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Tumor heterogeneity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456966/metabolic-profile-of-oral-squamous-carcinoma-cell-lines-relies-on-a-higher-demand-of-lipid-metabolism-in-metastatic-cells
#1
Ana Carolina B Sant'Anna-Silva, Gilson C Santos, Samir P Costa Campos, André Marco Oliveira Gomes, Juan Alberto Pérez-Valencia, Franklin David Rumjanek
Tumor cells are subjected to a broad range of selective pressures. As a result of the imposed stress, subpopulations of surviving cells exhibit individual biochemical phenotypes that reflect metabolic reprograming. The present work aimed at investigating metabolic parameters of cells displaying increasing degrees of metastatic potential. The metabolites present in cell extracts fraction of tongue fibroblasts and of cell lines derived from human tongue squamous cell carcinoma lineages displaying increasing metastatic potential (SCC9 ZsG, LN1 and LN2) were analyzed by1 H NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance) spectroscopy...
2018: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456769/a-case-of-schwannoma-of-the-submandibular-region
#2
Babatunde O Bamgbose, Akiko Sato, Yoshinobu Yanagi, Miki Hisatomi, Yohei Takeshita, Irfan Sugianto, Junichi Asaumi
Background: We herein described a rare case of schwannoma of the hypoglossal nerve in the submandibular region with diagnostic imaging and histopathological findings. Case Report: A 31-years-old woman has had a palpable firm, rubbery, freely mobile mass in the submandibular region. Of imaging, MR images showed homogeneous isointensity on T1-weighted imaging (T1-WI), heterogeneous hypointensity on T2-WI, heterogeneous hyperintensity on short T1 inversion recovery (STIR), and heterogeneous enhancement on contrast-enhanced T1-WI...
2018: Open Dentistry Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456737/distinctive-profiles-of-tumor-infiltrating-immune-cells-and-association-with-intensity-of-infiltration-in-colorectal-cancer
#3
Yugang Wu, Lei Yuan, Qicheng Lu, Haiyan Xu, Xiaozhou He
Tumor-infiltrating immune cells are heterogeneous and consist of characteristic compartments, including T helper (Th)1 and regulatory T (Treg) cells that exhibit distinctive biological functions. The present study investigated the profile of infiltrating immune cells from surgically removed tumor tissues from patients with colorectal cancer. The characteristic transcription factors of Th1 and Th2 cells, Treg cells, Th17 cells and T follicular helper (Tfh) cells were analyzed. The results demonstrated that a marked increased number of Treg cells presented in tumor infiltrates when compared with non-tumor adjacent tissues...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456718/molecular-challenges-of-neuroendocrine-tumors
#4
Parthik Patel, Karina Galoian
Neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) are a very heterogeneous group that are thought to originate from the cells of the endocrine and nervous systems. These tumors develop in a number of organs, predominantly in the gastrointestinal and pulmonary systems. Clinical detection and diagnosis are reliable at the late stages when metastatic spread has occurred. However, traditional conventional therapies such as radiation and chemotherapy are not effective. In the majority of cases even surgical resection at that stage is unlikely to produce promising reusults...
March 2018: Oncology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456550/genomic-analysis-revealed-new-oncogenic-signatures-in-tp53-mutant-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#5
Venkatesh Kancherla, Samir Abdullazade, Matthias S Matter, Manuela Lanzafame, Luca Quagliata, Guglielmo Roma, Yujin Hoshida, Luigi M Terracciano, Charlotte K Y Ng, Salvatore Piscuoglio
The TP53 gene is the most commonly mutated gene in human cancers and mutations in TP53 have been shown to have either gain-of-function or loss-of-function effects. Using the data generated by The Cancer Genome Atlas, we sought to define the spectrum of TP53 mutations in hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs) and their association with clinicopathologic features, and to determine the oncogenic and mutational signatures in TP53 -mutant HCCs. Compared to other cancer types, HCCs harbored distinctive mutation hotspots at V157 and R249, whereas common mutation hotspots in other cancer types, R175 and R273, were extremely rare in HCCs...
