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Qin Hu, Ling Min, Xiyan Yang, Shuangxia Jin, Lin Zhang, Yaoyao Li, Yizan Ma, Xuewei Qi, Dongqin Li, Hongbo Liu, Keith Lindsey, Longfu Zhu, Xianlong Zhang
Plants are constantly challenged by a multitude of pathogens and pests, which causes massive yield and quality losses annually. A promising approach to reduce such losses is to enhance the immune system of plants through genetic engineering. Previous work has shown that laccases (p-diphenol:dioxygen oxidoreductase, EC function as lignin polymerization enzymes. Here we demonstrate that transgenic manipulation of the expression of the laccase gene GhLac1 in cotton (Gossypium hirsutum) can confer an enhanced defence response to both pathogens and pests...
December 11, 2017: Plant Physiology
Alysson Wagner Fernandes Duarte, Juliana Aparecida Dos Santos, Marina Vitti Vianna, Juliana Maíra Freitas Vieira, Vitor Hugo Mallagutti, Fabio José Inforsato, Lia Costa Pinto Wentzel, Luciana Daniela Lario, Andre Rodrigues, Fernando Carlos Pagnocca, Adalberto Pessoa Junior, Lara Durães Sette
Antarctica is the coldest, windiest, and driest continent on Earth. In this sense, microorganisms that inhabit Antarctica environments have to be adapted to harsh conditions. Fungal strains affiliated with Ascomycota and Basidiomycota phyla have been recovered from terrestrial and marine Antarctic samples. They have been used for the bioprospecting of molecules, such as enzymes. Many reports have shown that these microorganisms produce cold-adapted enzymes at low or mild temperatures, including hydrolases (e...
December 11, 2017: Critical Reviews in Biotechnology
Wiyada Dankai, Monsicha Pongpom, Nongnuch Vanittanakom
The pathogenic dimorphic fungus Talaromyces marneffei is known to cause a fatal systemic mycosis in immunocompromised patients, especially in HIV patients in Southeast Asia. The basic leucine-zipper (bZip) transcription factor gene, yapA, has been identified in T. marneffei. A prior study described that yapA was involved in the oxidative and nitrosative stress response in T. marneffei. Interestingly, an essential role of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Yap1p in the oxidative stress response is the activation of the transcription of its target genes...
December 8, 2017: Medical Mycology: Official Publication of the International Society for Human and Animal Mycology
Rafaela I S Ladeira Ázar, Túlio Morgan, Antonio Carlos Freitas Dos Santos, Eduardo de Aquino Ximenes, Michael R Ladisch, Valéria M Guimarães
Cellulase and hemicellulase activities in a 1:1 ratio of enzymes extracted from Chrysoporthe cubensis and Penicillium pinophilum were evaluated in the presence of known monocomponent phenolic inhibitors and also with phenol mixtures derived from alkali pretreated sugarcane bagasse. The cellulolytic activities from C. cubensis:P. pinophilum displayed a much higher tolerance to phenolic inhibitors than equivalent enzyme activities obtained from Trichoderma reesei and Aspergillus niger. Enzymes from T. reesei and A...
February 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Quan Luo, Yu Chen, Jing Xia, Kai-Qiang Wang, Yu-Jie Cai, Xiang-Ru Liao, Zheng-Bing Guan
Bacterial laccases are potential enzymes for biotechnological applications, such as detoxification of industrial effluents, decolorization of textile, and dimerization of phenolic acids, due to their remarkable advantages, including broad substrate spectrum, high thermostability, wide pH scope, and tolerance to alkaline environments. L386W/G417L/G57F (abbreviated as WLF), a good mutant of CotA-laccase from Bacillus pumilus W3, has been constructed and reported by our laboratory with highly improved catalytic efficiency...
February 2018: Enzyme and Microbial Technology
Radosław Drozd, Rafał Rakoczy, Agata Wasak, Adam Junka, Karol Fijałkowski
The usefulness of bacterial cellulose (BC), obtained from the cultures of Komagataeibacter xylinus exposed to rotating magnetic field (RMF), as a carrier for laccase immobilization was investigated in this study. It was found that the highest yield of laccase immobilization (>70%) was achieved in pH of 4.0 and this value was optimal in the case of both types of cellulose carriers applied. The pH equals 4.0 was also the optimal one with regard to immobilized enzymes' activity, while in case of free laccase, optimal pH value was 3...
December 6, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Yan Chen, Linlin Feng, Hanguang Li, Yuanxiu Wang, Guotao Chen, Qinghua Zhang
The biodegradation and detoxification of azo dye - Direct Black G (DBG) with a newly isolated thermophilic microflora was investigated in the present study. It was found this microflora can decolorize DBG at a wide range of pH from 5 to 10, and grow well under high concentration of dye (600 mg·L-1) and salinity (50 g·L-1). Its decolorization ratio could reach 97% with 8 h of incubation at optimal conditions. The induction of laccase, manganese peroxidase, lignin peroxidase and azoreductase suggests their synergetic involvements in the degradation process of DBG...
