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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734132/high-dimensional-single-cell-mapping-of-cerium-distribution-in-the-lung-immune-microenvironment-of-an-active-smoker
#1
Adeeb H Rahman, Yonit Lavin, Soma Kobayashi, Andrew Leader, Miriam Merad
BACKGROUND: Mass cytometry leverages inductively coupled mass spectrometry to perform high dimensional single cell analyses using antibodies tagged with rare earth isotopes that are considered to be largely absent in biological samples. We have recently noted an unusual exception to this rule while analyzing tissue samples from patients undergoing surgical resection for early stage lung cancer, and here we present a detailed cytometric characterization of cerium in a clinical patient sample...
July 22, 2017: Cytometry. Part B, Clinical Cytometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732212/ualcan-a-portal-for-facilitating-tumor-subgroup-gene-expression-and-survival-analyses
#2
Darshan S Chandrashekar, Bhuwan Bashel, Sai Akshaya Hodigere Balasubramanya, Chad J Creighton, Israel Ponce-Rodriguez, Balabhadrapatruni V S K Chakravarthi, Sooryanarayana Varambally
Genomics data from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) project has led to the comprehensive molecular characterization of multiple cancer types. The large sample numbers in TCGA offer an excellent opportunity to address questions associated with tumo heterogeneity. Exploration of the data by cancer researchers and clinicians is imperative to unearth novel therapeutic/diagnostic biomarkers. Various computational tools have been developed to aid researchers in carrying out specific TCGA data analyses; however there is need for resources to facilitate the study of gene expression variations and survival associations across tumors...
July 18, 2017: Neoplasia: An International Journal for Oncology Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731820/uncommon-neoplasms-of-the-biliary-tract-radiological-findings
#3
Vincenza Granata, Roberta Fusco, Orlando Catalano, Salvatore Filice, Antonio Avallone, Mauro Piccirillo, Maddalena Leongito, Raffaele Palaia, Roberto Grassi, Francesco Izzo, Antonella Petrillo
OBJECTIVES: To report our cancer center experience in the biliary tumors incidence other than cholangiocellular-carcinoma (CCC), emphasizing the radiological features. METHODS: 197 patients with biliary disease undergoing Gd-EOB-DTPA-enhanced MRI were reviewed. Four radiologists evaluated retrospectively size, structure, anatomical site, and signal intensity of lesions on MRI. Enhancement-pattern during the arterial-, portal-, and late-phase on US, CT and MR study was assessed as well as the enhancement pattern during the hepatobiliary-phase on MRI...
July 21, 2017: British Journal of Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731408/defining-the-biological-basis-of-radiomic-phenotypes-in-lung-cancer
#4
Patrick Grossmann, Olya Stringfield, Nehme El-Hachem, Marilyn M Bui, Emmanuel Rios Velazquez, Chintan Parmar, Ralph Th Leijenaar, Benjamin Haibe-Kains, Philippe Lambin, Robert Gillies, Hugo Jwl Aerts
Medical imaging can visualize characteristics of human cancer noninvasively. Radiomics is an emerging field that translates these medical images into quantitative data to enable phenotypic profiling of tumors. While radiomics has been associated with several clinical endpoints, the complex relationships of radiomics, clinical factors, and tumor biology are largely unknown. To this end, we analyzed two independent cohorts of respectively 262 North American and 89 European patients with lung cancer, and consistently identified previously undescribed associations between radiomic imaging features, molecular pathways, and clinical factors...
July 21, 2017: ELife
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28731042/molecular-alterations-of-coexisting-thyroid-papillary-carcinoma-and-anaplastic-carcinoma-identification-of-tert-mutation-as-an-independent-risk-factor-for-transformation
#5
Naoki Oishi, Tetsuo Kondo, Aya Ebina, Yukiko Sato, Junko Akaishi, Rumi Hino, Noriko Yamamoto, Kunio Mochizuki, Tadao Nakazawa, Hiroshi Yokomichi, Koichi Ito, Yuichi Ishikawa, Ryohei Katoh
Thyroid papillary carcinoma is the most common endocrine neoplasm and generally carries a favorable prognosis. However, a small subset of papillary carcinomas transforms into anaplastic carcinoma, an undifferentiated cancer with a dismal prognosis. Recent studies using next-generation sequencing revealed the genomic landscape of papillary carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma. However, risk factors for anaplastic transformation in papillary carcinoma remain obscure. In the present study, we investigated molecular alterations of papillary carcinoma and anaplastic carcinoma components in 27 tumors in which anaplastic carcinoma coexisted with antecedent papillary carcinoma...
