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sustainable development

Mieko Yoshihama, Tomoko Yunomae, Azumi Tsuge, Keiko Ikeda, Reiko Masai
This study reports on 82 unduplicated cases of violence against women and children after the Great East Japan Disaster of March 2011. Data were collected using a structured questionnaire from informants who worked with the disaster-affected populations. In addition to domestic violence, reported cases involved sexual assault and unwanted sexual contact, including quid pro quo assault perpetrated by nonintimates. Perpetrators often exploited a sense of fear, helplessness, and powerlessness and used threats to force compliance with sexual demands in exchange for life-sustaining resources...
October 16, 2018: Violence Against Women
Ivano Iavarone, Carlotta Buzzoni, Giorgia Stoppa, Eva Steliarova-Foucher
BACKGROUND: this paper is based upon work from COST Action ICSHNet. Children's environmental health is on the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development. The incidence of childhood cancer is increasing worldwide and in Europe. Yet, the aetiology of most childhood cancers, including the role of environmental carcinogens, is still largely unknown. Contaminated areas, especially of industrial origin, are of high concern due to complex mix of hazardous pollutants and their potential health impacts on human populations, notably in children...
September 2018: Epidemiologia e Prevenzione
Yukun Huang, Lei Mei, Xianggui Chen, Qin Wang
The increasing demand for high food quality and safety, and concerns of environment sustainable development have been encouraging researchers in the food industry to exploit the robust and green biodegradable nanocomposites, which provide new opportunities and challenges for the development of nanomaterials in the food industry. This review paper aims at summarizing the recent three years of research findings on the new development of nanomaterials for food packaging. Two categories of nanomaterials (i.e., inorganic and organic) are included...
October 13, 2018: Nanomaterials
Andreas Böhm, Andrea Hardeling, Berit Gundermann
BACKGROUND: Children and adolescents are seen as an important target group for reducing tobacco and alcohol consumption in the population. Data on substance use over a longer period of time for adolescents are a basis for addiction policy in the state of Brandenburg and show certain trends. METHODS: Adolescents of the 10th grade in the state of Brandenburg were asked in 2005, 2009, 2013 and 2017 about consumption of alcohol, tobacco and other psychoactive substances and about possibly helpful contact persons...
October 15, 2018: Das Gesundheitswesen
Gregory S Cooper, John A Dearing
Shaping social-ecological systems towards sustainable, desirable and equitable futures is often hampered by complex human-natural feedbacks, emergence and nonlinearities. Consequently, the future of systems vulnerable to collapse is uncertain under plausible trajectories of environmental change, socioeconomic development and decision-making. We develop a modelling approach that incorporates driver interactions and feedbacks to operationalise future "safe and just operating spaces" for sustainable development...
October 10, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
Niall Dalton, Robert P Lynch, Maurice N Collins, Mario Culebras
Developing sustainable and efficient thermoelectric materials is a challenge because the most common thermoelectric materials are based on rare elements such as bismuth and telluride. In this context, we have produced bio-based carbon nanofibres (CNFs) derived from mixtures of polyacrylonitrile and lignin using electrospinning. The addition of lignin (up to 70%) reduces the diameter of CNFs from 450 nm to 250 nm, increases sample flexibility, and promotes inter-fibre fusion. The crystalline structure of the CNFs was analysed by Raman spectroscopy...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Ghassan Bkaily, Yanick Simon, Istok Menkovic, Carl Bkaily, Danielle Jacques
All health organizations agree that, presently, the average daily salt (sodium chloride) consumption per person has attained almost double the recommended amount. A chronic high salt diet contributes to the increase in blood pressure and to the development of cardiovascular disease. Although our knowledge of hypertension, in general, is abundant, little is known about salt-sensitive hypertension. Here we tested the hypothesis that acute and/or chronic high salt mimicking that present in high-salt sensitive hypertensive patients may induce hypertrophy of human vascular smooth muscle cells (hVSMCs) and their nuclei that are associated with damage to the plasma membrane glycocalyx...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
Danielle M Ostendorf, Edward L Melanson, Ann E Caldwell, Seth A Creasy, Zhaoxing Pan, Paul S MacLean, Holly R Wyatt, James O Hill, Victoria A Catenacci
Background: Evidence in humans is equivocal in regards to whether resting energy expenditure (REE) decreases to a greater extent than predicted for the loss of body mass with weight loss, and whether this disproportionate decrease in REE persists with weight-loss maintenance. Objectives: We aimed to1) determine if a lower-than-predicted REE is present in a sample of successful weight-loss maintainers (WLMs) and 2) determine if amount of weight loss or duration of weight-loss maintenance are correlated with a lower-than-predicted REE in WLMs...
