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Vitamin C and Sepsis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30286493/-do-vitamins-play-a-role-in-the-pathogenesis-and-therapy-of-sepsis
#1
Ulrich Häussler, Reimer Riessen, Michael Haap
Hospital mortality of severe sepsis and septic shock is still around 40 % according to recent studies. In accordance to the current sepsis definition, sepsis is a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated response of the organism to infection. Septic shock is defined by vasopressor-dependent circulatory failure and lactic acidosis. Patients with sepsis and septic shock are often old and/or characterized by severe comorbidities, e. g. tumor or liver disease. These factors also predispose to malnutrition and hence to a corresponding deficiency of essential nutritional components e...
October 2018: Deutsche Medizinische Wochenschrift
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30274009/the-association-between-serum-uric-acid-level-and-prognosis-in-critically-ill-patients-uric-acid-as-a-prognosis-predictor
#2
Mehtap Pehlivanlar-Kucuk, Ahmet O Kucuk, Cagatay E Ozturk, Mehmet C Er, Fatma Ulger
BACKGROUND: Uric acid is synthesized from xanthine via xanthine oxidase as an end-product of purine metabolism. Uric acid is a major non-enzymatic antioxidant in the blood, and it exerts a protective action on vitamin C. There are a limited number of ICU studies related to uric acid, which is a valuable prognostic biomarker. This study aimed to evaluate the utility of uric acid as a biomarker in predicting the outcomes of critically ill patients. METHODS: This prospective, multi-centered cohort study included 128 patients from two different intensive care units who met the study inclusion criteria between May 2017 and October 2017...
September 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30230568/accuracy-of-point-of-care-blood-glucose-level-measurements-in-critically-ill-patients-with-sepsis-receiving-high-dose-intravenous-vitamin-c
#3
Kathryn E Smith, Caitlin S Brown, Bridget M Manning, Teresa May, Richard R Riker, Patricia A Lerwick, Timothy L Hayes, Gilles L Fraser
STUDY OBJECTIVE: High-dose intravenous vitamin C is a potential treatment option for patients with sepsis and may interfere with point-of-care (POC) blood glucose testing. This study aimed to determine if vitamin C dosing used for sepsis affected POC blood glucose level results. DESIGN: Prospective observational pilot study. SETTING: Intensive care unit in a large, academic, tertiary care medical center. PATIENTS: Five consecutive critically ill adults hospitalized between April 1 and June 1, 2017, who received two or more doses of intravenous vitamin C 1500 mg for treatment of sepsis and had at least two paired POC blood glucose levels and laboratory venous blood glucose levels measured within 1 hour of each other during vitamin C therapy...
September 19, 2018: Pharmacotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30098738/emerging-adjunctive-approach-for-the-treatment-of-sepsis-vitamin-c-and-thiamine
#4
REVIEW
Jennifer E Badeaux, Jennifer B Martin
Evidence is emerging that parenteral administration of high-dose vitamin C and thiamine may be a beneficial adjuvant therapy of severe sepsis and septic shock. Despite modern practices in critical care medicine, sepsis and severe sepsis remain a leading cause of morbidity and mortality in the critical care unit.
September 2018: Critical Care Nursing Clinics of North America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30060468/vitamin-c-to-improve-organ-dysfunction-in-cardiac-surgery-patients-review-and-pragmatic-approach
#5
REVIEW
Aileen Hill, Sebastian Wendt, Carina Benstoem, Christina Neubauer, Patrick Meybohm, Pascal Langlois, Neill Kj Adhikari, Daren K Heyland, Christian Stoppe
The pleiotropic biochemical and antioxidant functions of vitamin C have sparked recent interest in its application in intensive care. Vitamin C protects important organ systems (cardiovascular, neurologic and renal systems) during inflammation and oxidative stress. It also influences coagulation and inflammation; its application might prevent organ damage. The current evidence of vitamin C's effect on pathophysiological reactions during various acute stress events (such as sepsis, shock, trauma, burn and ischemia-reperfusion injury) questions whether the application of vitamin C might be especially beneficial for cardiac surgery patients who are routinely exposed to ischemia/reperfusion and subsequent inflammation, systematically affecting different organ systems...
