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Bone regeneration

Lindsay A Dawson, Paula P Schanes, Patrick Kim, Felisha M Imholt, Osama Qureshi, Connor P Dolan, Ling Yu, Mingquan Yan, Katherine N Zimmel, Alyssa R Falck, Ken Muneoka
While mammals cannot regenerate amputated limbs, mice and humans have regenerative ability restricted to amputations transecting the digit tip, including the terminal phalanx (P3). In mice the regeneration process is epimorphic and mediated by the formation of a blastema comprised of undifferentiated proliferating cells that differentiate to regenerate the amputated structures. Blastema formation distinguishes the regenerative response from a scar-forming healing response. The mouse digit tip serves as a pre-clinical model to investigate mammalian blastema formation and endogenous regenerative capabilities...
August 18, 2018: Wound Repair and Regeneration
Hnin Ei Thu, Zahid Hussain, Isa Naina Mohamed, Ahmad Nazrun Shuid
BACKGROUND: Eurycoma longifolia (E. longifolia) has gained remarkable recognition due to its promising efficacy of stimulating bone formation in androgen-deficient osteoporosis. Numerous in vivo studies have explored the effects of E. longifolia on osteoporosis; however, the in vitro cellular mechanism was not discovered yet. OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed to investigate the effect of E. longifolia on the proliferation, differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts and the translational mechanism of inhibition of osteoclastogenesis using RAW 264...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Ayurveda and Integrative Medicine
R PranavKumar Shadamarshan, Harini Balaji, Harsha Shrihari Rao, K Balagangadharan, S Viji Chandran, N Selvamurugan
Trans-anethole (TA) is a phenolic phytocompound widely used in the food and health sector because of its diverse biological properties. However, its role in the promotion of bone formation is not known. With the enhanced bioavailability of TA, we aimed to determine its effect on osteogenesis; TA at different concentrations (5, 10, and 20 μM) was loaded onto polycaprolactone (PCL)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) fibers by the electrospinning technique. The synthesized PCL/PVP + TA fibers were subjected to physiochemical and material characterization...
August 8, 2018: Colloids and Surfaces. B, Biointerfaces
Qin Zhou, Huimin Zhu, Dongmei He, Chi Yang, Xinyu Song, Edward Ellis
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to evaluate the stability of disc position and condylar status by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) after temporomandibular joint (TMJ) disc repositioning surgery with a miniscrew anchor technique. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Patients diagnosed with anterior disc displacement (ADD) and operated on for disc repositioning from 2010 through 2016 were included in the study. MRI scans within 1 week after operation (T1) and during at least 1-year follow-up were used to evaluate changes in disc position and condylar bone...
July 24, 2018: Journal of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery
Simone Mastrogiacomo, Alicja E Kownacka, Weiqiang Dou, Benjamin P Burke, Rafael T M de Rosales, Arend Heerschap, John A Jansen, Stephen J Archibald, X Frank Walboomers
Direct in vivo monitoring of bioconstructs using noninvasive imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) or computed tomography (CT) is not possible for many materials. Calcium phosphate-based composites (CPCs) that are applicable to bone regeneration are an example where the materials have poor MRI and CT contrast; hence, they are challenging to detect in vivo. In this study, a CPC construct is designed with gadolinium-oxide nanoparticles incorporated to act as an MRI/CT multimodal contrast agent...
August 17, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Sila Cagri Isler, Fatma Soysal, Tugce Ceyhanlı, Batuhan Bakırarar, Berrin Unsal
BACKGROUND: Platelet concentration based membranes, as well as collagen membranes in combination with bone substitutes, have demonstrated successful outcomes in regeneration of peri-implant bone defects (PBD). PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical and radiographic outcomes of regenerative surgical treatment (RST) of peri-implantitis using a bone substitute combined with two different bioresorbable barrier membranes, either collagen membrane (CM) or concentrated growth factor (CGF), during 12-month follow-up...
August 17, 2018: Clinical Implant Dentistry and related Research
Myron Nevins, Gerardo Mendoza-Azpur, Nicola De Angelis, David M Kim
This clinical investigation was performed to determine the efficacy of cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive to enhance soft and hard tissue healing of extraction wounds requiring a regenerative effort. Fourteen patients requiring a total of 25 tooth extractions were selected. Twenty sockets were treated with cyanoacrylate tissue adhesive over an exposed collagen barrier membrane without altering the mucogingival junction, while five extraction sockets were allowed to heal by the secondary healing intention as well but without tissue adhesive application...
