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Yang-Hao Ou, Andy Wei-Ge Chen, Jun-Yang Fan, Wen-Ling Cheng, Ta-Tsung Lin, Mu-Kuan Chen, Chin-San Liu
RATIONALE: Mitochondrial DNA mutations have been associated with many maternal inherited diseases. A1555G mutation in mtDNA effects the gene code for rRNA, resulting in the structural change of human ribosome rending it susceptible to binding of the common antibiotic, aminoglycosides. Such mutation has linked with non-syndromic hearing loss and is one of the most common mtDNA mutations in Asian populations. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 50-year-old Taiwanese female visited our neurology department with concern for multiple members with hearing loss in her family, including herself...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Rebecca Pinnelas
American physician Emanuel Libman (1872-1946) was a generalist with Sherlockian diagnostic skills ("secret-divining eyes" according to Einstein) whose achievements were recognized by the scientific community and the public. Personal aspects of Libman were revealed in an oral history conducted with psychiatrist George L. Engel, a nephew who was raised in his house, and show Libman to be an intensely private person, contrasting with the image of him as a mentor and teacher. Yet Libman as a young physician and investigator remains absent in these opposing biographical reflections...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Medical Biography
Sean F Higgins, Maurice D Mulvenna, Raymond B Bond, Aodheen McCartan, Stephen Gallagher, Darren Quinn
A key benefit of web-based technology is the enhanced computational ability to tailor and personalize content using explicit online user profiles. While some degree of customization has long been regarded as positive, too much personalization to the point of perceived privacy intrusion can be detrimental. This study uses multivariate testing of an advertisement campaign on the online social network Facebook to investigate the extent to which digital advertising, personalized to specific age and gender group demographics (age and gender congruent) influences user engagement and increases click-through rates...
October 2018: Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking
Anna C Vittucci, Paola Zangari, Claudia Ciarlitto, Chiara Di Camillo, Annalisa Grandin, Nicola Cotugno, Maria R Marchili, Alberto Villani
Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) is the most common respiratory pathogen in infants and young children but represents also an important cause of morbidity in adults, particularly in the elderly and immunocompromised persons. Despite its global impact on human health, no effective treatment is available except for supportive care and no safe vaccine has been still licensed. Vaccine development has been hindered by several factors including vaccine enhanced disease associated with formalin-inactivated RSV vaccine, ethical concerns and lack of consensus concerning the most appropriate target antigen...
October 18, 2018: Minerva Pediatrica
Brita Zilg
In the forensic literature, fatal dehydration predominantly concerns young children or incapacitated elderly persons. The postmortem diagnosis of fatal dehydration can be challenging to confirm, especially if the preceding circumstances are unknown. Here presented is a case of a 23-year-old man who died while held in an isolation cell during police custody for 18 days. Autopsy findings were unspecific, but vitreous fluid analysis showed 192 mmol/L sodium, 179 mmol/L chloride, 16 mmol/L potassium, 352 μmol/L (3...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
José A Bauermeister, Kathryn E Muessig, Dalmacio D Flores, Sara LeGrand, Seulki Choi, Willa Dong, Gary W Harper, Lisa B Hightow-Weidman
Addressing stigma remains a pressing HIV priority globally. Young Black men who have sex with men (YBMSM, ages 18-30; N = 474) completed an in-person baseline survey and reported their experiences of externalized stigma (i.e., racial and sexuality discrimination), internalized stigma (i.e., homonegativity), social support, and psychological distress (i.e., anxiety and depression symptoms). We used structural equation modeling to test the association between stigma and psychological distress, and examined whether social support mediated the relationship between stigma and psychological distress...
October 2018: AIDS Education and Prevention: Official Publication of the International Society for AIDS Education
Maxime Roy, Lindsey Sherrard, Ève Dubé, Nicolas L Gilbert
BACKGROUND: In Canada, vaccine coverage for seasonal influenza remains below targets. Few studies have sought to determine the sociodemographic factors associated with non-vaccination using a Canada-wide survey. This study aims to identify the determinants of, and the reasons for, non-vaccination. DATA AND METHODS: Data from the 2013/2014 Canadian Community Health Survey (CCHS) were used. Respondents were divided into three groups: adults aged 18 to 64 years with a chronic medical condition (CMC), adults in the same age group with no CMC, and adults aged 65 years and older...
