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Liang Yin, Jiayin Ye, Sibi Kuang, Yanqing Guan, Rong You
A fungus J2 producing laccase with high yield was screened in soils and identified as Abortiporus biennis. The production of laccase was induced by 0.1 mM Cu(2+), 0.1 mM tannic acid, and 0.5 M ethanol. The laccase from Abortiporus biennis J2 was purified to electrophoretic homogeneity by a couple of steps. The N-terminal amino acid sequence of the enzyme was AIGPTADLNISNADI. The properties of the purified laccase were investigated. The result showed the laccase from Abortiporus biennis J2 is a thermo and pH stable enzyme...
January 18, 2017: Bioscience, Biotechnology, and Biochemistry
Claudia Marschelke, Ivan Raguzin, Anke Matura, Andreas Fery, Alla Synytska
Control and tuning of surface properties is indispensable for the programmed and rational design of materials. Particularly, polymeric brush-modified colloids can be used as carrier materials for enzyme immobilization. Although it is of prime importance to control the brush architecture, there is still a lack of systematic investigations concerning the impact of grafting density on the properties of the designed interface, as well as on the immobilization of biomolecules. In this work, we investigate the surface properties of polymer brushes with different grafting densities prepared using a "grafting from" approach on flat and on colloidal particle substrates by varying the density of initiator groups...
January 17, 2017: Soft Matter
Benjamin Zeeb, David Julian McClements, Jochen Weiss
Enzyme technologies can be used to create food dispersions with novel functional attributes using structural design principles. Enzymes that utilize foodgrade proteins and/or polysaccharides as substrates have gained recent interest among food scientists. The utilization of enzymes for structuring foods is an ecologically and economically viable alternative to the utilization of chemical cross-linking and depolymerization agents. This review highlights recent progress in the use of enzymes to modify food structure, particularly the interfacial and/or bulk properties of food dispersions with special emphasis on commercially available enzymes...
January 4, 2017: Annual Review of Food Science and Technology
Fei Wu, Lei Su, Ping Yu, Lanqun Mao
Improving bioelectrocatalytic current response of redox enzymes on electrodes has been a focus in the development of enzymatic biosensors and biofuel cells. Herein a mediatorless electroreduction of oxygen is effectively improved in terms of a remarkable enhancement by ca. 600% in maximum reductive current by simply adding 20% ethanol into laccase solution during its immobilization onto single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs). Conformation analysis by circular dichroism and attenuated total reflectance infrared spectroscopy demonstrate promoted laccase-SWCNTs contact by ethanol, thus leading to favorable enzyme orientation on SWCNTs...
January 18, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Aurin M Vos, Amber Heijboer, Henricus T S Boschker, Barbara Bonnet, Luis G Lugones, Han A B Wösten
Agaricus bisporus mushrooms are commercially produced on a microbe rich compost. Here, fungal and bacterial biomass was quantified in compost with and without colonization by A. bisporus. Chitin content, indicative of total fungal biomass, increased during a 26-day period from 576 to 779 nmol N-acetylglucosamine g(-1) compost in the absence of A. bisporus (negative control). A similar increase was found in the presence of this mushroom forming fungus. The fungal phospholipid-derived fatty acid (PLFA) marker C18:2ω6, indicative of the living fraction of the fungal biomass, decreased from 575 to 280 nmol g(-1) compost in the negative control...
December 2017: AMB Express
Luca Dellafiora, Gianni Galaverna, Massimo Reverberi, Chiara Dall'Asta
Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that contaminate food and feed, and are involved in a series of foodborne illnesses and disorders in humans and animals. The mitigation of mycotoxin content via enzymatic degradation is a strategy to ensure safer food and feed, and to address the forthcoming issues in view of the global trade and sustainability. Nevertheless, the search for active enzymes is still challenging and time-consuming. The in silico analysis may strongly support the research by providing the evidence-based hierarchization of enzymes for a rational design of more effective experimental trials...
January 1, 2017: Toxins
Tozama Qwebani-Ogunleye, Natasha I Kolesnikova, Paul Steenkamp, Charles B de Koning, Dean Brady, Kevin W Wellington
Suberase®, a commercial laccase from Novozymes, was used to catalyse the synthesis of coumestans. The yields, in some cases, were similar to or better than that obtained by other enzymatic, chemical or electrochemical syntheses. The compounds were screened against renal TK10, melanoma UACC62 and breast MCF7 cancer cell-lines and the GI50, TGI and LC50 values determined. Anticancer screening showed that the cytostatic effects of the coumestans were most effective against the melanoma UACC62 and breast MCF7 cancer cell-lines exhibiting potent activities, GI50=5...
