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Tumor heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684498/multi-modal-characterization-of-vasculature-and-nanoparticle-accumulation-in-five-tumor-xenograft-models
#1
Einar Sulheim, Jana Kim, Annemieke van Wamel, Eugene Kim, Sofie Snipstad, Igor Vidic, Ingeborg Hovde Grimstad, Marius Widerøe, Sverre H Torp, Steinar Lundgren, David J Waxman, Catharina de Lange Davies
Preclinical research has demonstrated that nanoparticles and macromolecules can accumulate in solid tumors due to the enhanced permeability and retention effect. However, drug loaded nanoparticles often fail to show increased efficacy in clinical trials. A better understanding of how tumor heterogeneity affects nanoparticle accumulation could help elucidate this discrepancy and help in patient selection for nanomedicine therapy. Here we studied five human tumor models with varying morphology and evaluated the accumulation of 100 nm polystyrene nanoparticles...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684080/unexpected-cancer-predisposition-gene-variants-in-cowden-syndrome-and-bannayan-riley-ruvalcaba-syndrome-patients-without-underlying-germline-pten-mutations
#2
Lamis Yehia, Ying Ni, Kaitlin Sesock, Farshad Niazi, Benjamin Fletcher, Hannah JinLian Chen, Thomas LaFramboise, Charis Eng
Patients with heritable cancer syndromes characterized by germline PTEN mutations (termed PTEN hamartoma tumor syndrome, PHTS) benefit from PTEN-enabled cancer risk assessment and clinical management. PTEN-wildtype patients (~50%) remain at increased risk of developing certain cancers. Existence of germline mutations in other known cancer susceptibility genes has not been explored in these patients, with implications for different medical management. We conducted a 4-year multicenter prospective study of incident patients with features of Cowden/Cowden-like (CS/CS-like) and Bannayan-Riley-Ruvalcaba syndromes (BRRS) without PTEN mutations...
April 23, 2018: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683140/liquid-biopsy-in-the-omics-era-of-tumor-medicine
#3
Yi Jiang, Denong Wang
Liquid biopsy uses noninvasive blood test to assess tumor heterogeneity and evolution in real time. It looks for tumor components in the blood circulation, such as circulating tumor cells (CTCs) and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA), to provide tumor-specific information. By detecting multiplex tumor biomarkers, including nucleic acids, proteins, carbohydrates, and other tumor-derived substances, liquid biopsy helps with early tumor diagnosis, tumor evolution monitoring, and prognosis prediction. With the development of high-throughput OMICS tools like carbohydrate microarray and high-speed fiber-optic array scanning technology (FAST scan), it is now practical to identify glycan markers of CTCs and cancer stem cells (CSCs), especially those that are cell-surface exposed and readily accessible for immune recognition and targeting...
2018: Open Access J Biomed Eng Appl
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682767/ghrelin-as-a-potential-molecular-marker-of-adrenal-carcinogenesis-in-vivo-and-in-vitro-evidence
#4
Hanna Komarowska, Marcin Ruciński, Marianna Tyczewska, Nadia Sawicka-Gutaj, Marta Szyszka, Aleksandra Hernik, Anna Klimont, Paulina Milecka, Laura Migasiuk, Mateusz Biczysko, Ilona Idasiak-Piechocka, Marek Karczewski, Marek Ruchała
CONTEXT: Adrenal tumors belong to one of the most prevalent neoplasms. It is a heterogeneous group with different etiology, clinical manifestation, and prognosis. Its histopathologic diagnosis is difficult and identification of differentiation markers for tumorigenesis is extremely valuable for diagnosis. DESIGN: To assess ghrelin expression and the relationship among ghrelin, IGF2, and the clinicopathological characteristics of adrenal tumors. To investigate the influence of ghrelin on ACC cell line proliferation...
April 23, 2018: Clinical Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682724/neutrophil-phenotypes-in-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Pien Hellebrekers, Nienke Vrisekoop, Leo Koenderman
Neutrophils are one of the most important effector cells of the innate immune response(1). They are traditionally seen as a homogenous population of short lived cells mainly involved in the defense against extracellular micro-organisms by phagocytosis and intracellular killing(1,2). The cells contain a large armamentarium that aids in this function and ranges from the production of reactive oxygen species by a membrane-bound NADPH oxidase to cytotoxic proteins and peptides residing in the different granules present in the cytoplasm(3)...
