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Tumor heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437627/tumor-acidity-activatable-tat-targeted-nanomedicine-for-enlarged-fluorescence-magnetic-resonance-imaging-guided-photodynamic-therapy
#1
Meng Gao, Feng Fan, Dongdong Li, Yue Yu, Kuirong Mao, Tianmeng Sun, Haisheng Qian, Wei Tao, Xianzhu Yang
Nanoparticles simultaneously integrated the photosensitizers and diagnostic agents represent an emerging approach for imaging-guided photodynamic therapy (PDT). However, the diagnostic sensitivity and therapeutic efficacy of nanoparticles as well as the heterogeneity of tumors pose tremendous challenges for clinical imaging-guided PDT treatment. Herein, a polymeric nanoparticle with tumor acidity (pHe)-activatable TAT targeting ligand that encapsulates the photosensitizer chlorin e6 (Ce6) and chelates contrast agent Gd(3+) is successfully developed for fluorescence/magnetic resonance (MR) dual-model imaging-guided precision PDT...
April 18, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437026/analyzing-epidermal-growth-factor-receptor-mutation-status-changes-in-advanced-non-small-cell-lung-cancer-at-different-sampling-time-points-of-blood-within-one%C3%A2-day
#2
Jin Wang, Hua Bai, Chaoyu Hong, Jie Wang, Tong-Hua Mei
BACKGROUND: We investigated whether different sampling time-points within one day would influence epidermal growth factor receptor mutation (EGFRm) status in plasma and evaluated the clinical outcomes according to the quantity analysis of EGFRm in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) in non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). METHODS: EGFR-tyrosine kinase inhibitor naïve advanced NSCLC patients who carried EGFRm in both tissues and ctDNA were enrolled in this study. Plasma samples were collected at three time-points within one day (at 8 am, 11 am and 2 pm) for EGFRm analysis by droplet digital PCR...
April 24, 2017: Thoracic Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436954/optimized-expression-based-microdissection-of-formalin-fixed-lung-cancer-tissue
#3
Markus Grafen, Thurid R Hofmann, Andreas H Scheel, Julia Beck, Alexander Emmert, Stefan Küffer, Bernhard C Danner, Ekkehard Schütz, Reinhardt Büttner, Andreas Ostendorf, Philipp Ströbel, Hanibal Bohnenberger
Analysis of specific DNA alterations in precision medicine of tumors is crucially important for molecular targeted treatments. Lung cancer is a prototypic example and one of the leading causes of cancer-related deaths worldwide. One major technical problem of detecting DNA alterations in tissue samples is cellular heterogeneity, that is, mixture of tumor and normal cells. Microdissection is an important tool to enrich tumor cells from heterogeneous tissue samples. However, conventional laser capture microdissection has several disadvantages like user-dependent selection of regions of interest (ROI), high costs for dissection systems and long processing times...
April 24, 2017: Laboratory Investigation; a Journal of Technical Methods and Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28436934/biopolymers-codelivering-engineered-t-cells-and-sting-agonists-can-eliminate-heterogeneous-tumors
#4
Tyrel T Smith, Howell F Moffett, Sirkka B Stephan, Cary F Opel, Amy G Dumigan, Xiuyun Jiang, Venu G Pillarisetty, Smitha P S Pillai, K Dane Wittrup, Matthias T Stephan
Therapies using T cells that are programmed to express chimeric antigen receptors (CAR T cells) consistently produce positive results in patients with hematologic malignancies. However, CAR T cell treatments are less effective in solid tumors for several reasons. First, lymphocytes do not efficiently target CAR T cells; second, solid tumors create an immunosuppressive microenvironment that inactivates T cell responses; and third, solid cancers are typified by phenotypic diversity and thus include cells that do not express proteins targeted by the engineered receptors, enabling the formation of escape variants that elude CAR T cell targeting...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435645/angiofibrolipoma-of-posterior-mediastinum-with-transforaminal-extension
#5
Monia Attia, Imen Megdiche, Henda Neji, Ameur Belhadj, Ines Baccouche, Soussen Hantous Zannad, Khaoula Ben Miled M'rad
Angiofibrolipoma is a histological variant of lipoma, which commonly occurs in subcutaneous tissues. In the present report we illustrate the case of an angiofibrolipoma of the posterior upper mediastinum in a 75-year-old man presented with progressive chest pain. Xray chest showed a homogeneous opacity vertically oriented along the right lateral aspect of thoracic vertebrae with an obtuse angle to the mediastinum. The upper extremity of the mass extended above the superior clavicle, suggestive of a posterior mediastinal lesion...
