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Patient pathway

Iftach Sagy, Jonathan Abres, Ariel Winnick, Alan Jotkowitz
Placebos have been used extensively by vast numbers of physicians, in a majority of clinical trials. Placebo effects involve behavioral, psychological and genetic factors, and have been subject to ethical controversies stemming from the use of deception in treating patients. The patient-physician encounter, endogenous pharmacological pathways, personality traits and genetic diversity have all been reported to be key players in placebo responses. In the last decade, a new methodological paradigm of placebo research has emerged, using open label placebos to investigate their effects which showed promising results for various common medical conditions...
October 13, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Investigation
Xiang-Dong Guo, Lei Liu, Han-Yan Xiao
As a major public health concern, colon cancer is one of the most common cancer types, which is also the second cause of cancer death in developed countries and the third most common cancer in other parts of the world. It was reported that patients diagnosed at early stage have a chance to obtain 5-year survival rates at least compared to patients with late stage. Facing the multistep process in intestinal tumorigenesis, there is an urgent need to develop more effective early detection strategies for ameliorating the patient clinical outcome...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
Yingfeng Wang, Wenting Sun, Jilin Zheng, Can Xu, Xia Wang, Tianyi Li, Yida Tang, Zhongfeng Li
This urinary metabonomic study aimed to identify the potential metabolic biomarkers in acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients. Ultra-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (UPLC/MS) was used to analyze the urine samples from ACS patients and healthy controls. Principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA) were applied to characterizing the endogenous metabolites and potential biomarker, respectively. Among twenty biomarkers that functioned in nine metabolic pathways, nine biomarkers were found up-regulated significantly, including of isobutyryl‑l‑carnitine, 3‑methylglutarylcarnitine, cinnavalininate, l‑tryptophan, 3‑methyldioxyindole, palmitic acid, N4‑acetylaminobutanal, 3‑sulfino‑l‑alanine and S‑adenosyl‑l‑homocysteine...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
S Cheleschi, A Fioravanti, A De Palma, C Corallo, D Franci, N Volpi, G Bedogni, S Giannotti, N Giordano
Nutraceuticals are compounds that serve as nutrition with an easy accessibility and favourable safety profile. Recent studies showed their potential activity on osteoarthritis (OA) inflammation and cartilage metabolism. We investigated the effect of methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) and mobilee in human OA chondrocyte cultures exposed to interleukin (IL)-1β. OA cartilage was obtained from femoral heads of five patients undergoing total replacement surgery. Chondrocytes were incubated with mobilee (200 and 500 μM) and MSM (2000 and 6000 μM) in presence of IL-1β (10 ng/mL) and nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitor (BAY 11-7082, 1 μM), for 24 and 48 h...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Sihle E Mabhida, Phiwayinkosi V Dludla, Rabia Johnson, Musawenkosi Ndlovu, Johan Louw, Andy R Opoku, Rebamang A Mosa
Accumulative evidence shows that chronic hyperglycaemia is a major factor implicated in the development of pancreatic β-cell dysfunction in diabetic patients. Furthermore, most of these patients display impaired insulin signalling that is responsible for accelerated pancreatic β-cell damage. Indeed, prominent pathways involved in glucose metabolism such as phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/ protein kinase B (PI3-K/AKT) and 5' AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) are impaired in an insulin resistant state. The impairment of this pathway is associated with over production of reactive oxygen species and pro-inflammatory factors that supersede pancreatic β-cell damage...
October 10, 2018: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
Changwen Zhang, Keke Cai, Qijin Feng, Yong Xu, Zhihong Zhang
Chromium (Cr) is widely used in industry, making its toxicity a matter of concern. Although hexavalent Cr [Cr(VI)] can promote cancer cell proliferation in several cancers, there is little evidence implicating Cr(VI) in cancer cell migration, especially in prostate cancer. We show that the Cr concentration is higher in the serum of prostate cancer patients, and is closely associated with unfavorable outcomes for the patients. Additionally, low dose trivalent Cr [Cr(III)] exposure has no obvious carcinogenic effects in prostate cancer...
October 10, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Chun-Hua Dai, Yang Shu, Ping Chen, Jian-Nong Wu, Li-Haun Zhu, Rong-Xia Yuan, Wei-Guo Long, Yu-Min Zhu, Jian Li
Resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs), such as erlotinib and gefitinib, is a major clinical problem in the treatment of patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). YM155 is a survivin small molecule inhibitor and has been demonstrated to induce cancer cell apoptosis and autophagy. EGFR-TKIs have been known to induce cancer cell autophagy. In this study, we showed that YM155 markedly enhanced the sensitivity of erlotinib to EGFR-TKI resistant NSCLC cell lines H1650 (EGFR exon 19 deletion and PTEN loss) and A549 (EGFR wild type and KRAS mutation) through inducing autophagy-dependent apoptosis and autophagic cell death...