April 23, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682512/targeting-notch-signalling-pathway-of-cancer-stem-cells
#6
REVIEW
Vandana Venkatesh, Raghu Nataraj, Gopenath S Thangaraj, Murugesan Karthikeyan, Ashok Gnanasekaran, Shanmukhappa B Kaginelli, Gobianand Kuppanna, Chandrashekrappa Gowdru Kallappa, Kanthesh M Basalingappa
Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been defined as cells within tumor that possess the capacity to self-renew and to cause the heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells that comprise the tumor. CSCs have been increasingly identified in blood cancer, prostate, ovarian, lung, melanoma, pancreatic, colon, brain and many more malignancies. CSCs have slow growth rate and are resistant to chemotherapy and radiotherapy that lead to the failure of traditional current therapy. Eradicating the CSCs and recurrence, is promising aspect for the cure of cancer...
2018: Stem Cell Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682505/overview-on-clinical-relevance-of-intra-tumor-heterogeneity
#7
REVIEW
Giorgio Stanta, Serena Bonin
Today, clinical evaluation of tumor heterogeneity is an emergent issue to improve clinical oncology. In particular, intra-tumor heterogeneity (ITH) is closely related to cancer progression, resistance to therapy, and recurrences. It is interconnected with complex molecular mechanisms including spatial and temporal phenomena, which are often peculiar for every single patient. This review tries to describe all the types of ITH including morphohistological ITH, and at the molecular level clonal ITH derived from genomic instability and nonclonal ITH derived from microenvironment interaction...
2018: Frontiers in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682188/imaging-markers-of-response-to-combined-braf-and-mek-inhibition-in-braf-mutated-vemurafenib-sensitive-and-resistant-melanomas
#8
Stefania Acciardo, Lionel Mignion, Nicolas Joudiou, Caroline Bouzin, Jean-François Baurain, Bernard Gallez, Bénédicte F Jordan
A majority of patients with a V600x melanoma respond quickly to BRAF/MEK inhibition (BRAFi/MEKi) and have an obvious clinical benefit. Nearly all the patients after this initial phase will develop resistance. Therefore, non-invasive early markers of response/non-response are needed in order to identify those patients who, due to intrinsic or acquired resistance, do not respond to treatment and would be eligible for alternative treatments. The aim of this study was to investigate the value of magnetic resonance spectroscopy (1 H-MRS) of choline and diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DW-MRI) as early markers of response to BRAF inhibition (BRAFi) with vemurafenib alone or in combination with MEK inhibition (MEKi) with trametinib, in BRAFi-sensitive and BRAFi-resistant melanoma xenografts...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682175/alcam-shedding-at-the-invasive-front-of-the-tumor-is-a-marker-of-myometrial-infiltration-and-promotes-invasion-in-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer
#9
Laura Devis, Elena Martinez-Garcia, Cristian P Moiola, Maria Teresa Quiles, Maria Antonia Arbos, Tomita Vasilica Stirbat, Françoise Brochard-Wyart, Ángel García, Lorena Alonso-Alconada, Miguel Abal, Berta Diaz-Feijoo, William Thomas, Sylvie Dufour, Gemma Mancebo, Francesc Alameda, Jaume Reventos, Antonio Gil-Moreno, Eva Colas
Endometrial cancer (EC) is the sixth deadliest cancer in women. The depth of myometrial invasion is one of the most important prognostic factors, being directly associated with tumor recurrence and mortality. In this study, ALCAM, a previously described marker of EC recurrence, was studied by immunohistochemistry at the superficial and the invasive tumor areas from 116 EC patients with different degree of myometrial invasion and related to a set of relevant epithelial and mesenchymal markers. ALCAM expression presented a heterogeneous functionality depending on its localization, it correlated with epithelial markers (E-cadherin/β-catenin) at the superficial area, and with mesenchymal markers at the invasive front (COX-2, SNAIL, ETV5, and MMP-9)...
March 30, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29682070/capsuloganglionic-germinoma-a-rare-site-for-uncommon-childhood-tumor
#10
Kuntal Kanti Das, Jeena Joseph, Amit Kumar Singh, Pradeep Sharma, Jayesh Sardhara, Kamlesh Singh Bhaisora, Anant Mehrotra, Arun Kumar Srivastava, Sushila Jaiswal, Rabi Narayan Sahu, Awadhesh Kumar Jaiswal, Sanjay Behari
Germ cell tumors (GCTs) are rare intracranial tumors with a strong predilection for children. Commonly, these tumors arise either in the suprasellar or the pineal region. The basal ganglia-thalamus complex represents a rare site of nonmidline intracranial GCTs. Such basal ganglionic GCTs have been reported to produce certain interesting clinico-radiological features, the knowledge of which may provide important diagnostic clues preoperatively. We present the case of a 9.5-year-old boy who presented with right hemiparesis and precocious puberty...
