategies to create authentic research experiences are considered within the framework of an interdisciplinary nanotechnology environment at West Virginia University...
August 18, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Ayesha N Shajahan-Haq, Jeannine M Salamone, Wanda Lucas, Shelley B Brundage, Jamie N Holloway, Sherri M Stahl, Nora E Carbine, Margery London, Naomi Greenwood, Rosa Goyes, Deborah Charles Chisholm, Erin L Price, Roberta Carlin, Susan Winarsky, Kirsten Brecht Baker, Julia Maues
Advocates bring unique and important viewpoints to the cancer research process, ensuring that scientific and medical advances are patient-centered and relevant. In this article, we discuss the benefits of engaging advocates in cancer research and underscore ways in which both the scientific and patient communities can facilitate this mutually beneficial collaboration. We discuss how to establish and nurture successful scientist-advocate relationships throughout the research process. We review opportunities that are available to advocates who want to obtain training in the evaluation of cancer research...
August 17, 2018: Cancer Research
Beniamino Cislaghi, Lori Heise
BACKGROUND: Recently, Global Health practitioners, scholars, and donors have expressed increased interest in "changing social norms" as a strategy to promote health and well-being in low and mid-income countries (LMIC). Despite this burgeoning interest, the ability of practitioners to use social norm theory to inform health interventions varies widely. MAIN BODY: Here, we identify eight pitfalls that practitioners must avoid as they plan to integrate a social norms perspective in their interventions, as well as eight learnings...
August 17, 2018: Globalization and Health
Devika Nadkarni, Sara Gravelyn, Monica Brova, Sarem Rashid, Randy Yee, Donovan Guttieres, Katie Clifford, Darash Desai, Muhammad Zaman
BACKGROUND: Our objective is to estimate the effects of therapeutic oxytocin supply chain factors and social determinants of health on patient access to oxytocin in low-income settings using system dynamics modeling. Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH), a major cause of maternal mortality disproportionately affects women in low and middle income countries (LMICs). The World Health Organization recommends therapeutic oxytocin as the frontline uterotonic for PPH management and prevention. However, lack of access to quality therapeutic oxytocin in Tanzania, and throughout Sub-Saharan Africa, continues to result in a high number of preventable maternal deaths...
August 17, 2018: BMC Health Services Research
Yue Wang, Xinrong Li, Jinfeng Yang, Zhuang Tian, Qinping Sun, Wentao Xue, Hongmin Dong
Beef cattle production systems are the largest contributors of greenhouse gas (GHG) and ammonia (NH3 ) emissions in the livestock industry. Here, we present the first meta-analysis and integrated assessment of gaseous emissions and mitigation potentials for a typical beef cattle feedlot system, including methane (CH4 ), nitrous oxide (N2 O), and NH3 losses from enteric fermentation and manure management based on data from 104 studies. Fourteen integrated emission factors (EF) and the mitigation efficiencies (ME) of 17 available options were provided...
August 17, 2018: Environmental Science & Technology
Ruma Baksi, Devendra Pratap Singh, Swapnil P Borse, Rita Rana, Vipin Sharma, Manish Nivsarkar
Quercetin (QCT) is a flavonoid, abundantly present in plants and has gained considerable interest for its antioxidant property and chemo preventive activity. Bioavailability of QCT is very low due to its poor aqueous solubility and instability. Researchers are working on the application of nanotechnology to target chemotherapeutic drugs to the tumour site. The aim of the present study was to develop quercetin loaded chitosan nanoparticles (QCT-CS NPs) with enhanced encapsulation efficiency and sustained release property...
July 24, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Ruchira M Jha, Jonathan Elmer, Benjamin E Zusman, Shashvat Desai, Ava M Puccio, David O Okonkwo, Seo Young Park, Lori A Shutter, Jessica S Wallisch, Yvette P Conley, Patrick M Kochanek
OBJECTIVES: Intracranial pressure in traumatic brain injury is dynamic and influenced by factors like injury patterns, treatments, and genetics. Existing studies use time invariant summary intracranial pressure measures thus potentially losing critical information about temporal trends. We identified longitudinal intracranial pressure trajectories in severe traumatic brain injury and evaluated whether they predicted outcome. We further interrogated the model to explore whether ABCC8 polymorphisms (a known cerebraledema regulator) differed across trajectory groups...
August 16, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Michelle S Cespedes, Minhee Kang, Erna Milunka Kojic, Triin Umbleja, Catherine Godfrey, Jennifer Y Webster-Cyriaque, Reena Masih, Cynthia Firnhaber, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Alfred Saah, Susan Cu-Uvin, Judith A Aberg
OBJECTIVES: People living with HIV have increased Human Papillomavirus (HPV) related lesions and malignancies. We describe HPV DNA recovered from the cervix and anal canal, explore the effect of vaccination on HPV detection, and examine the durability of vaccine titers in women living with HIV-1 who were vaccinated with the quadrivalent HPV vaccine. METHODS: AIDS Clinical Trials Group A5240 was a prospective study of the quadrivalent HPV (qHPV) vaccine in 315 HIV-1 infected women in three CD4 strata (A: >350, B; 201-350, C: ≤200 cells/mm3 )...