October 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
E Loizou, D J Mayhew, V Martlew, B V S Murthy
Bleeding during and after surgery ranges from trivial to fatal. Bleeding is in part determined by the patient's coagulation status. The UK National Institute for Health and Care Excellence recommends a pre-operative clotting test for patients with a history of abnormal bleeding. Anaesthetists are familiar with the prothrombin time assay, used to monitor warfarin effect, but anaesthetists may be less familiar with the activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), which tests the function of the 'intrinsic' clotting pathway...
October 13, 2018: Anaesthesia
Shih-Ying Lee, Szu-Chia Lai
PURPOSE: Nearly everyone had experience of eyelid twitching (ET) and most physicians think it is benign and self limited. Most neurologists consider it is a symptom rather a disease. However, sometimes ET persists longer and becomes bothersome in some cases, i.e. chronic ET (CET). CET was seldom discussed seriously and studied extensively. Few studies concerning of CET especially its electrophysiological features had been reported. The purposes of this study are to delineate its clinical features and electrophysiological characters of CET...
December 15, 2017: Acta Neurologica Taiwanica
Valeria Buccheri, Wolney Gois Barreto, Laura Maria Fogliatto, Marcelo Capra, Mariana Marchiani, Vanderson Rocha
Chronic lymphocytic leukemia (CLL), a disorder for which B cell heterogeneity and increased cellular proliferation play central pathogenic roles, displays several genetic abnormalities that are associated with poor prognosis and have therapeutic implications. In this review, we discuss the prognostic role and therapeutic implications of chromosome 17p deletions and TP53 mutations in CLL. Unlike other recurrent genetic abnormalities, the frequency of TP53 alterations is relatively low in newly diagnosed patients, but increases sharply with disease progression, which suggests that these alterations represent an evolutionary mechanism of resistance...
October 12, 2018: Annals of Hematology
Alexandra Yu Filatova, Tatiana A Vasilyeva, Andrey V Marakhonov, Anna A Voskresenskaya, Rena A Zinchenko, Mikhail Yu Skoblov
Nucleotide variants that disrupt normal splicing might be the cause of a large number of diseases. Nevertheless, because of the complexity of splicing regulation, it is not always possible to accurately predict the effect of nucleotide sequence changes on splicing events and mRNA structure. Thereby, a number of newly identified nucleotide variants are falsely classified as VUS (a variant of uncertain significance). In the present study we used the minigene assay to analyze the functional consequences of six intronic (c...
October 12, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
Marek Lommatzsch, Maria Klein, Paul Stoll, Johann Christian Virchow
Here, we report that increasing treatment with inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in patients with not well-controlled asthma from a medium to a high dose results in a profound reduction of blood eosinophils (median fall in blood eosinophil concentrations from 560 to 320 cells/µL). Therefore, 'normal values' of blood eosinophils in patients with asthma need to be considered in view of the individual ICS doses of the patients. In addition, increases in the dose of ICS may result in blood eosinophil concentrations which would formally preclude treatment with biologics targeting the interleukin-5 pathway...
October 12, 2018: Thorax
Sara Franceschi, Debora Corsinovi, Francesca Lessi, Elena Tantillo, Paolo Aretini, Michele Menicagli, Claudia Scopelliti, Prospero Civita, Francesco Pasqualetti, Antonio G Naccarato, Michela Ori, Chiara M Mazzanti
BACKGROUND: Glioblastoma (GBM) is the most frequent and malignant primary brain tumor in adults and despite the progress in surgical procedures and therapy options, the overall survival remains very poor. Glutamate and α-KG are fundamental elements necessary to support the growth and proliferation of GBM cells. Glutamate oxidative deamination, catalyzed by GLUD2, is the predominant pathway for the production of α-KG. METHODS: GLUD2 emerged from the RNA-seq analysis of 13 GBM patients, performed in our laboratory and a microarray analysis of 77 high-grade gliomas available on the Geo database...
October 9, 2018: EBioMedicine
Robert D Moir, Richard Lathe, Rudolph E Tanzi
OBJECTIVE: We explore here a novel model for amyloidogenesis in Alzheimer's disease (AD). This new perspective on AD amyloidosis seeks to provide a rational framework for incorporating recent and seemingly independent findings on the antimicrobial role of β-amyloid and emerging experimental, genetic, and epidemiological data, suggesting innate immune-mediated inflammation propagates AD neurodegeneration. BACKGROUND: AD pathology is characterized by cerebral deposition of amyloid-β protein (Aβ) as β-amyloid...
