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Tumor heterogeneity

Zhi-Cheng Lai, Jin-Yu Liang, Li-Da Chen, Zhu Wang, Si-Min Ruan, Xiao-Yan Xie, Ming-De Lu, Hang-Tong Hu, Wei Wang
AIMS: To determine if tumors located in the subcapsular space or in proximity to vessels would be a risk factor of local tumor progression (LTP2 ) in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC) after radiofrequency ablation. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A search of the MEDLINE, EMBASE and Cochrane Library databases from 1998 to 2017 was performed to identify studies examining the risk factors of LTP after radiofrequency ablation (RFA3 ) in HCC. No language or other restrictions were imposed...
June 17, 2018: Life Sciences
Jae Won Park, Dong Hoon Koh, Won Sik Jang, Joo Yong Lee, Kang Su Cho, Won Sik Ham, Koon Ho Rha, Woo Hee Jung, Sung Joon Hong, Young Deuk Choi
PURPOSE: Prostate cancer (PC) is a devastating and heterogeneous condition with diverse treatment options. When selecting treatments for patients with very high-risk PC, clinicians must consider patient comorbidities. We investigated the efficacy of the age-adjusted Charlson Comorbidity Index (ACCI) as a prognostic factor for patient outcomes after radical prostatectomy (RP). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We retrospectively investigated the medical records of PC patients at our institution who underwent RP from 1992 to 2010...
2018: PloS One
Julia Velz, Abbas Agaimy, Karl Frontzek, Marian Christoph Neidert, Oliver Bozinov, Ulrich Wagner, Christine Fritz, Roland Coras, Silvia Hofer, Beata Bode-Lesniewska, Elisabeth Rushing
Primary intracranial neoplasms with features of extraskeletal myxoid chondrosarcomas (EMC) are extremely rare and poorly characterized tumors with only ∼12 cases described, the majority lacking molecular confirmation. There is an urgent need for the integration of molecular studies for correct subclassification of these tumors in order to predict clinical behavior, guide therapeutic decision-making, and provide novel targets for therapy. Clinical and pathologic data of 3 intracranial EMC-like myxoid neoplasms were retrospectively reviewed...
June 18, 2018: Journal of Neuropathology and Experimental Neurology
Jianguo Zhu, Yun Luan, Haige Li
RATIONALE: Testicular Leydig cell tumor (LCT) is a rare neoplasm. It commonly presents as a painless testicular mass with or without endocrine changes. Histological and immunohistochemical examination play important roles in differentiating LCT from testicular germ cell tumors. PATIENT CONCERNS: We highlight the imaging phenotype, as well as the pathological findings of a case of LCT in a 62-year-old male. DIAGNOSES: Preoperative noncontrast CT scan of the abdomen revealed a 7...
June 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Leyla Kermanshah, Mahla Poudineh, Sharif Ahmed, L N Matthew Nguyen, Sanjana Srikant, Rhema Makonnen, Fernando Pena Cantu, Michael Corrigan, Shana O Kelley
Tumors can shed thousands of cells into the circulation daily. These circulating tumor cells (CTCs) are heterogeneous, and their phenotypes change dynamically. Real-time monitoring of CTC phenotypes is crucial to elucidate the role of CTCs in the metastatic cascade. Here, we monitor phenotypic changes in CTCs in mice xenografted with tumors with varying aggressiveness during cancer progression and a course of chemotherapy to study the metastatic potential of CTCs and changes in the properties of these cells in response to treatment...
June 20, 2018: Lab on a Chip
Takahiro Yamauchi, Makoto Ohno, Yuko Matsushita, Masamichi Takahashi, Yasuji Miyakita, Yosuke Kitagawa, Erika Kondo, Natsuko Tsushita, Kaishi Satomi, Akihiko Yoshida, Koichi Ichimura, Yoshitaka Narita
The radiological features of lower-grade gliomas (LGGs) classified according to isocitrate dehydrogenase (IDH) mutations and codeletion of chromosomal arms 1p and 19q (1p/19q codeletion) remain unclear. We aimed to systematically characterize the radiological features of molecularly classified LGGs using IDH and 1p/19q codeletion statuses. One hundred and one LGGs were re-classified into 36 tumors with IDH mutations (IDH-Mut), 35 tumors with IDH-Mut and 1p/19q codeletion (IDH-Mut/Codel), and 30 tumors with wildtype IDH (IDH-Wt)...