December 21, 2016: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Paola Campia, Erika Ponzini, Bianca Rossi, Stefano Farris, Tiziana Silvetti, Luca Merlini, Milena Brasca, Rita Grandori, Yves M Galante
We describe aerogels obtained by laccase/TEMPO-oxidation and lyophilization of galactomannans (GM) from fenugreek, sesbania and guar. Enzymatic oxidation of GM in aqueous solution caused viscosity increase up to fifteen-fold, generating structured, elastic, stable hydrogels, presumably due to establishment of hemiacetalic bonds between newly formed carbonyl groups and free hydroxyl groups. Upon lyophilization, water-insoluble aerogels were obtained, whose mechanical properties and porosity were investigated...
February 20, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Mostafa Zahmatkesh, Henri Spanjers, Jules B van Lier
Humic substances (HS) comprise the major content of hardly or non-biodegradable organic matters in the industrial wastewaters. Although the application of fungi has been reported before as a novel and sustainable technology for the treatment of humics, yet most of the previous studies have been performed using synthetic wastewaters. This paper presents the results of fungal treatment of a real industrial wastewater, providing insight into the main mechanisms involved and clarifying some ambiguities and uncertainties in the previous reports...
December 26, 2016: Environmental Technology
Jiahong Lin, Qilin Wen, Shi Chen, Xueyi Le, Xiaohua Zhou, Limei Huang
Amine-functionalized Fe3O4@C nanoparticles with an average diameter of 266nm have been successfully synthesized by a solvothermal reduction method. The structure, morphology and properties of the Fe3O4@C nanoparticles were investigated through different analytical tools. Due to the magnetic nature and the presence of amine-functionalized groups, the as-prepared Fe3O4@C nanoparticles were employed as magnetic carriers for laccase immobilization. The results indicated that the loading of laccase onto the amine-functionalized Fe3O4@C nanoparticles was approximately 195mg/g...
December 21, 2016: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Luis A Gonzalez-Coronel, Marta Cobas, Magdalena de J Rostro-Alanis, Roberto Parra-Saldívar, Carlos Hernandez-Luna, Marta Pazos, M Ángeles Sanromán
Laccase from Pycnoporus sanguineus CS43 was successfully immobilized onto Immobead-150 and Eupergit-C by covalent binding and by entrapment in LentiKats. The highest immobilization was onto Immobead-150 (97.1±1.2%) compared to the other supports, LentiKats (89±1.1%) and Eupergit-C (83.2±1.4%). All three immobilized enzyme systems showed increased thermostability and better mechanical properties than free laccase. Moreover, after 5 cycles of reuse of these systems, 90% of initial laccase activity was retained...
December 21, 2016: New Biotechnology
Qi An, Mei-Ling Han, Xue-Jun Wu, Jing Si, Bao-Kai Cui, Yu-Cheng Dai, Bing Wu
The laccase activities of 13 strains of medicinal and edible mushrooms from the Flammulina genus (F. velutipes, F. rossica, and F. fennae) were studied. The effects of both fungal isolates and culture media were investigated. The laccase activities indicated significant differences among Flammulina strains (P < 0.001), and the cultural media significantly affected the laccase activities in Flammulina spp. (P < 0.001). The morphological characteristics of the 3 Flammulina species were similar, but differences in phylogenetic analysis and laccase activity existed among different species...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Jure Pohleven, Janko Kos, Jerica Sabotic
Current knowledge of the medicinal properties of Basidiomycetes mushroom species of the genus Clitocybe and of the biological activity of C. nebularis fruiting bodies is reviewed. The main focus is the therapeutic potential of lectins from C. nebularis. Species of the genus Clitocybe, including C. nebularis, have not been traditionally considered as medicinal mushrooms; however, recent studies have demonstrated their antitumor, immunomodulatory, and antioxidative properties, their antimicrobial (antiviral, antibacterial, and antifungal) activities against various bacteria and fungi, as well as their potential use in therapy for alcoholism and as psychotropic agents...
2016: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Sanjay Kumar Singh Patel, Seung Ho Choi, Yun Chan Kang, Jung-Kul Lee
A novel type of spherical and porous composites were synthesized to dually benefit from reduced graphene oxide (rGO) and magnetic materials as supports for enzyme immobilization. Three magnetic composite particles of Fe3O4 and rGO containing 71% (rGO-Fe3O4-M1), 36% (rGO-Fe3O4-M2), and 18% (rGO-Fe3O4-M3) Fe were prepared using a one-pot spray pyrolysis method, and were used for the immobilization of the model enzymes, laccase and horseradish peroxidase (HRP). The rGO-Fe3O4 composite particles prepared by spray pyrolysis process had a regular shape, fine size, and uniform composition...