July 27, 2018: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30059460/vitamin-c-in-burns-sepsis-and-trauma
#6
Tanya Anand, Ruby Skinner
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30021102/applications-of-vitamin-d-in-sepsis-prevention
#7
Fernanda A C Takeuti, Fernando de S F Guimaraes, Paulo de S F Guimaraes
Vitamin D (VD) is a steroid prohormone that regulates the body's calcium and phosphate levels in bone mineralization. It is also well described as a fat-soluble vitamin playing an important role in immunomodulation, regulation of cytokines, and cell proliferation. Thus, VD is a powerful hormone with pleiotropic effects, which acts to maintain optimal health. Recent studies demonstrate that VD deficiency is associated with the development of cardiovascular diseases, autoimmune disorders, and various types of cancer, each associated with increased mortality rates...
June 2018: Discovery Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29984680/a-review-of-micronutrients-in-sepsis-the-role-of-thiamine-l-carnitine-vitamin-c-selenium-and-vitamin-d
#8
Justin B Belsky, Charles R Wira, Vinitha Jacob, John E Sather, Patty J Lee
Sepsis is defined as the dysregulated host response to an infection resulting in life-threatening organ dysfunction. The metabolic demand from inefficiencies in anaerobic metabolism, mitochondrial and cellular dysfunction, increased cellular turnover, and free-radical damage result in the increased focus of micronutrients in sepsis as they play a pivotal role in these processes. In the present review, we will evaluate the potential role of micronutrients in sepsis, specifically, thiamine, l-carnitine, vitamin C, Se and vitamin D...
July 9, 2018: Nutrition Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29937272/lipid-peroxidation-drives-gasdermin-d-mediated-pyroptosis-in-lethal-polymicrobial-sepsis
#9
Rui Kang, Ling Zeng, Shan Zhu, Yangchun Xie, Jiao Liu, Qirong Wen, Lizhi Cao, Min Xie, Qitao Ran, Guido Kroemer, Haichao Wang, Timothy R Billiar, Jianxin Jiang, Daolin Tang
Sepsis is a life-threatening condition caused by pathogen infection and associated with pyroptosis. Pyroptosis occurs upon activation of proinflammatory caspases and their subsequent cleavage of gasdermin D (GSDMD), resulting in GSDMD N-terminal fragments that form membrane pores to induce cell lysis. Here, we show that antioxidant defense enzyme glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and its ability to decrease lipid peroxidation, negatively regulate macrophage pyroptosis, and septic lethality in mice. Conditional Gpx4 knockout in myeloid lineage cells increases lipid peroxidation-dependent caspase-11 activation and GSDMD cleavage...
July 11, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29929215/hypercrosslinked-polymeric-restricted-access-materials-for-analysis-of-biological-fluids
#10
Alekxander Popov, Zinaida K Blinnikova, Maria P Tsyurupa, Vadim A Davankov
New restricted access materials based on microporous hypercrosslinked polystyrene have been developed. The materials are aimed to use as packings for solid-phase extraction cartridges to isolate low-molecular-weight analytes from biological fluids (for instance, blood plasma or serum). Two features distinguish these polymers from all known restricted access materials. The first one consists of the microporous hypercrosslinked polystyrene that not only exclude proteins from the sorbent phase but also do not adsorb them on the bead outer surface, and so they do not cause coagulation of blood protein components...