June 19, 2018: Brain Tumor Pathology
Xianzheng Tan, Zelan Ma, Lifen Yan, Weitao Ye, Zaiyi Liu, Changhong Liang
OBJECTIVES: To determine the value of radiomics in predicting lymph node (LN) metastasis in resectable esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC) patients. METHODS: Data of 230 consecutive patients were retrospectively analyzed (154 in the training set and 76 in the test set). A total of 1576 radiomics features were extracted from arterial-phase CT images of the whole primary tumor. LASSO logistic regression was performed to choose the key features and construct a radiomics signature...
June 19, 2018: European Radiology
Vusala Snyder, Tamika C Reed-Newman, Levi Arnold, Sufi Mary Thomas, Shrikant Anant
Malignant tumors contain heterogeneous populations of cells in various states of proliferation and differentiation. The presence of cancer stem or initiating cells is a well-established concept wherein quiescent and poorly differentiated cells within a tumor mass contribute to drug resistance, and under permissive conditions, are responsible for tumor recurrence and metastasis. A number of studies have identified molecular markers that are characteristic of tissue-specific cancer stem cells (CSCs). Isolation of CSCs has enabled studies on the metabolic status of CSCs...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
Chang-Liang Luo, Zhi-Gao Xu, Hao Chen, Jia Ji, Yu-Hui Wang, Wei Hu, Kun Wang, Wu-Wen Zhang, Chun-Hui Yuan, Fu-Bing Wang
Background: Tissue biopsy-based cancer diagnosis has limitations because of the fact that tumor tissues are in constant evolution and extremely heterogeneous. The current study was aimed to examine whether tumor-educated blood platelets (TEPs) might be a potential all-in-one source for blood-based cancer diagnostics to overcome the limitations of conventional cancer biopsy. Methods: In the present study, we evaluated the expression pattern of MAGI2 antisense RNA 3 ( MAGI2-AS3 ) and ZNFX1 antisense RNA 1 ( ZFAS1 ) in both plasma and platelets of 101 non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) patients...
2018: Cancer Management and Research
Suvi Luoto, Ismaïl Hermelo, Elisa M Vuorinen, Paavo Hannus, Juha Kesseli, Matti Nykter, Kirsi J Granberg
The immunosuppressive microenvironment in glioblastoma (GBM) prevents an efficient antitumoral immune response and enables tumor formation and growth. Although an understanding of the nature of immunosuppression is still largely lacking, it is important for successful cancer treatment through immune system modulation. To gain insight into immunosuppression in GBM, we performed a computational analysis to model relative immune cell content and type of immune response in each GBM tumor sample from The Cancer Genome Atlas RNA-seq dataset...
June 19, 2018: Cancer Research
Na Li, Xiaohan Zhan, Xianquan Zhan
BACKGROUND: Malignant tumors are heterogeneous diseases characterized by different metabolic phenotypes. These were revealed by Warburg effect and reverse Warburg effect phenotypes. However, the molecular mechanism remains largely unknown. METHODS: Isobaric tag for relative and absolute quantification (iTRAQ) proteomics was used to identify mitochondrial differentially expressed proteins (DEPs) of ovarian cancers relative to controls, followed by bioinformatic analysis...
June 16, 2018: Gynecologic Oncology
Fangying Xu, Si Li, Jing Zhang, Lili Wang, Xuesong Wu, Jing Wang, Qiong Huang, Maode Lai
BACKGROUND: Tumor tissues consist of heterogeneous cancer cells and stroma cells, including cancer stem cells and immune cells. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) programs closely associate with acquisition of stemness. We investigated for the first time the clinical significance of combining cancer stem cells, immune cells, and EMT traits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 419 colorectal carcinomas, stem-cell markers (Nanog, Lgr5, CD44v6, ALDH1A1), EMT markers (E-cadherin, Snail), and immune-cell markers (CD3+ , CD4+ or CD8+ T lymphocytes, CD20+ B lymphocytes, CD68+ macrophages) were detected in tumor center (TC) and tumor invasive front by an immunohistochemical method...
May 26, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Bao-Ping Wang, Lei-Lei Yang, Hao Wang, Qing He, Zhong-Shu Ma, Yi Lin, Chang-Xin Jiang, Hao-Ran Sun, Ming Liu
BACKGROUND: Pheochromocytoma, especially for noncatecholamine-secreting pheochromocytoma, is an extremely rare cause of ectopic corticotrophin-releasing hormone (CRH) syndrome. CASE PRESENTATION: A 27-year-old Chinese woman was administered dexamethasone for a skin allergy, but her general condition rapidly deteriorated over a month. She was subsequently hospitalized for typical clinical features of Cushing's syndrome. Endocrinological investigation confirmed severe hypercortisolism along with elevated plasma adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH)...