November 29, 2017: Bioresource Technology
Balamurugan Ramalingam, Jieyan Lim, Ranganathan Krishnan, Jayasree Seayad, Barindra Sana, Farid John Ghadessy, Satyasankar Jana
Laccase-catalyzed oxidative polymerization of monomeric and dimeric lignin model compounds was carried out using oxygen as oxidant in aqueous medium. The oligomers were characterized by gel permeation chromatography (GPC) and matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectroscopy (MALDI-TOF-MS) analysis. The oxidative polymerization leads to the formation of oligomeric species with a number average molecular weight (Mn) ranging between 700-2300 Da with low polydispersity index. Spectroscopic analysis provided insight into the possible modes of linkages present in the oligomers and the oligomerization is likely to proceed through the formation of C-C linkages between phenolic aromatic rings...
December 6, 2017: Chemistry, An Asian Journal
Deepti Yadav, Bibhuti Ranjan, Nokuthula Mchunu, Marilize Le Roes-Hill, Tukayi Kudanga
This work reports for the first time the secretory expression of the small laccase (SLAC) from Streptomyces coelicolor A3(2) in Pichia pastoris. Using an AOX1 promoter and α factor as a secretion signal, the recombinant P. pastoris harbouring the laccase gene (rSLAC) produced high titres of extracellular laccase (500±10U/l), which were further increased seven fold by pre-incubation at 80°C for 30min. The enzyme (∼38kDa) had an optimum activity at 80°C, but optimum pH varied with substrate used. Km values for ABTS, SGZ and 2,6-DMP were 142...
December 1, 2017: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Matgorzata Statkiewicz, Anna Matuszewska, Magdalena Jaszek, Grzegorz Janusz, Monika Osinska, Justyna Sulej, Dawid Stefaniuk, Michat Mikula, Jerzy Ostrowski
Three bioactive fractions isolated from Cerrena unicolor cultures-crude endopolysaccharide (c-EPS), laccase, and a subfraction of low-molecular weight secondary metabolites-were used to determine potential cytotoxic effects on the mouse melanoma B16-F10 cell line (American Type Culture Collection CRL-6475). The results obtained prove that all examined fractions exhibited activity against the investigated tumor cells. In addition, an evident immunomodulatory effect of the c-EPS fraction was observed. Our results show that the levels of 2 cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-a and chemokine ligand 2) in mouse inner medullary collecting duct mIMCD-3 cells (American Type Culture Collection CRL-2123) stimulated by c-EPS were significantly higher...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Katsuya Tajima, Masuro Motoi, Akitomo Motoi, Daisuke Yamanaka, Ken-Ichi Ishibashi, Yoshiyuki Adachi, Naohito Ohno
The royal sun medicinal mushroom, Agaricus brasiliensis, is a health food material that helps to improve quality of life. A. brasiliensis has long been used as a tea by extraction with cold and hot water. Our group has been investigating the immunopharmacological activities of the A. brasiliensis KA21 strain, which is cultivated outdoors. We prepared cold water (AgCWE) and hot water (AgHWE) extracts of this strain. AgCWE contained a larger proportion of proteins, including enzymes, and showed a brownish color during the extraction process...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Elena Vetchinkina, Vladimir Gorshkov, Marina Ageeva, Yuri Gogolev, Valentina E Nikitina
We show here, to our knowledge for the first time, that the brown mycelial mat of the xylotrophic shiitake medicinal mushroom, Lentinus edodes, not only performs a protective function owing to significant changes in the ultrastructure (thickening of the cell wall, increased density, and pigmentation of the fungal hyphae) but also is a metabolically active stage in the development of the mushroom. The cells of this morphological structure exhibit repeated activation of expression of the genes lcc4, tir, exp1, chi, and exg1, coding for laccase, tyrosinase, a specific transcription factor, chitinase, and glucanase, which are required for fungal growth and morphogenesis...
2017: International Journal of Medicinal Mushrooms
Dockyu Kim, Ha Ju Park, Woo Jun Sul, Hyun Park
Although humic acids (HA) are involved in many biological processes in soils and thus their ecological importance has received much attention, the degradative pathways and corresponding catalytic genes underlying the HA degradation by bacteria remain unclear. To unveil those uncertainties, we analyzed transcriptomes extracted from Pseudomonas sp. PAMC 26793 cells time-dependently induced in the presence of HA in a lab flask. Out of 6288 genes, 299 (microarray) and 585 (RNA-seq) were up-regulated by > 2...