August 2018: Journal of Separation Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29904596/scepticaemia-the-impact-on-the-health-system-and-patients-of-delaying-new-treatments-with-uncertain-evidence-a-case-study-of-the-sepsis-bundle
#11
Robin Blythe, David Cook, Nicholas Graves
BACKGROUND: A sepsis care bundle of intravenous vitamin C, thiamine, and hydrocortisone was reported to improve treatment outcomes. The data to support it are uncertain and decision makers are likely to be cautious about adopting it. The objective of this study was to model the opportunity costs in dollars and lives of waiting for better information before adopting the bundle. METHODS: A decision tree was built using information from the literature. We modelled the impact of bundle adoption under three scenarios using a simulation in which the bundle was effective as reported in the primary trial, less effective based on other information, and ineffective...
2018: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29864039/vitamin-c-should-we-supplement
#12
Angélique M E Spoelstra-de Man, Paul W G Elbers, Heleen M Oudemans-Van Straaten
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Hypovitaminosis C and vitamin C deficiency are very common in critically ill patients due to increased needs and decreased intake. Because vitamin C has pleiotropic functions, deficiency can aggravate the severity of illness and hamper recovery. RECENT FINDINGS: Vitamin C is a key circulating antioxidant with anti-inflammatory and immune-supporting effects, and a cofactor for important mono and dioxygenase enzymes. An increasing number of preclinical studies in trauma, ischemia/reperfusion, and sepsis models show that vitamin C administered at pharmacological doses attenuates oxidative stress and inflammation, and restores endothelial and organ function...
August 2018: Current Opinion in Critical Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791315/incidence-of-early-onset-sepsis-in-infants-born-to-women-with-clinical-chorioamnionitis
#13
Tara M Randis, Madeline Murguia Rice, Leslie Myatt, Alan T N Tita, Kenneth J Leveno, Uma M Reddy, Michael W Varner, John M Thorp, Brian M Mercer, Mara J Dinsmoor, Susan M Ramin, Marshall W Carpenter, Philip Samuels, Anthony Sciscione, Jorge E Tolosa, George Saade, Yoram Sorokin
Objective To determine the frequency of sepsis and other adverse neonatal outcomes in women with a clinical diagnosis of chorioamnionitis. Methods We performed a secondary analysis of a multi-center placebo-controlled trial of vitamins C/E to prevent preeclampsia in low risk nulliparous women. Clinical chorioamnionitis was defined as either the "clinical diagnosis" of chorioamnionitis or antibiotic administration during labor because of an elevated temperature or uterine tenderness in the absence of another cause...
October 25, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29739069/association-between-vitamin-d-status-and-sepsis
#14
Wei Zhou, Song Mao, Liangxia Wu, Jun Yu
BACKGROUND: It is well-established that vitamin D status is closely associated with the susceptibility to infections. We aimed to study the association between vitamin D status and sepsis risk and death, and also analyzed the correlation between vitamin D level and sepsis-related factors. METHODS: We searched the articles regarding the association between vitamin D level and sepsis through May 2017 in electronic databases. We pooled the data and analyzed the association between vitamin D level and sepsis risk, death, and albumin (ALB), mortality, body mass index (BMI), procalcitonin (PCT), male/female ratio, interleukin-6 (IL-6), platelet (PLT), c-reactive protein (CRP) and white blood cell (WBC)...
April 1, 2018: Clinical Laboratory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684467/vitamin-c-for-the-treatment-of-sepsis-the-scientific-rationale
#15
REVIEW
Paul E Marik
Most vertebrates can synthesize vitamin C with synthesis increasing during stress. Humans, however, have lost the ability to synthesize vitamin C. Vitamin C is an important anti-oxidant and an enzyme cofactor for many important biological reactions. Sepsis results in the overwhelming production of reactive oxygen species with widespread endothelial, cellular and mitochondrial injury leading to progressive organ failure. Sepsis is associated with an acute deficiency of vitamin C. In experimental sepsis models, intravenous vitamin C reduces organ injury and improves survival...