July 21, 2017: Modern Pathology: An Official Journal of the United States and Canadian Academy of Pathology, Inc
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730960/protein-kinases-as-tumor-biomarkers-and-therapeutic-targets
#6
Chuntao Quan, Juanjuan Xiao, Lin Liu, Qiuhong Duan, Ping Yuan, Feng Zhu
Over the last three decades, neoplasms have become the largest cause of human mortality due to both high tumor incidence and mortality. Chemotherapy is one of the main therapies employed to treat neoplasms. Although classical genotoxic drugs, such as cyclophosphamide, 5-FU, cisplatin and doxorubicin have been applied in clinical settings and have achieved very good treatment efficacy, many cancer patients died of tumor metastasis, drug toxicity or drug resistance due to tumor heterogeneity. Targeted molecular treatments based on the genes, receptors, and kinases expressed by a tumor make individualized treatment possible...
July 20, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730323/the-pathogenesis-diagnosis-and-management-of-metastatic-tumors-to-the-ovary-a-comprehensive-review
#7
REVIEW
Ondřej Kubeček, Jan Laco, Jiří Špaček, Jiří Petera, Jindřich Kopecký, Alena Kubečková, Stanislav Filip
Secondary tumors of the ovary account for 10-25% of all ovarian malignancies. The most common tumors that give rise to ovarian metastases include breast, colorectal, endometrial, stomach, and appendix cancer. The correct diagnosis of secondary ovarian tumors may be challenging as they are not infrequently misdiagnosed as primary ovarian cancer, particularly in the case of mucinous adenocarcinomas. The distinction from the latter is essential, as it requires different treatment. Immunohistochemistry plays an important role in distinguishing primary ovarian tumors from extra-ovarian metastases and, furthermore, may suggest the primary tumor site...
July 20, 2017: Clinical & Experimental Metastasis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28730141/extracellular-vesicles-as-modulators-of-tumor-microenvironment-and-disease-progression-in-glioma
#8
REVIEW
Abir Mondal, Divya Kumari Singh, Suchismita Panda, Anjali Shiras
Diffuse gliomas are lethal tumors of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by infiltrative growth, aggressive nature, and therapeutic resistance. The recent 2016 WHO classification for CNS tumors categorizes diffuse glioma into two major types that include IDH wild-type glioblastoma, which is the predominant type and IDH-mutant glioblastoma, which is less common and displays better prognosis. Recent studies suggest presence of a distinct cell population with stem cell features termed as glioma stem cells (GSCs) to be causal in driving tumor growth in glioblastoma...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729958/mutational-analysis-of-driver-genes-with-tumor-suppressive-and-oncogenic-roles-in-gastric-cancer
#9
Tianfang Wang, Yining Liu, Min Zhao
Gastric cancer (GC) is a complex disease with heterogeneous genetic mechanisms. Genomic mutational profiling of gastric cancer not only expands our knowledge about cancer progression at a fundamental genetic level, but also could provide guidance on new treatment decisions, currently based on tumor histology. The fact that precise medicine-based treatment is successful in a subset of tumors indicates the need for better identification of clinically related molecular tumor phenotypes, especially with regard to those driver mutations on tumor suppressor genes (TSGs) and oncogenes (ONGs)...
2017: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729728/landscape-of-somatic-mutations-in-different-subtypes-of-advanced-breast-cancer-with-circulating-tumor-dna-analysis
#10
Zongbi Yi, Fei Ma, Chunxiao Li, Rongrong Chen, Lifang Yuan, Xiaoying Sun, Xiuwen Guan, Lixi Li, Binliang Liu, Yanfang Guan, Haili Qian, Binghe Xu
It is particularly important to provide precise therapies and understand tumor heterogeneity based on the molecular typing of mutational landscape. However, the landscape of somatic mutations in different subtypes of advanced breast cancer (ABC) is largely unknown. We applied target-region capture deep sequencing to determine the frequency and spectrum of common cancer-related gene mutations in circulating tumor DNA (ctDNA) among different ABC subtypes and analyze their association with clinical features. In this retrospective study of 100 female advanced breast cancer patients, 96 (96...
