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Lam Ngoc Trac, Stine Nørgaard Schmidt, Philipp Mayer
It is challenging to conduct aquatic tests with highly hydrophobic and volatile chemicals while avoiding substantial sorptive and evaporative losses. A simple and versatile headspace passive dosing (HS-PD) method was thus developed for such chemicals: The pure liquid test chemical was added to a glass insert, which was then placed with the open end in the headspace of a closed test system containing aqueous test medium. The test chemical served as the dominating partitioning donor for establishing and maintaining maximum exposure levels in the headspace and aqueous solution, without direct contact between the donor and the test medium...
July 25, 2018: Chemosphere
Krishnadas Madhu, Prakash T
BACKGROUND: During the development of Multiple Sclerosis (MS) there is a marked activation of microglia and astrocyte, leading to progressive inflammation and degeneration of myelin sheath which results in axonal loss and neuron damage. PURPOSE: In this study, we have explored the action of Asiaticoside A against the activated microglia and astrocytes. METHODS: Primary microglia and astrocyte cultures were used for the study and the activity were evaluated using cell proliferation assay, nitrate assay and TNFα estimation using ELISA...
August 8, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Mehrnoosh Abtahi, Sina Dobaradaran, Sahand Jorfi, Ali Koolivand, Mohammad Reza Mohebbi, Ahmad Montazeri, Shokooh Sadat Khaloo, Saeed Keshmiri, Reza Saeedi
We assessed disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) due to dental caries preventable through water fluoridation apportioned by sex, age group, sequela, province, and community type in Iran, 2016. The burden of disease due to dental caries was extracted from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2016 (GBD 2016) and the caries preventive effect of water fluoridation was calculated using a database of fluoride levels in drinking water. All the preventable DALYs were caused by years lived with disability (YLDs) because of the non-fatal character of dental caries...
August 4, 2018: Environmental Research
Magdalena Palacz, Kelton Tremellen
Obesity is associated with implantation failure, miscarriage, low-grade inflammation and a reduction in peripheral immune-suppressive T regulatory (Treg) cells. Therefore, we postulated that this reduction may also extend to the endometrium and cause embryonic loss. In a cohort of 40 infertile women, without implantation failure or recurrent miscarriage, we examined the density of Treg cells, macrophages and natural killer (NK) cells in mid-luteal endometrial biopsies. Significant positive correlations were observed between BMI and endometrial Treg cells and macrophages, but no relationship with NK cells...
August 4, 2018: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Zheng Cui, Jie Liao, Naeun Cheong, Christopher Longoria, Gaoyuan Cao, Horace M DeLisser, Rashmin C Savani
Acute lung injury results in early inflammation and respiratory distress, and later fibrosis. The glycosaminoglycan hyaluronan (HA) and the Receptor for Hyaluronan-Mediated Motility (RHAMM, CD168) have been implicated in the response to acute lung injury. We hypothesized that, compared to wild type (WT) mice, RHAMM knockout (KO) mice would be protected from, whereas mice with macrophage-specific transgenic overexpression of RHAMM (TG) would have worse inflammation, respiratory distress and fibrosis after intratracheal (IT) bleomycin...
August 8, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
P J Hohensinner, J Baumgartner, B Ebenbauer, B Thaler, M Fischer, K Huber, W S Speidl, J Wojta
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Macrophages are versatile immune cells involved in tissue degradation and remodeling. Proinflammatory macrophages have the highest capacity of matrix degradation and proteolysis. Within atherosclerotic lesions, proinflammatory macrophages are associated with unstable plaques. Statins have been demonstrated to increase plaque stability. Possible changes of polarized macrophage tissue degradation behavior under statin treatment are currently unknown. METHODS: Polarized macrophages were tested in vitro for matrix degradation capacity with or without statin treatment...
August 8, 2018: Vascular Pharmacology
Liana Shvachiy, Vera Geraldes, Ângela Amaro-Leal, Isabel Rocha
BACKGROUND: Exposures to lead (Pb) during developmental phases can alter the normal course of development, with lifelong health consequences. Permanent Pb exposure leads to behavioral changes, cognitive impairment, sympathoexcitation, tachycardia, hypertension and autonomic dysfunction. However, the effects of an intermittent lead exposure are not yet studied. This pattern of exposure has been recently increasing due to migrations, implementation of school exchange programs and/or residential changes...