September 2018: Pharmacology & Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590167/serum-vitamin-d-concentrations-in-hospitalized-critically-ill-dogs
#16
Jared A Jaffey, Robert C Backus, Kaylyn M McDaniel, Amy E DeClue
Hypovitaminosis D has been extensively documented in critically ill humans. However, whether or not critically ill dogs have alterations in vitamin D concentrations remains unconfirmed. The primary aims of our study were to compare serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D] concentrations in critically ill dogs with healthy control dogs, determine the prognostic utility of serum 25(OH)D concentration as a biomarker in critically ill dogs, and to assess if serum 25(OH)D concentrations in critically ill dogs are associated with length of stay in the intensive care unit or illness severity...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559543/bet-2-does-intravenous-vitamin-c-improve-mortality-in-patients-with-severe-sepsis
#17
REVIEW
Mohammed Sheikh, Daniel Horner
A shortcut review was carried out to establish whether the use of intravenous vitamin C can reduce mortality or morbidity in patients diagnosed in the early phases of severe sepsis. Three directly relevant papers were found using the reported search strategy. The author, date and country of publication; patient group studied; study type; relevant outcomes; results and study weaknesses of the best papers are tabulated. It is concluded that there is insufficient high-quality research to justify the routine use of vitamin C in severe sepsis...
April 2018: Emergency Medicine Journal: EMJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29530503/vitamin-d-deficiency-and-vitamin-d-receptor-variants-in-mothers-and-their-neonates-are-risk-factors-for-neonatal-sepsis
#18
Safaa I Tayel, Shimaa E Soliman, Hanan M Elsayed
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Increasing prevalence of neonatal sepsis in recent years catch attention to early prevention and management. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) polymorphism can modulate VDR expression level that greatly influences immunity and susceptibility to microbial infections. We aimed to investigate the association of VDR polymorphism at FokI, rs2228570 T/C, and TaqI, rs731236 C/T gene with serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level and risk of neonatal sepsis. METHODS: This work carried on 160 subjects classified into 80 cases (40 mothers and their 40 septic neonates) and 80 healthy controls (40 volunteer mothers and their 40 healthy neonates)...
June 2018: Steroids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29438178/treatment-of-pancreatic-cancer-with-intravenous-vitamin-c-a-case-report
#19
Jeanne A Drisko, Oscar K Serrano, Lisa R Spruce, Qi Chen, Mark Levine
Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a dismal prognosis and is often discovered at an advanced stage with few therapeutic options. Current conventional regimens for PDA are associated with significant morbidity, decreased quality of life, and a considerable financial burden. As a result, some patients turn to integrative medicine therapies as an alternate option after a diagnosis of PDA. Intravenous pharmacologic ascorbic acid (PAA) is one such treatment. The use of PAA has been passionately debated for many years, but more recent rigorous scientific research has shown that there are significant blood concentration differences when ascorbic acid is given parenterally when compared to oral dosing...
April 2018: Anti-cancer Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29310566/analysis-of-oxidative-stress-related-markers-in-critically-ill-polytrauma-patients-an-observational-prospective-single-center-study
#20
Mihai Sandesc, Alexandru Florin Rogobete, Ovidiu Horea Bedreag, Anca Dinu, Marius Papurica, Carmen Alina Cradigati, Mirela Sarandan, Sonia Elena Popovici, Lavinia Melania Bratu, Tiberiu Bratu, Adrian Tudor Stan, Dorel Sandesc
Critically ill polytrauma patients have increased production of free radicals (FRs) and consequent alterations in biochemical pathways, as well as disruption of cellular integrity, due to increased lipid peroxidation. The aim of this study was to investigate several biomarkers associated with increased oxidative stress in critically ill polytrauma patients, and to evaluate the effect of antioxidant treatment on the clinical outcome in these patients. A total of 67 polytrauma patients from an intensive care unit met the selection criteria...
May 20, 2018: Bosnian Journal of Basic Medical Sciences
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