August 15, 2018: Papillomavirus Research
Michele Melchionna, Paolo Fornasiero, Maurizio Prato
One of the recent trends in electrocatalytic reactions involves the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR), where a new paradigm has been shaped to exploit this reaction for the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide (H2 O2 ). H2 O2 is a very versatile chemical of high commercial value, prepared currently through poorly sustainable processes. The emergence of metal-free carbon catalysts for the selective synthesis of H2 O2 is expected to revolutionize ORR research, beckoning at the development of new industrial schemes. The complexities of the mechanism and the factors dominating the selectivity of the process have been unveiled through a combination of theoretical and experimental studies...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Materials
Sarmistha Talukdar, Anjan K Pradhan, Praveen Bhoopathi, Xue-Ning Shen, Laura A August, Jolene J Windle, Devanand Sarkar, Frank B Furnari, Webster K Cavenee, Swadesh K Das, Luni Emdad, Paul B Fisher
Glioblastoma multiforme (GBM) is a frequent and aggressive glial tumor, containing a small population of therapy-resistant cells, glioma stem cells (GSCs). Current dogma suggests that tumors regrow from GSCs, and these cells contribute to therapy resistance, poor prognosis, and recurrence; highlighting the importance of GSCs in glioma pathophysiology and therapeutic targeting. Macroautophagy/autophagy-based cellular homeostasis can be changed from pro-survival to pro-cell death by modulating SDCBP/MDA-9/Syntenin (syndecan binding protein)-mediated signaling...
August 17, 2018: Autophagy
Julie Hellesøe Christensen, Paul Bloch, Signe Rysbjerg Møller, Cecilie Prüsse Søgaard, Charlotte Demant Klinker, Jens Aagaard-Hansen, Peter Bentsen
Health promotion increasingly involves collaboration with civil society organisations and the private sector rather than being implemented exclusively by public sector stakeholders. Health in All Policies (HiAP) is an approach that promotes health in policy-making across public sectors. This study explored intersectoral integration and collaboration for health promotion at a local community level through a qualitative single case study of a local community network in Denmark: the Husum Health Network. The paper describes and discusses strengths, weaknesses, and challenges of HiAP-inspired local efforts to build alliances and supportive environments for health within an inter-organisational community-based network...
August 16, 2018: International Journal of Health Planning and Management
Erez Cohen, Scott R Allen, Jessica K Sawyer, Donald T Fox
Ploidy-increasing cell cycles drive tissue growth in many developing organs. Such cycles, including endocycles, are increasingly appreciated to drive tissue growth following injury or activated growth signaling in mature organs. In these organs, the regulation and distinct roles of different cell cycles remains unclear. Here, we uncover a programmed switch between cell cycles in the Drosophila hindgut pylorus. Using an acute injury model, we identify mitosis as the response in larval pyloric cells, whereas endocycles occur in adult pyloric cells...
August 17, 2018: ELife
Brian H Kim, Steven W Levison
The cytokine transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 is highly induced after encephalopathic brain injury, with data showing that it can both contribute to the pathophysiology and aid in disease resolution. In the immature brain, sustained TGFβ-signaling after injury may prolong inflammation to both exacerbate acute stage damage and perturb the normal course of development. Yet in adult encephalopathy, elevated TGFβ1 may promote a reparative state. In this review, we highlight the context-dependent actions of TGFβ-signaling in the brain during resolution of encephalopathy and focus on neuronal survival mechanisms that are affected by TGFβ1 ...
August 17, 2018: Neuroscientist: a Review Journal Bringing Neurobiology, Neurology and Psychiatry
Judy Clegg, Rachael Black, Antoin Smith, Shelagh Brumfitt
PURPOSE: Intensive interaction is used to increase communication in people at a pre-verbal stage of communication development. The aim of the study was to evaluate a city-wide implementation of intensive interaction training to care staff by investigating how staff use intensive interaction with adults with profound and multiple learning disability, and their perceived impact of intensive interaction on these service users. METHOD: In phase 1, a survey investigated the outcomes of intensive interaction training on the work practices of staff supporting people with profound and multiple learning disability...
August 17, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Yi-Chou Hou, Yen-Chen Chang, Hao-Lun Luo, Kuo-Cheng Lu, Po-Huang Chiang
BACKGROUND: Post-transplantation malignancy influenced graft survival and overall survival in the patients receiving renal transplantation. Immunosuppressants influenced the immune surveillance, but whether immunosuppressive agents have impact for incidence of post-transplantation malignancy is still elusive in Taiwan. METHOD: We conducted a nationwide population-based study. Patients who did not have malignancy history and received kidney transplantation between 2000 and 2010 were enrolled...
August 16, 2018: Cancer Medicine
Sung-Eun Lee, Sung Soo Park, Young-Woo Jeon, Jae-Ho Yoon, Byung-Sik Cho, Ki-Seong Eom, Yoo-Jin Kim, Seok Lee, Chang-Ki Min, Hee-Je Kim, Seok-Goo Cho, Dong-Wook Kim, Jong Wook Lee
This prospective study explored an optimal conditioning regimen to ensure engraftment with minimal toxicity in adult patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) who received haplo-identical stem cell transplantation from a related mismatched donor (Haplo-SCT). We explored a safe and sufficient dose of rabbit ATG (Thymoglobulin®) in combination with 800 cGy total body irradiation (TBI) and fludarabine (Flu, 30 mg/m2 /day) for 5 days using step-by-step dose de-escalation. The dose of ATG was de-escalated from 10 mg/kg (group 1), to 7...
August 17, 2018: American Journal of Hematology
Bianca A Silva, Allison M Burns, Johannes Gräff
RATIONALE: The experience of strong traumata leads to the formation of enduring fear memories that may degenerate into post-traumatic stress disorder. One of the most successful treatments for this condition consists of extinction training during which the repeated exposure to trauma-inducing stimuli in a safe environment results in an attenuation of the fearful component of trauma-related memories. While numerous studies have investigated the neural substrates of recent (e.g., 1-day-old) fear memory attenuation, much less is known about the neural networks mediating the attenuation of remote (e...
August 17, 2018: Psychopharmacology
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