June 19, 2018: BMC Endocrine Disorders
Yih-Shien Chiang, Yu-Feng Huang, Mohit K Midha, Tzu-Han Chen, Hsin-Chieh Shiau, Kuo-Ping Chiu
Single cell transcriptome (SCT) analysis provides superior resolution to illustrate tumor cell heterogeneity for clinical implications. We characterized four SCTs of MCF-7 using 143 housekeeping genes (HKGs) as control, of which lactate dehydrogenase B (LDHB) expression is silenced. These SCT libraries mapped to 11,423, 11,486, 10,380, and 11,306 RefSeq genes (UCSC), respectively. High consistency in HKG expression levels across all four SCTs, along with transcriptional silencing of LDHB, was observed, suggesting a high sensitivity and reproducibility of the SCT analysis...
2018: PloS One
M C Vlot, M den Heijer, R T de Jongh, M G Vervloet, W F Lems, R de Jonge, B Obermayer-Pietsch, A C Heijboer
Measurements of bone markers (BMs) in peripheral blood or urine are a pivotal part of bone research within modern clinical medicine. In recent years the use of BMs increased substantially as they can be useful either to diagnose bone (related) disease and to follow its natural history, but also to monitor the effects of interventions. However, the use of BMs is still complicated mainly due to (pre)analytical variability of these substances, limited accessibility of assays, variable cut-off values in different countries and laboratories and heterogeneous results with regard to clinical implications of measuring BMs in several studies...
June 16, 2018: Bone
Lanlin Zhang, Yuan Qi, Kailin Xing, Song Qian, Ping Zhang, Xianghua Wu
The discovery of epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)‑sensitive mutations in non‑small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and the successful clinical application of EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) have changed the regimen of lung cancer therapy from traditional cytotoxic chemotherapy to molecular‑targeted cancer therapy. However, the main limitation of EGFR‑TKI therapy is the heterogeneity of lung cancer harboring EGFR‑sensitive mutations. In addition, the synergistic effect of the administration of chemotherapy and EGFR‑TKIs, combined with tumor heterogeneity, on NSCLC remains unclear...
June 18, 2018: Oncology Reports
L de la Cruz-Merino, N Palazón-Carrión, F Henao-Carrasco, E Nogales-Fernández, M Álamo-de la Gala, A Vallejo-Benítez, M Chiesa, V Sánchez-Margalet
Immunology and immunotherapy of cancer is an expanding field in oncology, with recent great achievements obtained through the new successful approaches implemented to circumvent immune evasion, which is undoubtedly considered a novel hallmark of cancer. Translational research in this topic has revealed targets that can be modulated in the clinical setting with new compounds and strategies. Like most of the tumors, breast cancer is considered a complex and heterogeneous disease in which host immune responses have been also recently demonstrated of critical relevance...
June 18, 2018: Clinical & Translational Oncology
Jose G Bazan, Lonika Majithia, Allison M Quick, Jessica L Wobb, Alicia M Terando, Doreen M Agnese, William Farrar, Julia R White
PURPOSE: A meta-analysis of 22 randomized trials accrued from 1964 to 1986 demonstrated significantly higher rates of locoregional failure (LRF) and breast-cancer mortality in women with 1-3 positive nodes without postmastectomy radiotherapy (PMRT) after mastectomy (mast.). Recent data demonstrate that PMRT reduces distant metastases (DM) in women with pN1 disease. The challenge today is whether all patients with pathologic T1-2pN1 disease have similar substantial LRF/DM risk that routinely warrants PMRT...
June 18, 2018: Annals of Surgical Oncology
Ahmad Chaddad, Siham Sabri, Tamim Niazi, Bassam Abdulkarim
We propose a multiscale texture features based on Laplacian-of Gaussian (LoG) filter to predict progression free (PFS) and overall survival (OS) in patients newly diagnosed with glioblastoma (GBM). Experiments use the extracted features derived from 40 patients of GBM with T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI) and Fluid-attenuated inversion recovery (FLAIR) images that were segmented manually into areas of active tumor, necrosis, and edema. Multiscale texture features were extracted locally from each of these areas of interest using a LoG filter and the relation between features to OS and PFS was investigated using univariate (i...
June 19, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Kazuyasu Fujii
Primary cutaneous lymphomas comprise a group of lymphatic malignancies that occur primarily in the skin. They represent the second most common form of extranodal non-Hodgkin's lymphoma and are characterized by heterogeneous clinical, histological, immunological, and molecular features. The most common type is mycosis fungoides and its leukemic variant, Sézary syndrome. Both diseases are considered T-helper cell type 2 (Th2) diseases. Not only the tumor cells but also the tumor microenvironment can promote Th2 differentiation, which is beneficial for the tumor cells because a Th1 environment enhances antitumor immune responses...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
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