April 2018: Asian Journal of Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681949/cancer-stem-cells-cscs-in-drug-resistance-and-their-therapeutic-implications-in-cancer-treatment
#11
REVIEW
Lan Thi Hanh Phi, Ita Novita Sari, Ying-Gui Yang, Sang-Hyun Lee, Nayoung Jun, Kwang Seock Kim, Yun Kyung Lee, Hyog Young Kwon
Cancer stem cells (CSCs), also known as tumor-initiating cells (TICs), are suggested to be responsible for drug resistance and cancer relapse due in part to their ability to self-renew themselves and differentiate into heterogeneous lineages of cancer cells. Thus, it is important to understand the characteristics and mechanisms by which CSCs display resistance to therapeutic agents. In this review, we highlight the key features and mechanisms that regulate CSC function in drug resistance as well as recent breakthroughs of therapeutic approaches for targeting CSCs...
2018: Stem Cells International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681511/a-glial-signature-and-wnt7-signaling-regulate-glioma-vascular-interactions-and-tumor-microenvironment
#12
Amelie Griveau, Giorgio Seano, Samuel J Shelton, Robert Kupp, Arman Jahangiri, Kirsten Obernier, Shanmugarajan Krishnan, Olle R Lindberg, Tracy J Yuen, An-Chi Tien, Jennifer K Sabo, Nancy Wang, Ivy Chen, Jonas Kloepper, Louis Larrouquere, Mitrajit Ghosh, Itay Tirosh, Emmanuelle Huillard, Arturo Alvarez-Buylla, Michael C Oldham, Anders I Persson, William A Weiss, Tracy T Batchelor, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Mario L Suvà, Joanna J Phillips, Manish K Aghi, Shwetal Mehta, Rakesh K Jain, David H Rowitch
Gliomas comprise heterogeneous malignant glial and stromal cells. While blood vessel co-option is a potential mechanism to escape anti-angiogenic therapy, the relevance of glial phenotype in this process is unclear. We show that Olig2+ oligodendrocyte precursor-like glioma cells invade by single-cell vessel co-option and preserve the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Conversely, Olig2-negative glioma cells form dense perivascular collections and promote angiogenesis and BBB breakdown, leading to innate immune cell activation...
April 6, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681099/2016-children-s-tumor-foundation-conference-on-neurofibromatosis-type-1-neurofibromatosis-type-2-and-schwannomatosis
#13
Michael J Fisher, Allan J Belzberg, Peter de Blank, Thomas De Raedt, Florent Elefteriou, Rosalie E Ferner, Marco Giovannini, Gordon J Harris, Michel Kalamarides, Matthias A Karajannis, AeRang Kim, Conxi Lázaro, Lu Q Le, Wei Li, Robert Listernick, Staci Martin, Helen Morrison, Eric Pasmant, Nancy Ratner, Elisabeth Schorry, Nicole J Ullrich, David Viskochil, Brian Weiss, Brigitte C Widemann, Yuan Zhu, Annette Bakker, Eduard Serra
Organized and hosted by the Children's Tumor Foundation (CTF), the Neurofibromatosis (NF) conference is the premier annual gathering for clinicians and researchers interested in neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1), neurofibromatosis type 2 (NF2), and schwannomatosis (SWN). The 2016 edition constituted a blend of clinical and basic aspects of NF research that helped in clarifying different advances in the field. The incorporation of next generation sequencing is changing the way genetic diagnostics is performed for NF and related disorders, providing solutions to problems like genetic heterogeneity, overlapping clinical manifestations, or the presence of mosaicism...
May 2018: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680871/cystic-tumors-of-the-pituitary-infundibulum-seminal-autopsy-specimens-1899-to-1904-that-allowed-clinical-pathological-craniopharyngioma-characterization
#14
José M Pascual, Ruth Prieto, Maria Rosdolsky, Sewan Strauss, Inés Castro-Dufourny, Verena Hofecker, Eduard Winter, Rodrigo Carrasco, Walter Ulrich
A heterogeneous group of epithelial cystic tumors developed at the infundibulum and the third ventricle disconcerted pathologists at the dawn of the twentieth century. Very little was known at that time about the physiological role played by the pituitary gland, and there was almost complete ignorance regarding the function of the hypothalamus. Acromegaly, or enlargement of acral body parts, described in 1886 by Pierre Marie, was the only disease linked to primary hypertrophies of the pituitary gland, known as "pituitary strumas"...