August 8, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Yong Wei Wei Dayna, Chai Hui-Chen Charmaine, Shen Liang, Ray Manotosh, Tan Wee Tien Anna
PURPOSE: To compare the outcome in patients with Fuchs Endothelial Dystrophy (FED) who underwent standard phacoemulsification versus Femtosecond Laser-Assisted Surgery (FLACS) in the treatment of visually significant cataracts. DESIGN: Retrospective, comparative, interventional case series METHODS PATIENT OR STUDY POPULATION: : Between April 2013 and December 2016, 140 FED eyes with cataracts of all densities were included. 72 eyes underwent phacoemulsification and 68 eyes underwent FLACS...
August 8, 2018: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Michael G Watson, Helen M Byrne, Charlie Macaskill, Mary R Myerscough
Atherosclerotic plaque growth is characterised by chronic, non-resolving inflammation that promotes the accumulation of cellular debris and extracellular fat in the inner artery wall. This material is highly thrombogenic, and plaque rupture can lead to the formation of blood clots that occlude major arteries and cause myocardial infarction or stroke. In advanced plaques, vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs) are recruited from deeper in the artery wall to synthesise a cap of fibrous tissue that stabilises the plaque and sequesters the thrombogenic plaque content from the bloodstream...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Gu-Wei Ji, Yao-Dong Zhang, Ke Wang, Hui Zhang, Zi-Cheng Shao, Wang-Jie Jiang, Xiang-Cheng Li, Xue-Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: This study aimed to compare clinical outcomes of the middle hepatic vein (MHV)-oriented versus conventional hemihepatectomy for perihilar cholangiocarcinoma (PHC). METHODS: From 2008 to 2017, medical records of patients undergoing hemihepatectomy with caudate lobectomy for advanced PHC were reviewed retrospectively. MHV-oriented hepatectomy was defined as full exposure of the MHV on the dissection plane. Predictors of morbidity and survival were identified...
August 11, 2018: Journal of Surgical Oncology
Marlena Wosiski-Kuhn, Mihail Bota, Christina A Snider, Steven P Wilson, Kannan U Venkataraju, Pavel Osten, Alexis M Stranahan
Diabetes increases adrenal steroids in humans and animal models, but potential interactions with psychological stress remain poorly understood. Diabetic rodents exhibit anxiety and reductions in hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) expression, and these studies investigated whether loss of BDNF-driven hippocampal activity promotes anxiety and disinhibits the HPA axis. Mice with genetic obesity and diabetes (db/db) received intrahippocampal injections of lentivirus for BDNF overexpression (db/db-BDNFOE), and Wt mice received lentiviral constructs for BDNF knockdown (Wt-BDNFKD)...
August 11, 2018: Hippocampus
Lijuan Wang, Sexin Huang, Jie Li, Yang Zou, Peiwen Xu, Ming Gao, Ranran Kang, Hongqiang Xie, Xianda Wei, Yuping Niu, Xiaowei Liu, Yuan Gao
OBJECTIVE: To detect mutations of the XPC (XPC complex subunit, DNA damage recognition and repair factor) gene in a family affected with xeroderma pigmentosum group C (XP-C). METHODS: The patient was subjected to next-generation sequencing and Sanger sequencing. Suspected mutations were validated by Sanger sequencing. Effect of splicing mutation was confirmed by reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Compound heterozygous mutations of c...
August 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Shirong Li, Yongping Chen, Xiaoqin Yuan, Qianqian Wei, Ruwei Ou, Xiaojing Gu, Huifang Shang
OBJECTIVE: To detect potential mutations of the spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (SACS) gene in a pedigree affected with autosomal recessive spastic ataxia of Charlevoix-Saguenay (ARSACS). METHODS: Genomic DNA was extracted from peripheral blood samples of the proband and her family members. All exons and flanking sequences of the SACS gene were analyzed by high-throughput sequencing. Suspected mutations were verified with Sanger sequencing. RESULTS: Next generation sequencing revealed novel compound heterozygous mutations of the SACS gene, namely c...