2018: International Journal of Periodontics & Restorative Dentistry
Xianbin Zhang, Hanna Tiainen, Håvard J Haugen
TiO2 scaffolds have previously shown to have promising osteoconductive properties in previous in vivo experiments. Appropriate mechanical stimuli can further promote this osteoconductive behaviour. However, the complex mechanical environment and the mechanical stimuli enhancing bone regeneration for porous bioceramics have not yet been fully elucidated. This paper aims to compare and evaluate mechanical environment of TiO2 scaffold with three commercial CaP biomaterials, i.e. Bio-Oss, Cerabone and Maxresorb under simulated perfusion culture conditions...
August 16, 2018: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
Algimantas Gaubys, Valdas Papeckys, Mindaugas Pranskunas
Objectives: To overview preclinical animal trials and quantify the effect size that stem cell therapy has on the regeneration of periodontal tissue complex. Material and Methods: A systematic MEDLINE (PubMed) online library search was conducted for preclinical animal studies in vivo , using autologous periodontal ligament, dental pulp, cementum, alveolar periosteal, gingival margin or adipose stem cell types for periodontal tissue complex regeneration purposes. Studies had to be published between 2007...
April 2018: Journal of Oral & Maxillofacial Research
Bo Jia, Zhaoqiang Zhang, Xiaoling Qiu, Hongxing Chu, Xiang Sun, Xianghuai Zheng, Jianjiang Zhao, Qin Li
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are bone marrow stromal cells capable of differentiating into different tissue types. Osteoblastic differentiation is a complex process that is critical for bone formation. An increasing number of studies have suggested that microRNAs (miRNAs) may serve important roles in various biological processes, including osteogenesis of MSCs. However, less is known about the participation of particular miRNAs in the osteogenic differentiation of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs). In order to identify functional miRNAs and the key genes involved in the osteogenesis of MSCs, the present study reconstructed a global network using data from the National Center for Biotechnology Information Gene Expression Omnibus...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Rodrigo Correa, Jesús Arenas, Gonzalo Montoya, Lía Hoz, Sonia López, Fabiola Salgado, Rita Arroyo, Nahúm Salmeron, Enrique Romo, Margarita Zeichner-David, Higinio Arzate
The use of recombinant proteins has revolutionized the development of biologic pharmaceuticals; however, they are not free of complications. Some have very high molecular weight, some demonstrate in vivo instability, and the high cost of producing them remains a major problem. On the other hand, it has been shown that peptides derived from active domains keep their biologic activity and can trigger events, such as osteogenesis and bone regeneration. Small peptides are advantageous because of their ease of synthesis and handling and their low immunogenic activity...
August 16, 2018: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
Bo Kong, Grace L Guo
Pregnane X receptor (PXR) has been known as a xenobiotic nuclear receptor and transcriptional factor that is important for inducing the expression of genes involved in drug disposition (1, 2). Recently, PXR has emerged to critically regulate endobiotic metabolism, including the homeostasis of glucose, lipids, steroids, bile acids, bilirubin, retinoids and bone minerals, and maybe implicated in the treatment of cholestasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and nonalcoholic fatty liver diseases (3). PXR activation is also well known to increase liver size and cause liver hypertrophy...
August 16, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Guoqing Li, Nannan Han, Xiuli Zhang, Haoqing Yang, Yangyang Cao, Songlin Wang, Zhipeng Fan
Background: Discovering suitable seeding cells and simple application technique will be beneficial for MSC-mediated treatment of periodontitis. Stem cells from apical papilla (SCAPs) might be the candidate seeding cell for the periodontal tissues regeneration based on their origin and characters. In this research, we investigated the effect of SCAPs on periodontal tissue regeneration in swine by local injection. Methods: We established experimental periodontitis model in miniature pigs and then treated them with SCAPs by local injection...
2018: BioMed Research International
Xu Yan, Zhenhua Zhou, Lixin Guo, Zhaochi Zeng, Zhongkai Guo, Qingdong Shao, Weidong Xu
Bone fractures are a worldwide public health concern. Previous studies have demonstrated that bone morphogenetic protein-7 (BMP7) gene transfer or mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) transplantation may be a promising novel therapeutic approach. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to observe the effect of bone BMP7 transfer to MSCs on fracture healing. Bone marrow-derived MSCs (BMSCs) from New Zealand white rabbits were isolated and identified using flow cytometry. A recombinant BMP7 overexpressing adenovirus vector (Adv) was constructed and transfected into BMSCs...