October 17, 2018: Health Reports
JeeWon Cheong, Jalie A Tucker, Susan D Chandler
Advancing HIV prevention and treatment among at-risk Southern communities of color requires understanding why voluntary HIV testing is accepted or declined. Reasons for testing decisions were investigated among young African American women (n = 223, mean age = 20.4 years) recruited from disadvantaged areas in a Southern US city. A free HIV test was offered following field interviews that assessed HIV risk behaviors and personal and social network characteristics; 69.1% accepted testing, and all were seronegative...
October 17, 2018: AIDS Patient Care and STDs
Tao Huang, Wen-Qing Li, Zhong-Fang Xia, Jun Li, Kai-Cheng Rao, En-Ming Xu
BACKGROUND: Ingestion of button batteries occurs in about ten persons per one million persons each year, with most of them children, and one in every 1000 battery ingestions leads to serious injuries. This study aimed to describe the clinical features and outcome of ingestion or inhalation of button batteries in children spanning a decade from January, 2006 to December, 2016 at a tertiary care hospital. METHODS: We reviewed the clinical records of children who sought treatment for inhaled or ingested button batteries at our hospital during the study period...
October 17, 2018: World Journal of Pediatrics: WJP
Charlotte W Appel, Kirsten Frederiksen, Henrik Hjalgrim, Atle Dyregrov, Susanne O Dalton, Annemarie Dencker, Mette Terp Høybye, Jes Dige, Per Bøge, Ole Abildgaard Mikkelsen, Christoffer Johansen, Pernille Envold Bidstrup
AIMS: Little is known about long-term mental health in young adults who participate in ongoing grief counseling programs after early parental death in childhood, adolescence or young adulthood. The purpose of this study was to examine mental health in young adults according to early parental death and participation in grief counseling. METHODS: In a cross-sectional, questionnaire-based study, we included three samples of young adults age 18-41 years. One sample who had lost a parent between age 0 and 30 years and who had participated in grief counseling identified through four Danish grief-counseling organizations, and two registry-based samples of young adults included parentally bereaved and non-bereaved young adults...
October 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Peter Nolskog, Erik Backhaus, Salmir Nasic, Helena Enroth
The prevalence of Chlamydia trachomatis in Sweden is well known, whereas the prevalence of Mycoplasma genitalium is less well documented. Youth clinics offer free contraception advice, sexually transmitted infection (STI) testing and/or contact tracing for the age group 15-25 years. The main objective of this study was to determine the prevalence of STIs, the presence of symptoms and the role of contact tracing. From July 2013 to March 2014, 1001 persons, 509 women and 492 men, were included in this study of six youth clinics in the Region of Västra Götaland...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Enrica Modica, Dario Rossi, Giulia Cartocci, Davide Perrotta, Paolo Di Feo, Marco Mancini, Pietro Aricò, Bianca M S Inguscio, Fabio Babiloni
Over the past few decades, antismoking public service announcements (PSAs) have been used by governments to promote healthy behaviours in citizens, for instance, against drinking before the drive and against smoke. Effectiveness of such PSAs has been suggested especially for young persons. By now, PSAs efficacy is still mainly assessed through traditional methods (questionnaires and metrics) and could be performed only after the PSAs broadcasting, leading to waste of economic resources and time in the case of Ineffective PSAs...
2018: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Arthur Chortatos, Laura Terragni, Sigrun Henjum, Marianne Gjertsen, Liv Elin Torheim, Mekdes K Gebremariam
BACKGROUND: Food/drinks available to adolescents in schools can influence their dietary behaviours, which once established in adolescence, tend to remain over time. Food outlets' influence near schools, known to provide access to unhealthy food/drinks, may also have lasting effects on consumption behaviours. This study aimed to gain a better understanding of the consumption habits of adolescents in the school arena by comparing different personal characteristics and purchasing behaviours of infrequent and regular school canteen users to those never or seldom using the canteen...