March 24, 2017: Rare Tumors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435450/exome-sequencing-of-oral-squamous-cell-carcinoma-reveals-molecular-subgroups-and-novel-therapeutic-opportunities
#6
Shih-Chi Su, Chiao-Wen Lin, Yu-Fan Liu, Wen-Lang Fan, Mu-Kuan Chen, Chun-Ping Yu, Wei-En Yang, Chun-Wen Su, Chun-Yi Chuang, Wen-Hsiung Li, Wen-Hung Chung, Shun-Fa Yang
Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), an epithelial malignancy affecting a variety of subsites in the oral cavity, is prevalent in Asia. The survival rate of OSCC patients has not improved over the past decades due to its heterogeneous etiology, genetic aberrations, and treatment outcomes. Improvement in therapeutic strategies and tailored treatment options is an unmet need. To unveil the mutational spectrum, whole-exome sequencing of 120 OSCC from male individuals in Taiwan was conducted. Analyzing the contributions of the five mutational signatures extracted from the dataset of somatic variations identified four groups of tumors that were significantly associated with demographic and clinical features...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28435061/nanomedicine-mediated-drug-targeting-of-cancer-stem-cells
#7
REVIEW
Deepika Singh, Aliva Prity Minz, Sanjeeb Kumar Sahoo
Tumors are heterogeneous and contain a small population of cells that has a crucial role in tumor progression, metastasis, drug resistance, and relapse as a result of their self-renewal, proliferation, and differentiation properties. These cells are known as cancer stem cells (CSCs) and accumulating evidence suggests that they show significant resistance to conventional chemotherapy. Thus, various antitumor strategies have been developed to eliminate therapeutic-resistant CSCs by targeting the molecular differences between CSCs and bulk cancer cells...
April 20, 2017: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434219/a-hydrogen-peroxide-responsive-nanoprobe-assists-circulating-tumor-cell-identification-and-colorectal-cancer-diagnosis
#8
Chunting Li, Ruijun Pan, Peiyong Li, Qinghua Guan, Junping Ao, Kai Wang, Li Xu, Xiaofei Liang, Xin Jin, Chuan Zhang, Xinyuan Zhu
In clinic, numeration of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) plays a critical role in cancer diagnosis and treatment but conventional CTC identification and counting that rely on specific antibodies to characterize cell's surface antigens are costive and with limitations. Importantly, false positive or negative results may be occurred due to the high heterogeneity and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of CTCs. Herein we demonstrated a novel and effective CTC detecting nanoprobe that could rapidly response to the high level of endogenous H2O2 of CTCs and report the signal through fluorescence emission...
April 22, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433629/a-novel-strategy-to-dissect-endogenous-gene-transcriptional-regulation-in-live-cells
#9
Wenqing Yang, Siliang Zhang, Yi Zhang, Xin Huang
Gene transcription is a central tenet of biology, traditionally measured by RT-PCR, microarray, or more recently, RNA sequencing. However, these measurements only provide a snapshot of the state of gene transcription and only represent an overall readout of complex transcriptional networks that regulate gene expression. In this report, we describe a novel strategy to dissect endogenous gene transcription regulation in live cells by knocking in a reporter gene, EGFP, under the control of the endogenous gene promoter, using the ARID1A gene as an example...
April 19, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433612/use-of-enteroscopy-for-the-detection-of-malignant-and-pre-malignant-lesions-of-the-small-bowel-in-complicated-celiac-disease-a-meta-analysis
#10
REVIEW
Luca Elli, Giovanni Casazza, Martina Locatelli, Federica Branchi, Francesca Ferretti, Dario Conte, Mirella Fraquelli
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Enteroscopy (wireless, wired) is the reference standard for small-bowel (SB) diseases and it has been applied to detect SB malignancies in complicated celiac disease (CD) with heterogeneous results. The aim of this meta-analysis is to obtain a diagnostic yield (DY) by pooling the data of studies that investigated the use of enteroscopy to detect SB adverse events in CD. METHODS: We performed an online search for studies estimating the DY of wireless and wired enteroscopy in predicting the presence of SB pre-malignant and/or malignant lesions...