August 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Somasundaram Prasadh, Santhosh Suresh, Raymond Wong
Scaffolds are physical substrates for cell attachments, proliferation, and differentiation, ultimately leading to tissue regeneration. Current literature validates tissue engineering as an emerging tool for bone regeneration. Three-dimensionally printed natural and synthetic biomaterials have been traditionally used for tissue engineering. In recent times, graphene and its derivatives are potentially employed for constructing bone tissue engineering scaffolds because of their osteogenic and regenerative properties...
August 14, 2018: Materials
Jose R Perez, Dimitrios Kouroupis, Deborah J Li, Thomas M Best, Lee Kaplan, Diego Correa
Bone fractures and segmental bone defects are a significant source of patient morbidity and place a staggering economic burden on the healthcare system. The annual cost of treating bone defects in the US has been estimated to be $5 billion, while enormous costs are spent on bone grafts for bone injuries, tumors, and other pathologies associated with defective fracture healing. Autologous bone grafts represent the gold standard for the treatment of bone defects. However, they are associated with variable clinical outcomes, postsurgical morbidity, especially at the donor site, and increased surgical costs...
2018: Frontiers in Bioengineering and Biotechnology
Cinzia Rota, Marina Morigi, Domenico Cerullo, Martino Introna, Ornella Colpani, Daniela Corna, Chiara Capelli, Ton J Rabelink, Danielle G Leuning, Daniela Rottoli, Ariela Benigni, Carlamaria Zoja, Giuseppe Remuzzi
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stromal cell (MSC)-based therapy is a promising strategy for preventing the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD), with the potential to induce tissue regeneration. In search of the best cellular source we compared, in the rat model of adriamycin (ADR) nephropathy, the regenerative potential of human stromal cells of non-renal origin, such as bone marrow (bm) MSCs and umbilical cord (uc) MSCs, with that of newly discovered stromal cells of renal origin, the kidney perivascular cells (kPSCs) known to exhibit tissue-specific properties...
August 14, 2018: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
S Preethi Soundarya, A Haritha Menon, S Viji Chandran, N Selvamurugan
In the recent years, a paradigm shift is taking place where metallic/synthetic implants and tissue grafts are being replaced by tissue engineering approach. A well designed three-dimensional scaffold is one of the fundamental tools to guide tissue formation in vitro and in vivo. Bone is a highly dynamic and an integrative tissue, and thus enormous efforts have been invested in bone tissue engineering to design a highly porous scaffold which plays a critical role in guiding bone growth and regeneration. Numerous techniques have been developed to fabricate highly interconnected, porous scaffold for bone tissue engineering applications with the help of biomolecules such as chitosan, collagen, gelatin, silk, etc...
August 11, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Dongchang Zhao, Yeung-Hyen Kim, Seihwan Jeong, Joel K Greenson, Mohammed S Chaudhry, Matthias Hoepting, Erik R Anderson, Marcel Rm van den Brink, Jonathan U Peled, Antonio Lc Gomes, Ann E Slingerland, Michael J Donovan, Andrew C Harris, John E Levine, Umut Özbek, Lora V Hooper, Thaddeus S Stappenbeck, Aaron M Ver Heul, Ta-Chiang Liu, Pavan Reddy, James Lm Ferrara
Graft-versus-host disease (GVHD) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract remains the major cause of morbidity and non-relapse mortality after bone marrow transplantation (BMT). The Paneth cell protein, regenerating islet-derived 3-alpha (REG3α), is a biomarker specific for GI GVHD. REG3α serum levels rose in the systematic circulation as GVHD progressively destroyed Paneth cells and reduced GI epithelial barrier function. Paradoxically, GVHD suppressed intestinal REG3γ (the mouse homologue of human REG3α), and the absence of REG3γ in BMT recipients intensified GVHD but did not change the composition of the microbiome...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Clinical Investigation
Bettina Hafen, Susanne Wiesner, Katrin Schlegelmilch, Alexander Keller, Lothar Seefried, Regina Ebert, Heike Walles, Franz Jakob, Norbert Schütze
Multipotent adult stem cells/precursor cells, especially of the mesenchymal and endothelial lineage, may have great potential for bone tissue engineering. Although their potential is highly recognized, not much is known about the underlying molecular mechanisms that initiate the regeneration process, connect osteogenesis, and angiogenesis and, finally, orchestrate renewal of bone tissue. Our study addressed these questions by generating two in vitro cell culture models to examine the changes in the global gene expression patterns of endothelial precursor cells and mesenchymal stem cells after 24 hours of either humoral (conditioned medium) or direct cell-cell interaction (co-culture)...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
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