December 1, 2017: Folia Microbiologica
Klára Herkommerová, Jana Zemančíková, Hana Sychrová, Zuzana Antošová
OBJECTIVES: To improve the storage stability and reusability of various yeast strains and species by immobilization in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel particles. RESULTS: Debaryomyces hansenii, Pichia sorbitophila, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Yarrowia lipolytica, and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were immobilized in PVA particles using LentiKats technology and stored in sterile water at 4 °C. The immobilization improved the survival of all species; however, the highest storage stability was achieved for S...
November 30, 2017: Biotechnology Letters
Dan Mo, Guangming Zeng, Xingzhong Yuan, Ming Chen, Liang Hu, Hui Li, Hou Wang, Piao Xu, Cui Lai, Jia Wan, Chen Zhang, Min Cheng
The biodegradation of nonylphenol (NP) and octylphenol (OP) isomers by laccase has attracted increasing concerns. However, the interaction mechanism between these isomers and laccase remains unclear, especially for fungal laccase. In this work, molecular docking was employed to study this issue. The results indicated that the structural characteristic of alkyl chain (position and branching degree) affected the interactions between Trametes versicolor (T. versicolor) laccase and isomers. The binding affinity between them was closely related to the position and branching degree of alkyl chain in isomers...
November 28, 2017: Bioprocess and Biosystems Engineering
Jie Yang, Zhengjuan Wang, Yonghui Lin, Tzi Bun Ng, Xiuyun Ye, Juan Lin
Laccases are polyphenol oxidases with widespread applications in various industries. In the present study, the laccase from Cerrena sp. HYB07 was immobilized with four methods, namely entrapment in alginate, covalently binding to chitosan as well as formation of cross-linked enzyme aggregates (CLEAs) and magnetic CLEAs (M-CLEAs). The activity recovery rates of the immobilized laccases ranged from 29% to 68%. Immobilization elevated the reaction temperature optimum and reduced substrate specificity, but not necessarily the turnover rate...
November 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
F Miao, T C Lei, M Y Su, W J Yi, S Jiang, S Z Xu
Objective: To compare the decolorization efficiency of lignin peroxidase (LiP), manganese peroxidase (MnP) and laccase on eumelanin and pheomelanin, and to investigate the effect of topical administration of LiP solution on hyperpigmented guinea pigs skin induced by 308 nm excimer light. Methods: Pheomelanin-enriched specimens were prepared from human hair and cutaneous melanoma tissue using alkaline lysis method.Synthetic eumelanin was purchased from a commercial supplier.The same amount (0.02%) of melanin was incubated with the equal enzyme activity (0...
November 21, 2017: Zhonghua Yi Xue za Zhi [Chinese medical journal]
Kashif Rahim, Liang Huo, Chenxi Li, Ping Zhang, Abdul Basit, Biyun Xiang, Bie Ting, Xiaoran Hao, Xudong Zhu
Cryptococcus neoformans is a basidiomycetous pathogenic yeast that causes fatal infections in both immunocompetent and immunocompromised patients. Regulation on the production of its virulence factor is not fully understood. Here we reported the characterization of a gene, named CVH1(CNA06260), encoding a Drosophila Vilse-like RhoGAP homologue, which is hallmarked by three conserved functional domains, i.e. WW, MyTH4, and RhoGAP. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that CVH1 is highly conserved from protists to mammals and interestingly in basidiomycetes, but absent in plants or Ascomycota and other lower fungi...
November 21, 2017: FEMS Yeast Research
Dominika Majdecka, Sylwia Draminska, Dariusz Janusek, Paweł Krysinski, Renata Bilewicz
In this work, we propose an integrated self-powered sensing system, driven by a hybrid biofuel cell (HBFC) with carbon paper discs coated with multiwalled carbon nanotubes. The sensing system has a biocathode made from laccase or bilirubin oxidase, and the anode is made from a zinc plate. The system includes a dedicated custom-built electronic control unit for the detection of oxygen and catechol analytes, which are central to medical and environmental applications. Both the HBFC and sensors, operate in a mediatorless direct electron transfer mode...
November 16, 2017: Biosensors & Bioelectronics
Yibo Zhou, Biwu Liu, Ronghua Yang, Juewen Liu
Using nanomaterials to mimic the function of protein enzymes is an interesting idea. Many nanomaterials have a similar size as enzymes and they also possess catalytic activities. Over the past decade, a surge of nanozyme work has emerged likely due to the advancement in the synthesis and characterization of inorganic nanoparticles. Many typical enzymatic reactions mimicking oxidases, peroxidases, laccases, superoxide dismutases, and catalases have been realized by simple metal oxide and metal nanoparticles...
November 26, 2017: Bioconjugate Chemistry
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