December 22, 2016: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Hao Liang, Feifei Lin, Zijie Zhang, Biwu Liu, Shuhui Jiang, Qipeng Yuan, Juewen Liu
Using nanomaterials to achieve functional enzyme mimics (nanozymes) is attractive for both applied and fundamental research. Laccases are multicopper oxidases highly important for biotechnology and environmental remediation. In this work, we report an exceptionally simple yet functional laccase mimic based on guanosine monophosphate (GMP) coordinated copper. It forms an amorphous metal-organic framework (MOF) material. The ratio of copper and GMP is 3:4 as determined by isothermal titration calorimetry. It has excellent laccase-like activity and converts a diverse range of phenol containing substrates such as hydroquinone, naphthol, catechol and epinephrine...
January 18, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jie Jiang, Wenbo Ye, Liang Liu, Zhiguo Wang, Yimin Fan, Tsuguyuki Saito, Akira Isogai
The 2,2,6,6-tetramethylpiperidine-1-oxyl (TEMPO)/laccase/O2 system was used to prepare cellulose nanofibers from wood cellulose without requiring any chlorine-containing oxidant. Laccase was degraded by oxidized TEMPO (TEMPO(+)) formed by laccase-mediated oxidation with O2, which competed with the oxidation of wood cellulose. Thus, large amounts of laccase and TEMPO and a long reaction time were needed to introduce ∼0.6 mmol g(-1) of C6-carboxylate groups onto wood cellulose. The TEMPO/laccase/O2 system underwent one-way reaction from TEMPO to reduced TEMPO through TEMPO(+)...
December 20, 2016: Biomacromolecules
Daniela Huber, Gregor Tegl, Martina Baumann, Eva Sommer, Elham Ghorbani Gorji, Nicole Borth, Gerhard Schleining, Gibson S Nyanhongo, Georg M Guebitz
Chitosan hydrogels are gaining increasing interest for biomedical applications due to attractive properties such as biocompatibility. In order to replace toxic chemical cross-linkers for hydrogel formation, we investigated the cross-linking potential of laccase oxidized phenolics. HPLC-TOF-MS and ATR-FTIR demonstrated that phenolics were bond to glucosamine as chitosan model substrate. Phenolics concentrations required for hydrogel formation varied from 500μM for catechol to 5000μM for sinapic acid. The hydrogels showed different swelling and release properties assessed using methylene blue release as a model...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Elisabet Quintana, M Blanca Roncero, Teresa Vidal, Cristina Valls
In this work, laccase-TEMPO (Lac-T) treatments were applied to bleached commercial dissolving pulp in order to introduce carbonyl and carboxyl groups, which were found to improve dry and wet strength-related properties. Also the solubility behavior towards xanthate reactions was assessed. The effect of a refining step (R) before the oxidative treatment, the absence or presence of oxygen pressure, TEMPO dose (2 or 8% oven dried pulp) and reaction time (8 or 20h) were thoroughly examined. Treatments conducted in the presence of oxygen pressure exhibited greater amount of functional groups...
February 10, 2017: Carbohydrate Polymers
Le Truc Nguyen, Nianjia Seow, Kun-Lin Yang
Hollow cross-linked enzyme aggregates of laccase (h-CLEA laccase) can be prepared by employing a millifluidic reactor carrying two coaxial laminar flows. In a confluence zone where acetonitrile and an aqueous solution of laccase meet, diffusion of acetonitrile into the aqueous solution gives rise to rapid precipitation of laccase aggregates at the water/acetonitrile interface, as is evidenced by fluorescence images. By controlling the flow rates carefully in the laminar flow regions, h-CLEA laccase around 220±10nm can be obtained, and the size of the h-CLEA laccase increases with increasing flow rates of both solutions...
December 8, 2016: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Justyna Bohacz
Environmentally friendly strategies of waste management are both part of legal solutions currently in place and a focus of interest worldwide. Large-scale composting plants are set up across various regions while home composting is becoming increasingly popular. A variety of microbial groups are successively at work during composting and enzymatic activities detected in the composting mass fluctuate accordingly. Changes in the activities of oxidoreductases and hydrolases, i.e. glucose oxidase, horseradish peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, laccase, xylanase, superoxide dismutase and keratinase, low-molecular weight compounds, i...
December 13, 2016: Science of the Total Environment
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