July 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728846/the-effects-of-type-i-interferon-on-glioblastoma-cancer-stem-cells
#11
Ziyun Du, Chun Cai, Michelle Sims, Frederick A Boop, Andrew M Davidoff, Lawrence M Pfeffer
Glioblastomas (GBMs) are highly invasive brain tumors that are extremely deadly. The highly aggressive nature of GBM as well as its heterogeneity at the molecular and cellular levels has been attributed to a rare subpopulation of GBM stem-like cells (GSCs). Interferons (IFNs) are a family of endogenous antiviral proteins that have anticancer activity in vitro, and have been used clinically to treat GBM. IFN inhibits the proliferation of various established GBM cell lines, but the effects of IFNs on GSCs remain relatively unknown...
July 17, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728794/myeloid-suppressor-cells-in-cancer-and-autoimmunity
#12
REVIEW
Antonio Sica, Marco Massarotti
A bottleneck for immunotherapy of cancer is the immunosuppressive microenvironment in which the tumor cells proliferate. Cancers harness the immune regulatory mechanism that prevents autoimmunity from evading immunosurveillance and promoting immune destruction. Regulatory T cells, myeloid suppressor cells, inhibitory cytokines and immune checkpoint receptors are the major components of the immune system acting in concert with cancer cells and causing the subversion of anti-tumor immunity. This redundant immunosuppressive network poses an impediment to efficacious immunotherapy by facilitating tumor progression...
July 17, 2017: Journal of Autoimmunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728298/-the-prognostic-analysis-of-hepatocellular-carcinoma-based-on-the-tumor-neo-vessels-macrophages-and-%C3%AE-sma-in-tumor-microenvironment
#13
M Fang, J P Yuan, L L Liu, G P Cheng, H J Ying, Y M Chen, M Chen
Objective: To analyze the quantitative expression and prognostic significance of tumor neo-vessels, macrophages and fibroblasts in tumor microenvironment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Methods: The clinic-pathological features and tissue samples for 101 HCC cases were collected. Immunohistochemistry was used to stain the tumor neo-vessels, macrophages and fibroblasts on tumor tissue. The distribution results and quantitative data of above key components were acquired by inverted microscopy equipped with CRi Nuance multispectral analysis system...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728296/-intramural-gastric-metastasis-of-esophageal-squamous-cell-carcinoma-an-analysis-of-imaging-findings-and-clinicopathological-features
#14
Y J Zhu, L Y Xue, Y Li, J Jiang, T T Liu, L M Jiang
Objective: To discuss the imaging findings and clinicopathological features of the intramural gastric metastasis (IGM) of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma. Methods: The imaging findings of 11 patients with IGM confirmed by surgical pathology were reviewed retrospectively, and compared with clinicopathological features. Of the 11 cases, eight underwent upper gastrointestinal radiography, ten underwent contrast enhanced computed tomography (CT) scans and one underwent plain CT scanning. Results: In all 11 cases, the primary cancer was located in the middle or lower thoracic esophagus, and nine of 11 had lymph nodes metastasis...
July 23, 2017: Zhonghua Zhong Liu za Zhi [Chinese Journal of Oncology]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28728148/the-role-of-cytotoxic-chemotherapy-in-advanced-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors
#15
Sebastian Krug, Thomas M Gress, Patrick Michl, Anja Rinke
BACKGROUND: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are rare neoplasms accounting for less than 5% of all pancreatic malignancies. These tumors are characterized by clinical and prognostical heterogeneity and are predominantly diagnosed in a metastatic stage. Cytotoxic chemotherapy, along with alkylating agents and antimetabolites as well as molecular targeted agents (everolimus, sunitinib), is used in the treatment of advanced PNETs. After the approval of lanreotide for unresectable PNETs, an additional therapeutic option has become available; however, the best sequence of therapies and patient stratification to different treatments remains challenging...
July 21, 2017: Digestion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727248/vascular-anomaly-cases-for-the-pediatric-hematologist-oncologists-an-interdisciplinary-review
#16
REVIEW
Denise M Adams, Leonardo R Brandão, Caitlin M Peterman, Anita Gupta, Manish Patel, Steven Fishman, Cameron C Trenor
Vascular anomalies (VAs) are classified as tumors or malformations depending on their clinical characteristics, pathological diagnosis, and genomic information. Diagnosis can be challenging because of the heterogeneity of clinical presentation; thus, the best diagnosis and care are provided by an interdisciplinary team of specialists. Over the past 10 years, an increasing number of pediatric hematologist/oncologists are caring for patients with VAs secondary to new medical therapy options and clinical trials...