August 10, 2018: Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Yixue Yichuanxue Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Medical Genetics
Valentina Barrera, Lee D Troughton, Valentina Iorio, Siyin Liu, Olutobi Oyewole, Carl M Sheridan, Kevin J Hamill
Purpose: Laminin N-terminus (LaNt) α31 is a relatively unstudied protein derived from the laminin α3 gene but structurally similar to netrins. LaNt α31 has, to date, been investigated only in two-dimensional (2D) keratinocyte culture where it influences cell migration and adhesion, processes integral to wound repair. Here we investigated LaNt α31 distribution in ocular surface epithelium, during limbal stem cell activation, and corneal wound healing. Methods: Human, mouse, and pig eyes, ex vivo limbal explant cultures, and alkali burn wounds were processed for immunohistochemistry with antibodies against LaNt α31 along with progenitor cell-associated proteins...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Ignacio Melgar-Asensio, Irawati Kandela, Fraser Aird, Soesiawati R Darjatmoko, Cristobal de Los Rios, Christine M Sorenson, Daniel M Albert, Nader Sheibani, Jack Henkin
Purpose: Drug delivery by intravitreal injection remains problematic, small agents and macromolecules both clearing rapidly. Typical carriers use microparticles (>2 μm), with size-related liabilities, to slow diffusion. We recently described cationic nanoparticles (NP) where conjugated Arg peptides prolonged residence in rat eyes, through ionic interaction with vitreal poly-anions. Here we extended this strategy to in vivo tracking of NP-conjugate (NPC) clearance from rabbit eyes...
August 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sayan Ghosh, Peng Shang, Hiroto Terasaki, Nadezda Stepicheva, Stacey Hose, Meysam Yazdankhah, Joseph Weiss, Taiji Sakamoto, Imran A Bhutto, Shuli Xia, J Samuel Zigler, Ram Kannan, Jiang Qian, James T Handa, Debasish Sinha
Purpose: The RPE cells have a major role in the development of dry age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We present novel evidence that βA3/A1-crystallin, encoded by the Cryba1 gene, a protein known to be important for lysosomal clearance in the RPE, also has a role in epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) of RPE cells. Methods: RPE from dry AMD globes, genetically engineered mice lacking Cryba1 globally or specifically in the RPE, spontaneous mutant rats (Nuc1) with a loss-of-function mutation in Cryba1, and the melanoma OCM3 cell line were used...
March 20, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Sara Juliana de A de Vasconcellos, Edmundo M do Nascimento-Júnior, Marcel Vinícius de Aguiar Menezes, Mário Luis Tavares Mendes, Rafael de Souza Dantas, Paulo Ricardo Saquete Martins-Filho
Importance: Evidence has emerged on the efficacy of tranexamic acid to control blood loss and postoperative complications after rhinoplasty. Objective: To investigate the results of tranexamic acid use to reduce intraoperative bleeding, postoperative eyelid edema, and periorbital ecchymosis in rhinoplasty. Data Sources and Study Selection: For this systematic review of randomized clinical trials, searches were performed in PubMed, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, SCOPUS, Science Direct, Google Scholar, OpenThesis, and ClinicalTrials...
August 9, 2018: JAMA Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
Eugene A Lowry, Evan Kalin-Hajdu, Robert C Kersten, M Reza Vagefi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 9, 2018: JAMA Ophthalmology
Bernardo Innocenti, Gusztáv Fekete, Silvia Pianigiani
Augments are a common solution for treating bone loss in revision total knee arthroplasty and industry is providing to surgeons several options, in terms of material, thickness and shapes. Actually, while the choice of the shape and the thickness is mainly dictated by the bone defect, no proper guidelines are currently available to select the optimal material for a specific clinical situation. Nevertheless, different materials could induce different bone responses and, later, potentially compromise implant stability and performances...
July 23, 2018: Journal of Biomechanical Engineering
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