April 19, 2017: Gastrointestinal Endoscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433508/organs-at-risk-in-lung-sbrt
#11
REVIEW
F De Rose, D Franceschini, G Reggiori, A Stravato, P Navarria, A M Ascolese, S Tomatis, P Mancosu, M Scorsetti
Lung stereotactic body radiotherapy (SBRT) is an accurate and precise technique to treat lung tumors with high 'ablative' doses. Given the encouraging data in terms of local control and toxicity profile, SBRT has currently become a treatment option for both early stage lung cancer and lung oligometastatic disease in patients who are medically inoperable or refuse surgical resection. Dose-adapted fractionation schedules and ongoing prospective trials should provide further evidence of SBRT safety trying to reduce toxicities and complications...
April 19, 2017: Physica Medica: PM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432672/para-atrial-non-acute-mediastinal-hematoma-after-left-atrial-maze-procedure-mimicking-tumor-in-a-patient-with-treated-melanoma
#12
G Schaiberger, D Pucar, V Patel, B Bateson, H Williams, W Bates
INTRODUCTION: The Cox Maze III procedure is considered the gold standard open surgical procedure for management of atrial fibrillation. This article outlines a unique case of a para-atrial mediastinal hematoma following a bilateral thoracoscopic left atrial Maze procedure mimicking malignancy. REPORT: A 60-year-old male, with past history of melanoma, underwent bilateral thoracoscopic left atrial mini maze procedure with radiofrequency energy and exclusion of the left atrial appendage...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432052/genomic-instability-in-cancer-teetering-on-the-limit-of-tolerance
#13
REVIEW
Noemi Andor, Carlo C Maley, Hanlee P Ji
Cancer genomic instability contributes to the phenomenon of intratumoral genetic heterogeneity, provides the genetic diversity required for natural selection, and enables the extensive phenotypic diversity that is frequently observed among patients. Genomic instability has previously been associated with poor prognosis. However, we have evidence that for solid tumors of epithelial origin, extreme levels of genomic instability, where more than 75% of the genome is subject to somatic copy number alterations, are associated with a potentially better prognosis compared with intermediate levels under this threshold...
April 21, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432002/mir-429-inhibits-metastasis-by-targeting-kiaa0101-in-soft-tissue-sarcoma
#14
Devyani Samantarrai, Bibekanand Mallick
Soft tissue sarcomas (STS) are a heterogeneous group of rare tumors with high metastatic potential. There being only a handful of publication on metastasis of STS, we investigated the miRNA mediated target gene regulations in modulating the metastatic processes in this cancer. In this study, we amalgamated gene and miRNA expression profiles of high-grade STS samples with miRNA target predictions and identified miR-429 targeting KIAA0101 as a novel pair, which remain unexplored in STS metastasis. We validated their expression in metastatic fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080 and performed several functional assays using miRNA mimics and KIAA0101 over-expression vector to confirm their role in metastasis...
April 18, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431544/strategies-for-monitoring-and-combating-resistance-to-combination-kinase-inhibitors-for-cancer-therapy
#15
REVIEW
Leanne G Ahronian, Ryan B Corcoran
Targeted therapies such as kinase inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies have dramatically altered cancer care in recent decades. Although these targeted therapies have improved patient outcomes in several cancer types, resistance ultimately develops to these agents. One potential strategy proposed to overcome acquired resistance involves taking repeat tumor biopsies at the time of disease progression, to identify the specific molecular mechanism driving resistance in an individual patient and to select a new agent or combination of agents capable of surmounting that specific resistance mechanism...