July 20, 2017: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727185/automation-of-pattern-recognition-analysis-of-dynamic-contrast-enhanced-mri-data-to-characterize-intratumoral-vascular-heterogeneity
#17
SoHyun Han, Radka Stoyanova, Hansol Lee, Sean D Carlin, Jason A Koutcher, HyungJoon Cho, Ellen Ackerstaff
PURPOSE: To automate dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI (DCE-MRI) data analysis by unsupervised pattern recognition (PR) to enable spatial mapping of intratumoral vascular heterogeneity. METHODS: Three steps were automated. First, the arrival time of the contrast agent at the tumor was determined, including a calculation of the precontrast signal. Second, four criteria-based algorithms for the slice-specific selection of number of patterns (NP) were validated using 109 tumor slices from subcutaneous flank tumors of five different tumor models...
July 20, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727142/genomic-and-transcriptomic-heterogeneity-of-colorectal-tumors-arising-in-lynch-syndrome
#18
Hans Binder, Lydia Hopp, Michal R Schweiger, Steve Hoffmann, Frank Jühling, Martin Kerick, Bernd Timmermann, Susann Siebert, Christina Grimm, Lilit Nersisyan, Arsen Arakelyan, Maria Herberg, Peter Buske, Henry Loeffler-Wirth, Maciej Rosolowski, Christoph Engel, Jens Przybilla, Martin Peifer, Nicolaus Friedrichs, Gabriela Moeslein, Margarete Odenthal, Michelle Hussong, Sophia Peters, Stefanie Holzapfel, Jacob Nattermann, Robert Hueneburg, Wolff Schmiegel, Brigitte Royer-Pokora, Stefan Aretz, Michael Kloth, Matthias Kloor, Reinhard Buettner, Jörg Galle, Markus Loeffler
Colorectal cancer (CRC) arising in Lynch Syndrome (LS) comprises tumors with constitutional mutations in DNA mismatch-repair genes. Whole-genome and transcriptome studies of LS-CRC are still missing to address questions about similarities and differences of mutation and gene expression characteristics between LS-CRC and sporadic CRC, about the molecular heterogeneity of LS-CRC and about specific mechanisms of LS-CRC genesis linked to dysfunctional mismatch-repair in LS colonic mucosa and the possible role of immune editing...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726278/color-doppler-sonography-of-merkel-cell-carcinoma
#19
Orlando Catalano, Fernando Alfageme Roldán, Maria Scotto di Santolo, Francesco Maria Solivetti, Ximena Wortsman
We illustrate the color Doppler sonographic findings in primary cutaneous Merkel cell carcinoma. Eight cases (4 female and 4 male; mean age, 75.4 years) were collected. The most common affected regions were the face (63%) and the hip/buttock (25%). The mean transverse diameter and thickness were 21 and 14 mm, respectively. Fifty percent were oval, and 50% were dome shaped. All lesions were hypoechoic, with variable degrees of heterogeneity. All but 2 lesions were poorly defined. An acoustic reinforcement artifact was present in 3 and epidermal thickening in 2...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Ultrasound in Medicine: Official Journal of the American Institute of Ultrasound in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726181/ki-67-heterogeneity-in-well-differentiated-gastro-entero-pancreatic-neuroendocrine-tumors-when-is-biopsy-reliable-for-grade-assessment
#20
Grillo Federica, Valle Luca, Ferone Diego, Albertelli Manuela, Brisigotti Maria Pia, Cittadini Giuseppe, Vanoli Alessandro, Fiocca Roberto, Mastracci Luca
PURPOSE: Ki-67 heterogeneity can impact on gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumor grade assignment, especially when tissue is scarce. This work is aimed at devising adequacy criteria for grade assessment in biopsy specimens. METHOD: To analyze the impact of biopsy size on reliability, 360 virtual biopsies of different thickness and lengths were constructed. Furthermore, to estimate the mean amount of non-neoplastic tissue component present in biopsies, 28 real biopsies were collected, the non-neoplastic components (fibrosis and inflammation) quantified and the effective area of neoplastic tissue calculated for each biopsy...
July 19, 2017: Endocrine
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