October 9, 2018: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
Sona Vodenkova, Katerina Jiraskova, Marketa Urbanova, Michal Kroupa, Jana Slyskova, Michaela Schneiderova, Miroslav Levy, Tomas Buchler, Vaclav Liska, Ludmila Vodickova, Veronika Vymetalkova, Andrew Collins, Alena Opattova, Pavel Vodicka
The DNA-damaging agent 5-fluorouracil represents the most commonly used chemotherapeutic drug for colorectal cancer patients. DNA lesions associated with 5-fluorouracil therapy are primarily repaired by base excision repair (BER) and mismatch repair (MMR) pathways. Published evidence suggests that the individual DNA repair capacity (DRC) may affect a patient's prognosis and response to chemotherapy. With this in mind, we designed a prospective study of which the main aim was to investigate BER-DRC in relation to 5-fluorouracil response as potential predictive and/or prognostic biomarker...
October 1, 2018: DNA Repair
Timothy H Mungroop, Bart F Geerts, Denise P Veelo, Timothy M Pawlik, Aurélie Bonnet, Mickaël Lesurtel, Koen M Reyntjens, Takehiro Noji, Chao Liu, Eduard Jonas, Christopher L Wu, Eduardo de Santibañes, Mohammed Abu Hilal, Markus W Hollmann, Marc G Besselink, Thomas M van Gulik
BACKGROUND: Fluid and pain management during liver surgery (eg, low central venous pressure) is a classic topic of controversy between anesthesiologists and surgeons. Little is known about practices worldwide. The aim of this study was to assess perioperative practices in liver surgery among and between surgeons and anesthesiologists worldwide that could guide the design of future international studies. METHODS: An online questionnaire was sent to 22 societies, including 4 international hepatopancreatobiliary societies, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, and 17 other (inter-)national societies...
October 9, 2018: Surgery
Shengting Wang, Qian Li, Yufang Wang, Xiaoming Li, Rui Wang, Yuhua Kang, Xukai Xue, Rui Meng, Qi Wei, Xinghua Feng
Recently, a large number of studies have shown that circular RNA (circRNA) is involved in the development and progression of human cancer. However, its role in triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) remains largely unknown. In this study, a novel circRNA, circ-UBAP2 (hsa_circ_0001846), was shown to be markedly upregulated in TNBC. Moreover, high circ-UBAP2 expression was closely associated with larger tumour size (p = 0.003), advanced TNM stage (p = 0.005), lymph node metastasis (p = 0.002), and unfavourable prognosis (p = 0...
October 9, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Han-I Wang, Eve Roman, Simon Crouch, Eline Aas, Cathy Burton, Russell Patmore, Alexandra Smith
OBJECTIVES: To use real-world data to develop a flexible generic decision model to predict cost, life expectancy, and quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs) for follicular lymphoma (FL) in the general patient population. METHODS: All patients newly diagnosed with FL in the UK's population-based Haematological Malignancy Research Network ( between 2004 and 2011 were followed until 2015 (N = 740). Treatment pathways, QALYs, and costs were incorporated into a discrete event simulation to reflect patient heterogeneity, including age and disease management...
October 2018: Value in Health: the Journal of the International Society for Pharmacoeconomics and Outcomes Research
Pingsen Zhao, Heming Wu, Zhixiong Zhong, Qifeng Zhang, Wei Zhong, Bin Li, Cunren Li, Zhidong Liu, Min Yang
Acute myocardial infarction (AMI) is the most serious type of coronary atherosclerotic diseases. The incidence of AMI in some countries increases year by year, and shows younger trend. Some study indicated that abnormal expression of lncRNAs was closely related to cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to examine the lncRNA expression profiles in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) of patients with AMI through controlled studies.In the present study, we examined the lncRNA and mRNA expression profiles in 8 patients with AMI, with 7 NCA (noncoronary artery) subjects as controls using RNA sequencing protocol (RNA-seq) on the Illumina HiSeq 4000 platform...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Liangying Yin, Eric Fuk-Chi Cheung, Ronald Yuk-Lun Chen, Emily Hoi-Man Wong, Pak-Chung Sham, Hon-Cheong So
Schizophrenia (SCZ) has long been recognized as a highly heterogeneous disorder. Patients differed in their clinical manifestations, prognosis, and underlying pathophysiologies. Here we presented and applied a framework for finding subtypes of SCZ utilizing genome-wide association study (GWAS) and clinical data. We postulated that genetic information may help stratify patient into useful subgroups, and incorporation of other clinical information and cognitive profiles will further improve patient subtyping...
September 22, 2018: Journal of Psychiatric Research
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