October 1, 2018: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
A N Kazantsev, R S Tarasov, N N Burkov, A R Shabaev, R Iu Lider, A V Mironov
The purpose of the study was to determine the incidence rate and structure of cardiovascular complications in patients presenting with lesions of the carotid arteries and multifocal atherosclerosis, having endured carotid endarterectomy (CEA), during a three-year period within the framework of a single-centre register. The study included a total of 1,035 patients subjected to CEA over the period from 2011 to 2016. The duration of the long-term follow up averagely amounted to 42.4±18.6 months. The outcome measures assessed were as follows: death, myocardial infarction (MI), acute cerebral circulation impairment (transitory ischaemic attack) [ACCI (TIA)], clinically significant haemorrhage according to the BARC scale, unplanned repeat revascularization...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
M V Mel'nikov, A V Sotnikov, V M Mel'nikov, G D Papava
The authors analysed the remote results of treatment of patients having endured embologenic arterial obstruction. Over the last 47 years, specialists of the Department of Cardiovascular Surgery No1 of the North-Western State Medical University named after I.I. Mechnikov have rendered emergency medical care to a total of 3,455 patients presenting with embolisms of the aorta and arteries of the limbs. The remote results of treatment were followed up in 978 patients within the terms varying from 1 year to 30 years...
2018: Angiologii︠a︡ i Sosudistai︠a︡ Khirurgii︠a︡, Angiology and Vascular Surgery
Brunella Posteraro, Francesco Paroni Sterbini, Valentina Petito, Stefano Rocca, Tiziana Cubeddu, Cristina Graziani, Vincenzo Arena, Gabriele A Vassallo, Carolina Mosoni, Loris Lopetuso, Irene Lorrai, Paola Maccioni, Luca Masucci, Cecilia Martini, Antonio Gasbarrini, Maurizio Sanguinetti, Giancarlo Colombo, Giovanni Addolorato
BACKGROUND: There is strong evidence that alcoholism leads to dysbiosis in both humans and animals. However, it is unclear how changes in the intestinal microbiota (IM) relate to ethanol (EtOH)-induced disruption of gut-liver homeostasis. We investigated this issue using selectively bred Sardinian alcohol-preferring (sP) rats, a validated animal model of excessive EtOH consumption. METHODS: Independent groups of male adult sP rats were exposed to the standard, home-cage 2-bottle "EtOH (10% v/v) vs water" choice regimen with unlimited access for 24 hours/day (Group Et) for 3 (T1), 6 (T2), and 12 (T3) consecutive months...
October 15, 2018: Alcoholism, Clinical and Experimental Research
Dae-Woong Hwang, Yoon-Jong Moon, Jin-Woo Cho, Sun-Kyung Kim
We report highly collimated radiation from incoherent quantum emitters coupled to photonic dispersion-engineered structures. Two-dimensional free-standing photonic crystal slabs sustained an extremely high density of states for vertically leaky light at discrete frequencies, which results from the constructive interference between directly reflected light and quasi-bound guided modes, referred to as Fano resonance. Electromagnetic simulations showed that an electric dipole that is excited near a photonic crystal slab generates vertically directional radiation at every Fano resonance frequency...
October 15, 2018: Optics Letters
Ye Guan, Shiyuan Wang, Minjun Jin, Haotian Xu, Qiong Yang
Real-time measurement of oscillations at the single-cell level is important to uncover the mechanisms of biological clocks. Although bulk extracts prepared from Xenopus laevis eggs have been powerful in dissecting biochemical networks underlying the cell-cycle progression, their ensemble average measurement typically leads to a damped oscillation, despite each individual oscillator being sustained. This is due to the difficulty of perfect synchronization among individual oscillators in noisy biological systems...