2018: Frontiers in Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456536/janus-faced-myeloid-derived-suppressor-cell-exosomes-for-the-good-and-the-bad-in-cancer-and-autoimmune-disease
#6
REVIEW
Margot Zöller
Myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) are a heterogeneous population of immature myeloid cells originally described to hamper immune responses in chronic infections. Meanwhile, they are known to be a major obstacle in cancer immunotherapy. On the other hand, MDSC can interfere with allogeneic transplant rejection and may dampen autoreactive T cell activity. Whether MDSC-Exosomes (Exo) can cope with the dangerous and potentially therapeutic activities of MDSC is not yet fully explored. After introducing MDSC and Exo, it will be discussed, whether a blockade of MDSC-Exo could foster the efficacy of immunotherapy in cancer and mitigate tumor progression supporting activities of MDSC...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456390/evaluation-of-clinical-and-magnetic-resonance-imaging-profile-of-pituitary-macroadenoma-a-prospective-study
#7
Kamini Gupta, Shivam Sahni, Kavita Saggar, Gaurav Vashisht
Background: Pituitary macroadenoma is a common tumor of middle-aged people. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is the investigation of choice for its evaluation. Various parameters regarding the extent, consistency, and contrast uptake can be studied and a noninvasive diagnosis is possible. Aims and Objectives: To study the MRI features and extent of pituitary macroadenomas. Materials and Methods: We studied clinical and MRI features of 33 patients of all age groups and both sexes with pituitary macroadenomas who presented to Dayanand Medical College and Hospital, Ludhiana from January 2014 to June 2015...
January 2018: Journal of Natural Science, Biology, and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29456131/high-expression-of-cc-chemokine-receptor-5-ccr5-promotes-disease-progression-in-patients-with-b-cell-non-hodgkin-lymphomas
#8
Aleksandra Butrym, Ilona Kryczek, Dorota Dlubek, Emilia Jaskula, Andrzej Lange, Artur Jurczyszyn, Grzegorz Mazur
Chemokines are small proteins, that regulate cell migration in many physiological and pathologic processes in human body. They are also responsible for cancer progression. CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) is responsible for cell recruitment in inflammation and may be involved in antitumor immune response controlling. Aberrant CCR5 can be found in different kind of cancers, not only hematological, but also solid tumors. Non-Hodgkin lymphomas consist of many lymphoma subtypes. They predominantly derive from B cells and can have very heterogenous clinical course...
January 10, 2018: Current Problems in Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455927/fibroblast-heterogeneity-and-immunosuppressive-environment-in-human-breast-cancer
#9
Ana Costa, Yann Kieffer, Alix Scholer-Dahirel, Floriane Pelon, Brigitte Bourachot, Melissa Cardon, Philemon Sirven, Ilaria Magagna, Laetitia Fuhrmann, Charles Bernard, Claire Bonneau, Maria Kondratova, Inna Kuperstein, Andrei Zinovyev, Anne-Marie Givel, Maria-Carla Parrini, Vassili Soumelis, Anne Vincent-Salomon, Fatima Mechta-Grigoriou
Carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAF) are key players in the tumor microenvironment. Here, we characterize four CAF subsets in breast cancer with distinct properties and levels of activation. Two myofibroblastic subsets (CAF-S1, CAF-S4) accumulate differentially in triple-negative breast cancers (TNBC). CAF-S1 fibroblasts promote an immunosuppressive environment through a multi-step mechanism. By secreting CXCL12, CAF-S1 attracts CD4+ CD25+ T lymphocytes and retains them by OX40L, PD-L2, and JAM2. Moreover, CAF-S1 increases T lymphocyte survival and promotes their differentiation into CD25High FOXP3High , through B7H3, CD73, and DPP4...
February 12, 2018: Cancer Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455872/-pd-l1-expression-and-pd-1-pd-l1-inhibitors-in-breast-cancer
#10
REVIEW
Audrey Monneur, Anthony Gonçalves, François Bertucci
The development of immune checkpoints inhibitors represents one of the major recent advances in oncology. Monoclonal antibodies directed against the programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) or its ligand (PD-L1) provides durable disease control, particularly in melanoma, lung, kidney, bladder and head and neck cancers. The purpose of this review is to synthesize current data on the expression of PD-L1 in breast cancer and on the preliminary clinical results of PD-1/PD-L1 inhibitors in breast cancer patients. In breast cancer, PD-L1 expression is heterogeneous and is generally associated with the presence of tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes as well as the presence of poor-prognosis factors, such as young age, high grade, ER-negativity, PR-negativity, and HER-2 overexpression, high proliferative index, and aggressive molecular subtypes (triple negative, basal-like, HER-2-overexpressing)...