April 21, 2017: Genome Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431395/correlation-of-genomic-alterations-assessed-by-next-generation-sequencing-ngs-of-tumor-tissue-dna-and-circulating-tumor-dna-ctdna-in-metastatic-renal-cell-carcinoma-mrcc-potential-clinical-implications
#16
Andrew W Hahn, David M Gill, Benjamin Maughan, Archana Agarwal, Lubina Arjyal, Sumati Gupta, Jessica Streeter, Erin Bailey, Sumanta K Pal, Neeraj Agarwal
INTRODUCTION: Tumor tissue and circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) next-generation sequencing (NGS) testing are frequently performed to detect genomic alterations (GAs) to help guide treatment in metastatic renal cell carcinoma (mRCC), especially after progression on standard systemic therapy. Our objective was to assess if GAs detected by ctDNA NGS are different from those detected by tumor tissue NGS, specifically in patients with mRCC, and if these platforms are interchangeable or complimentary...
April 4, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431273/chromosomal-instability-in-gastric-cancer-biology
#17
REVIEW
Saffiyeh Saboor Maleki, Christoph Röcken
Gastric cancer (GC) is the fifth most common cancer in the world and accounts for 7% of the total cancer incidence. The prognosis of GC is dismal in Western countries due to late diagnosis: approximately 70% of the patients die within 5 years following initial diagnosis. Recently, integrative genomic analyses led to the proposal of a molecular classification of GC into four subtypes, i.e.,microsatellite-instable, Epstein-Barr virus-positive, chromosomal-instable (CIN), and genomically stable GCs. Molecular classification of GC advances our knowledge of the biology of GC and may have implications for diagnostics and patient treatment...
April 18, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430603/tumor-heterogeneity-assessed-by-texture-analysis-on-contrast-enhanced-ct-in-lung-adenocarcinoma-association-with-pathologic-grade
#18
Ying Liu, Shichang Liu, Fangyuan Qu, Qian Li, Runfen Cheng, Zhaoxiang Ye
Objectives To investigate whether texture features on contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CECT) images of lung adenocarcinoma have association with pathologic grade.Methods A cohort of 148 patients with surgically operated adenocarcinoma was retrospectively reviewed. Fifty-four CT features of the primary lung tumor were extracted from CECT images using open-source 3D Slicer software; meanwhile, enhancement homogeneity was evaluated by two radiologists using visual assessment. Multivariate logistic regression analysis was performed to determine significant image indicator of pathologic grade...
February 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430288/mesenchymal-proangiogenic-factor-ykl-40-related-to-glioblastomas-and-its-relationship-with-the-subventricular-zone
#19
Kelvin M Pińa Batista, Sayoa Alvarez de Eulate-Beramendi, Kenia Y Álvarez Reyes de Pińa, Pedro Reimunde Figueira, Adan Fernandez Canal, Josué M Avecillas Chasin, Ángela Meilan, Rodrigo Ugalde, Ivan Fernandez Vega
<i>Glioblastoma is the most common primary brain tumor. Despite multimodality therapy with aggressive microsurgical resection and adjuvant chemotherapy and radiotherapy, the median survival is below 15 months. Glioblastomas are heterogeneous tumors with high resistance to most chemotherapeutic drugs. According to reliable evidence, YKL-40, one of the best investigated chitinase-like protein, may facilitate invasion, migration and angiogenesis, and could be also responsible for temozolomide resistance in glioblastoma, thus conferring a dismal prognosis...
2017: Folia Neuropathologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429517/primary-laryngeal-sarcomas-in-a-mexican-population-case-series-of-eleven-cases
#20
Kuauhyama Luna-Ortiz, Sarina Navarro-Santiesteban, Veronica Villavicencio-Valencia, Rosa A Salcedo-Hernandez, Leonardo S Lino-Silva, Juan A Delgado
Sarcomas are mesenchymal tumors that represent 1% of malignant diseases in humans. Of these, 4-10% occur in the head and neck and only <1% occur in the larynx.(1) These groups of neoplasms have a wide range of histological variants and, accordingly, their clinical behavior varies widely, from slow-growing, relatively circumscribed tumors, to rapidly growing, locally invasive malignancies. In addition, the heterogeneity of the location of the laryngeal anatomic sub-sites require special therapeutic considerations...
April 21, 2017: Clinical Otolaryngology
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