September 27, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Sherry Stone, Edgar LaMotte Welch, Linda Hofler
In an effort to meet the challenge of facilitating communication between the chief nursing officer (CNO) and the nursing staff in a large academic medical center, an innovative approach was developed. Brainstorming with the Media Services Team, a plan was devised that created an avenue for sustained connection between the CNO and the nursing staff and a vehicle for staff to connect with one another: video segments known as Nurses Notebook.
October 12, 2018: Journal of Nursing Administration
Beatrice Giustolisi, Karen Emmorey
This study investigated visual statistical learning (VSL) in 24 deaf signers and 24 hearing non-signers. Previous research with hearing individuals suggests that SL mechanisms support literacy. Our first goal was to assess whether VSL was associated with reading ability in deaf individuals, and whether this relation was sustained by a link between VSL and sign language skill. Our second goal was to test the Auditory Scaffolding Hypothesis, which makes the prediction that deaf people should be impaired in sequential processing tasks...
October 15, 2018: Cognitive Science
Balbir Singh, Shu Zhang, Chi-Keong Ching, Dejia Huang, Yen-Bin Liu, Diego A Rodriguez, Azlan Hussin, Young-Hoon Kim, Alexandr Robertovich Chasnoits, Jeffrey Cerkvenik, Katy A Muckala, Alan Cheng
BACKGROUND: Despite available evidence that ICDs reduce all-cause mortality for those at increased risk for sudden cardiac death, utilization of ICDs is low, especially in developing countries. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this analysis is to summarize reasons for ICD or CRT-D implant refusal for Improve SCA patients in developing countries. METHODS: PP and secondary prevention (SP) patients from countries where ICD use is low were enrolled...
October 15, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Weiqiang Zhang, Keiqiang Liu, Yingxin Pei, Jingbo Ma, Jiang Tan, Jing Zhao
Mammalian STE20-like kinase 1 (Mst1) is well recognized as a major tumor suppressor in cancer development, growth, metabolic reprogramming, metastasis, cell death and recurrence. However, the roles of Mst1 in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) A549 cell phenotypic alterations remain to be elucidated. The present study aimed to explore the functional role and underlying mechanisms of Mst1 with regards to A549 cell proliferation, migration and apoptosis; this study focused on mitochondrial homeostasis and Rho-associated coiled-coil containing protein kinase 1 (ROCK1)/F‑actin pathways...
October 8, 2018: International Journal of Oncology
Jangam Lakshmidevi, Rama Moorthy Appa, Bandameeda Ramesh Naidu, S Siva Prasad, Loka Subramanyam Sarma, Katta Venkateswarlu
A bio-derived sustainable medium based on water extract of pomegranate ash (WEPA) has, for the first time, been developed for the homocoupling of aryl halides under palladium-assistance. Avoiding the requirement of an external base, ligand and π-acid, the use of the proposed renewable medium offers remarkable attributes like wide substrate scope, good to nearly quantitative yields of biphenyls with exceptional chemoselectivity and scale up viability.
October 15, 2018: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
Saundray Raj Soni, Bibhas K Bhunia, Nimmy Kumari, Subhashis Dan, Sudipta Mukherjee, Biman B Mandal, Animesh Ghosh
The present study was conducted to develop therapeutically effective controlled release formulation of pirfenidone (PFD) and explore the possibility to reduce the total administered dose and dosing regimen. For this purpose, pH-sensitive biomaterial was prepared by inducing carboxymethyl group on pullulan by Williamson ether synthesis reaction, and further, interpenetrating polymeric network microspheres were prepared by glutaraldehyde-assisted water-in-oil (w/o) emulsion cross-linking method, which showed higher swelling ratio in acidic and basic pH...
September 30, 2018: ACS Omega
Jinhuan Yao, Jing Yan, Yu Huang, Yanwei Li, Shunhua Xiao, Jianrong Xiao
Recycling Zn and Fe from jarosite residue to produce high value-added products is of great importance to the healthy and sustainable development of zinc industry. In this work, we reported the preparation of ZnFe2 O4 /α-Fe2 O3 nanocomposites from the leaching liquor of jarosite residue by a facile chemical coprecipitation method followed by heat treatment at 800°C in air. The microstructure of the as-prepared ZnFe2 O4 /α-Fe2 O3 nanocomposites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Mössbauer spectroscopy, scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM), and X-ray photoelectron spectrum (XPS)...
2018: Frontiers in Chemistry
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