February 15, 2018: Bulletin du Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29455649/molecular-subtyping-of-nasopharyngeal-carcinoma-npc-and-a-microrna-based-prognostic-model-for-distant-metastasis
#11
Lan Zhao, Alvin H W Fong, Na Liu, William C S Cho
BACKGROUND: Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is a highly invasive and metastatic cancer, with diverse molecular characteristics and clinical outcomes. This study aims to dissect the molecular heterogeneity of NPC, followed by the construction of a microRNA (miRNA)-based prognostic model for prediction of distant metastasis. METHODS: We retrieved two NPC datasets: GSE32960 and GSE70970 as training and validation cohorts, respectively. Consensus clustering was employed for cluster discovery, and support vector machine was used to build a classifier...
February 19, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454759/chromosomal-numerical-aberration-pattern-in-papillary-renal-cell-carcinoma-review-article
#12
REVIEW
Tomas Pitra, Kristyna Pivovarcikova, Reza Alaghehbandan, Ondrej Hes
Traditionally, papillary renal cell carcinomas (PRCCs) have been divided in two subgroups - type 1 and type 2. Based on recent molecular and genetic developments in the understanding of RCCs, it seems that this traditional classification may not be adequate and that the spectrum of PRCCs is much wider than initially proposed. Small series of distinct types of PRCC which do not fit into the above mentioned categories have been described in the literature. Published studies investigating molecular genetic changes in various types of PRCCs have shown that the molecular genetic features are remarkably heterogeneous across the whole spectrum of PRCCs...
November 8, 2017: Annals of Diagnostic Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454742/tumor-target-amplification-implications-for-nano-drug-delivery-systems
#13
REVIEW
Khaled Seidi, Heidi A Neubauer, Richard Moriggl, Rana Jahanban-Esfahlan, Tahereh Javaheri
Tumor cells overexpress surface markers which are absent from normal cells. These tumor-restricted antigenic signatures are a fundamental basis for distinguishing on-target from off-target cells for ligand-directed targeting of cancer cells. Unfortunately, tumor heterogeneity impedes the establishment of a solid expression pattern for a given target marker, leading to drastic changes in quality (availability) and quantity (number) of the target. Consequently, a subset of cancer cells remains untargeted during the course of treatment, which subsequently promotes drug-resistance and cancer relapse...
February 15, 2018: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454534/sarcomatoid-carcinoma-of-the-lung-the-mayo-clinic-experience-in-127-patients
#14
Kunlatida Maneenil, Zhiqiang Xue, Ming Liu, Jennifer Boland, Fengying Wu, Shawn M Stoddard, Julian Molina, Ping Yang
BACKGROUND: Pulmonary sarcomatoid carcinoma (PSC) is an unusual form of non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Because of its rarity and heterogeneity, the treatment and prognosis of PSC have not been clearly described. METHODS AND MATERIALS: We retrospectively evaluated all patients with a diagnosis of PSC from 1997 to 2015 at the Mayo Clinic (Rochester, MN). The clinical characteristics, treatment details, and outcomes were collected. The survival rates of the PSC patients were compared with those for other subtypes of NSCLC...
December 21, 2017: Clinical Lung Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454129/delayed-post-traumatic-subacute-lumbar-subarachnoid-hematoma-case-report-and-review-of-the-literature
#15
Thiébaud Picart, Timothée Jacquesson, Emmanuel Jouanneau, Moncef Berhouma
BACKGROUND: Traumatic spinal subarachnoid hematoma, associated or not to a concurrent subdural hematoma has rarely been described. The evolution of such hematomas is heterogeneous. This study aims at defining the most accurate management which is currently not standardized. CASE DESCRIPTION: A 20-year-old man, victim of a high kinetic road accident five days before, suffering from several non-neurologic non-surgical vertebral fractures, complained of a sudden dorso-lumbar pain irradiating to his lower limbs...