April 21, 2018: Pituitary
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680254/correlation-between-tumor-metabolism-and-semiquantitative-perfusion-magnetic-resonance-imaging-metrics-in-non-small-cell-lung-cancer
#15
Sang Ho Lee, Andreas Rimner, Emily Gelb, Joseph O Deasy, Margie A Hunt, John L Humm, Neelam Tyagi
PURPOSE: To correlate semiquantitative parameters derived from dynamic contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (DCE-MRI) and 18 F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography (18 F-FDG-PET) for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS AND MATERIALS: Twenty-four NSCLC patients who underwent pretreatment 18 F-FDG-PET and DCE-MRI were analyzed. The maximum standardized uptake value (SUVmax) was measured from 18F-FDG-PET. Dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI was obtained on a 3T MRI scanner using 4-dimensional T1-weighted high-resolution imaging with a volume excitation sequence...
March 2, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679778/recapitulating-spatiotemporal-tumor-heterogeneity-in-vitro-through-engineered-breast-cancer-microtissues
#16
Claudia Mazio, Costantino Casale, Giorgia Imparato, Francesco Urciuolo, Paolo Antonio Netti
Tumor and microenvironmental heterogeneity hinders the study of breast cancer biology and the assessment of therapeutic strategies, being associated with high variability and drug resistance. In this context, it is mandatory to develop three-dimensional breast tumor models able to reproduce this heterogeneity and the dynamic interaction occurring between tumor cells and microenvironment. Here we show a new breast cancer microtissue model (T-µTP) uniquely able to present intra-tumor morphological heterogeneity in a dynamic and responsive endogenous matrix...
April 18, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679754/serum-25-hydroxyvitamin-d-and-breast-cancer-risk-by-pathological-subtype-mcc-spain
#17
Virginia Lope, Adela Castelló, Antonio Mena-Bravo, Pilar Amiano, Nuria Aragonés, Tania Fernández-Villa, Marcela Guevara, Trinidad Dierssen-Sotos, Guillermo Fernandez-Tardón, Gemma Castaño-Vinyals, Rafael Marcos-Gragera, Víctor Moreno, Dolores Salas-Trejo, Marian Diaz-Santos, Madalen Oribe, Isabel Romieu, Manolis Kogevinas, Feliciano Priego-Capote, Beatriz Pérez-Gómez, Marina Pollán
Epidemiologic evidence on the association between vitamin D and breast cancer is still inconclusive. This study analyzes the association between serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) and breast cancer risk by pathologic subtype, stage at diagnosis and specific breast cancer risk factors. We conducted a population-based multicase-control study where 546 histologically-confirmed breast cancer cases and 558 population controls, frequently matched by geographic area, age and body mass index, were recruited in 12 Spanish provinces (MCC-Spain)...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679602/solubility-enhanced-gmyl6-fused-with-a-hexa-lysine-tag-promotes-the-cytotoxicity-of-human-nk-cells
#18
Juanjuan Liu, Yuanyuan Jin, Xiaozhou Feng, Sen Zou, Guangxin Lv, Zhifei Zhang, Zhaoyong Yang
Goat myosin light chain 6 (gMYL6) is a constituent of certain extracted immunization-induced goat anti-cancer bioactive peptides (ACBPs). However, little is known about its activity onto NK cells which are the basic cellular attackers in cancer immunotherapy for patients with malignancies. Because of the complicated extraction process and low yield of gMYL6 out of the goat ACBPs' mixture, the Nano-flow liquid chromatography and C-terminal polycationic tag expression strategy were used to identify and enrich the peptide to investigate its bioactivity against cancers/tumors...
April 18, 2018: Immunology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678675/towards-tailored-management-of-malignant-brain-tumors-with-nanotheranostics
#19
REVIEW
Juan Aparicio-Blanco, Ana-Isabel Torres-Suárez
Malignant brain tumors still represent an unmet medical need given their rapid progression and often fatal outcome within months of diagnosis. Given their extremely heterogeneous nature, the assumption that a single therapy could be beneficial for all patients is no longer plausible. Hence, early feedback on drug accumulation at the tumor site and on tumor response to treatment would help tailor therapies to each patient's individual needs for personalized medicine. In this context, at the intersection between imaging and therapy, theranostic nanomedicine is a promising new technique for individualized management of malignant brain tumors...
April 17, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29678631/platelet-to-lymphocyte-ratio-in-advanced-cancer-review-and-meta-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Bo Li, Pingting Zhou, Yujie Liu, Haifeng Wei, Xinghai Yang, Tianrui Chen, Jianru Xiao
BACKGROUND: Inflammation biomarkers have been introduced into clinical practice for risk-rating in treatment of patients with cancer. We aimed to confirm the prognostic role of platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR) as a powerful biomarker for patients with advanced cancer. METHOD: A systematic literature search was conducted through PubMed, Embase and Web of Science databases for studies on advanced tumors. Research articles that analyzed the PLR and hazard ratios (HR) in patients with overall survival (OS) or progression-free survival (PFS) data were involved...
April 17, 2018: Clinica Chimica Acta; International Journal of Clinical Chemistry
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