October 16, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
Natsayi Chimbindi, Nondumiso Mthiyane, Isolde Birdthistle, Sian Floyd, Nuala McGrath, Deenan Pillay, Janet Seeley, Thembelihle Zuma, Jaco Dreyer, Dickman Gareta, Tinofa Mutevedzi, Justin Fenty, Kobus Herbst, Theresa Smit, Kathy Baisley, Maryam Shahmanesh
BACKGROUND: Adolescent girls and young women (AGYW) bear the brunt of the HIV epidemic in South Africa. 'DREAMS' aims to reduce HIV incidence through multi-level combination prevention. We describe HIV incidence and uptake of HIV and sexual reproductive health (SRH) by AGYW in KwaZulu-Natal (KZN), prior to DREAMS. METHODS: Longitudinal and cross-sectional analysis of women (15-24 year old) in a population-based HIV incidence cohort within a demographic surveillance site in KZN...
2018: PloS One
Yuxin Liu, Lida Mao, Yunan Zhao, Yufang Huang
PURPOSE: To create a high-stress shooting among the crowd (SAC) program and to examine its effectiveness in reducing SWAT trainees' stress level and their shooting performance in a simulated hostage-rescue situation. METHOD: After the SAC program was created, it was evaluated using a pretest and posttest experimental design: 98 young male SWAT trainees were randomly divided into experiment and control groups, with the former group trained in hostage rescue, shooting with real persons (high stress), and the latter group trained with "dummy" men (low stress); training for both lasted three days...
October 16, 2018: Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport
Catherine Cook-Cottone, Traci Childress, Jennifer Cohen Harper
This commentary explores the legal and ethical obligations of yoga programs and teachers to uphold both the principles and the spirit of secularism when teaching yoga in schools. Arguing that secularity is essential both to comply with legal mandates and to maximize inclusivity and access, each facet of a secular approach to yoga in schools is explored through an inquiry-based model meant to help the reader gain clarity and make informed choices when developing school-based yoga programming. This article does not address the use of nonsecular yoga for children outside the school setting...
October 16, 2018: International Journal of Yoga Therapy
Abby E Rudolph, April M Young, Jennifer R Havens
Geographic momentary assessments (GMA) collect real-time behavioral data in one's natural environment using a smartphone and could potentially increase the ecological validity of behavioral data. Several studies have evaluated the feasibility and acceptability of GMA among persons who use drugs (PWUD) and men who have sex with men (MSM), but fewer have discussed privacy, confidentiality, and safety concerns, particularly when illegal or stigmatized behavioral data were collected. This study explores perceptions regarding privacy, confidentiality, and safety of GMA research among PWUD and MSM recruited in three different settings (rural Appalachia, a mid-sized city in the South, and a mid-Atlantic city)...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Urban Health: Bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine
Kaedi Navarro, Elaine Wainwright, Karen Rodham, Abbie Jordan
Introduction: Parenting a young person with complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS) is associated with high levels of parental distress and numerous emotional, informational, and practical challenges. To meet these challenges, parents seek others undergoing similar experiences, both in face to face and online forums. Objectives: The objective of this study was to conduct a qualitative analysis of online forum data to explore the process of parental forum communication regarding parenting a young person with CRPS in online spaces...
September 2018: Pain Reports (Baltimore, Md.)
Ildikó Király, Katalin Oláh, Gergely Csibra, Ágnes Melinda Kovács
A current debate in psychology and cognitive science concerns the nature of young children's ability to attribute and track others' beliefs. Beliefs can be attributed in at least two different ways: prospectively, during the observation of belief-inducing situations, and in a retrospective manner, based on episodic retrieval of the details of the events that brought about the beliefs. We developed a task in which only retrospective attribution, but not prospective belief tracking, would allow children to correctly infer that someone had a false belief...
October 15, 2018: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Marta Tremolada, Sabrina Bonichini, Giuseppe Basso, Marta Pillon
PURPOSE: Few studies have captured the unique ways in which cancer affects the growth and development of adolescent and young adult cancer survivors. This paper illustrates the daily life of childhood cancer survivors who are now adolescents and young adults, their post-traumatic growth and follow-up perceptions, adopting a narrative approach. METHODS: One thousand adolescent and young adult cancer survivors, mean age at diagnosis being 9.26 years old (SD = 4...
October 2018: European Journal of Oncology Nursing: the Official Journal of European Oncology Nursing Society
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