February 14, 2018: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453454/a-microvascularized-tumor-mimetic-platform-for-assessing-anti-cancer-drug-efficacy
#16
Shantanu Pradhan, Ashley M Smith, Charles J Garson, Iman Hassani, Wen J Seeto, Kapil Pant, Robert D Arnold, Balabhaskar Prabhakarpandian, Elizabeth A Lipke
Assessment of anti-cancer drug efficacy in in vitro three-dimensional (3D) bioengineered cancer models provides important contextual and relevant information towards pre-clinical translation of potential drug candidates. However, currently established models fail to sufficiently recapitulate complex tumor heterogeneity. Here we present a chip-based tumor-mimetic platform incorporating a 3D in vitro breast cancer model with a tumor-mimetic microvascular network, replicating the pathophysiological architecture of native vascularized breast tumors...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453361/heterogeneity-and-mutation-in-kras-and-associated-oncogenes-evaluating-the-potential-for-the-evolution-of-resistance-to-targeting-of-kras-g12c
#17
Vincent L Cannataro, Stephen G Gaffney, Carly Stender, Zi-Ming Zhao, Mark Philips, Andrew E Greenstein, Jeffrey P Townsend
Activating mutations in RAS genes are associated with approximately 20% of all human cancers. New targeted therapies show preclinical promise in inhibiting the KRAS G12C variant. However, concerns exist regarding the effectiveness of such therapies in vivo given the possibilities of existing intratumor heterogeneity or de novo mutation leading to treatment resistance. We performed deep sequencing of 27 KRAS G12-positive lung tumors to determine the prevalence of other oncogenic mutations within KRAS or within commonly mutated downstream genes that could confer resistance at the time of treatment...
February 16, 2018: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452566/near-tetraploid-cancer-cells-show-chromosome-instability-triggered-by-replication-stress-and-exhibit-enhanced-invasiveness
#18
Darawalee Wangsa, Isabel Quintanilla, Keyvan Torabi, Maria Vila-Casadesús, Amaia Ercilla, Gregory Klus, Zeynep Yuce, Claudia Galofré, Miriam Cuatrecasas, Juan José Lozano, Neus Agell, Daniela Cimini, Antoni Castells, Thomas Ried, Jordi Camps
A considerable proportion of tumors exhibit aneuploid karyotypes, likely resulting from the progressive loss of chromosomes after whole-genome duplication. Here, by using isogenic diploid and near-tetraploid (4N) single-cell-derived clones from the same parental cell lines, we aimed at exploring how polyploidization affects cellular functions and how tetraploidy generates chromosome instability. Gene expression profiling in 4N clones revealed a significant enrichment of transcripts involved in cell cycle and DNA replication...
February 8, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452455/complex-hur-function-in-pancreatic-cancer-cells
#19
REVIEW
Jonathan R Brody, Dan A Dixon
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most lethal cancers with dismal patient outcomes. The underlying core genetic drivers of disease have been identified in human tumor specimens and described in genetically engineered mouse models. These genetic drivers of PDAC include KRAS signaling, TP53 mutations, and genetic loss of the SMAD4 tumor suppressor protein. Beyond the known mutational landscape of PDAC genomes, alternative disrupted targets that extend beyond conventional genetic mutations have been elusive and understudied in the context of PDAC cell therapeutic resistance and survival...
February 16, 2018: Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews. RNA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452330/atypical-teratoid-rhabdoid-tumor-after-in-vitro-fertilization-illustrative-case-report-and-systematic-literature-review
#20
REVIEW
Adomas Bunevicius, Algimantas Matukevicius, Vytenis Deltuva, Inga Gudinaviciene, Darius Pranys, Arimantas Tamsauskas
OBJECTIVE: In vitro fertilization (IVF) is increasingly used for treatment of infertile couples worldwide. The association between IVF and cancer risk in offsprings is conflicting. We present a case of atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT) in a girl conceived by IVF and present results of systematic review of literature of primary intracranial neoplasms diagnosed in children conceived by IVF. METHODS: A systematic review of literature was conducted on April 12, 2017 to identify previously published reports of intracranial brain tumors in patients conceived after IVF...
February 13, 2018: World Neurosurgery
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