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Bone regeneration

Maria Clara Ponce, Alessandro Rozim Zorzi, João Batista de Miranda, Eliane Maria Ingrid Amstalden
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to develop a new histological scoring system for use in a partial-thickness cartilage repair animal model. Although previous papers have investigated the regeneration of articular cartilage, the good results achieved in small animals have not been replicated in large animal models or humans, possibly because of the frequent use of models with perforation of the subchondral bone plates. Partial-thickness lesions spare the subchondral bone, and this pattern is the most frequent in humans; therefore, new therapies should be tested using this model...
November 29, 2018: Clinics
Takashi Kido, Shigeru Miyagawa, Takasumi Goto, Katsuto Tamai, Takayoshi Ueno, Koichi Toda, Toru Kuratani, Yoshiki Sawa
OBJECTIVES: We hypothesized that systemic administration of high-mobility group box 1 fragment attenuates the progression of myocardial fibrosis and cardiac dysfunction in a hamster model of dilated cardiomyopathy by recruiting bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells thus causing enhancement of a self-regeneration system. METHODS: Twenty-week-old J2N-k hamsters, which are δ-sarcoglycan-deficient, were treated with systemic injection of high-mobility group box 1 fragment (HMGB1, n = 15) or phosphate buffered saline (control, n = 11)...
2018: PloS One
Joanna Maria Sadowska, Jordi Guillem-Marti, Maria-Pau Ginebra
Calcium phosphate (CaP) substrates are successfully used as bone grafts due to their osteogenic properties. However, the influence of the physicochemical features of CaPs in angiogenesis is frequently neglected despite it being a crucial process for bone regeneration. The present work focuses on analyzing the effects of textural parameters of biomimetic calcium deficient hydroxyapatite (CDHA) and sintered beta-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP), such as specific surface area, surface roughness, and microstructure, on the behavior of rat endothelial progenitor cells (rEPCs) and their crosstalk with rat mesenchymal stem cells (rMSCs)...
December 5, 2018: Advanced Healthcare Materials
Xinxin Zhu, Bruno Péault, Guijun Yan, Haixiang Sun, Yali Hu, Lijun Ding
Monthly changes in the endometrial cycle indicate the presence of endometrial stem cells. In recent years, various stem cells that exist in the endometrium have been identified and characterized. Additionally, many studies have shown that bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) provide an alternative source for regenerating the endometrium and repairing endometrial injury. This review discusses the origin of endometrial stem cells, the characteristics and main biomarkers among five types of putative endometrial stem cells, applications of endometrium-derived stem cells and menstrual blood-derived stem cells, the association between BM-MSCs and endometrial stem cells, and progress in repairing endometrial injury...
December 5, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Benjamin Mesure, Patrick Menu, Jagadeesh Kumar Venkatesan, Magali Cucchiarini, Émilie Velot
Musculoskeletal pathologies, especially those affecting bones and joints, remain a challenge for regenerative medicine. The main difficulties affecting bone tissue engineering are the size of the defects, the need for blood vessels and the synthesis of appropriate matrix elements in the engineered tissue. Indeed, the cartilage is an avascular tissue and consequently has limited regenerative abilities. Thanks to their self-renewal, plasticity and immunomodulatory properties, mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) became a central player in tissue engineering, and have already been shown to be able to differentiate towards chondrogenic or osteogenic phenotypes...
December 5, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Zhen Zhang, Hao Wen, Xiaobin Yang, Ke Zhang, Baorong He, Xinliang Zhang, Lingbo Kong
Bone homeostasis is strictly regulated by balanced activity of bone-forming osteoblasts and bone-resorbing osteoclasts.Disruption of the balance of activity between osteoblasts and osteoclasts leads to various metabolic bone diseases.Osteoclasts are cells of hematopoietic origin that they are large, multinucleated cells formed by the fusion of precursor cells of monocyte/macrophage lineage,they are unique cells that degrade the bone matrix. activation of transcription factors nuclear factor-activated T cells c1 (NFATc1) is required for sufficient osteoclast differentiation and it plays the role of a master transcription regulator of osteoclast differentiation,meanwhile,NFATc1 could be employed to elicit anabolic effects on bone...
December 5, 2018: Current Stem Cell Research & Therapy
Vincenzo Condello, Giuseppe Filardo, Vincenzo Madonna, Luca Andriolo, Daniele Screpis, Marco Bonomo, Marcello Zappia, Luca Dei Giudici, Claudio Zorzi
The aim of this study is to investigate clinical and radiographic outcomes of a biomimetic scaffold for the treatment of osteochondral knee lesions in patients with early OA. Study population was represented by 26 patients with a mean age of 44 years affected by early OA. Inclusion criteria were two episodes of knee pain for more than 10 days in the last year, Kellgren-Lawrence OA grade 0 or I or II, and arthroscopic findings of cartilage defects. Nineteen patients had a previous surgery, 11 of which were revision surgeries of osteochondral unit...
2018: BioMed Research International
Maolin Zhang, Wenwen Yu, Kunimichi Niibe, Wenjie Zhang, Hiroshi Egusa, Tingting Tang, Xinquan Jiang
Regenerative medicine for bone tissue mainly depends on efficient recruitment of endogenous or transplanted stem cells to guide bone regeneration. Platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF) is a functional factor that has been widely used in tissue regeneration and repair. However, the short half-life of PDGF limits its efficacy, and the mechanism by which PDGF regulates stem cell-based bone regeneration still needs to be elucidated. In this study, we established genetically modified PDGF-B-overexpressing bone marrow stromal cells (BMSCs) using a lentiviral vector and then explored the mechanism by which PDGF-BB regulates BMSC-based vascularized bone regeneration...
2018: Stem Cells International
John Zaki, Marwa Alnawawy, Nermin Yussif, Ahmed Elkhadem
BACKGROUND: Autogenous intraoral block grafting is the gold standard augmentation technique for moderate-to-severe horizontal ridge deficiency. However, the graft undergoes variable resorption during healing that might jeopardize the outcome of the procedure. Several studies hypothesized that covering the graft with a membrane decreases the amount of graft resorption, but this effect is not established in the literature. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study is to assess the clinical value of covering intraoral block grafts with membranes in horizontal ridge augmentation regarding graft resorption (primary outcome), graft success, net bone gain, and complications (secondary outcomes)...
December 2018: Journal of Evidence-based Dental Practice
Maha M F Mounir, Jamila M A Farsi, Turki Y Alhazzazi, Moustafa A Matar, Azza A El-Housseiny
BACKGROUND: Recombinant amelogenin protein (RAP) is reported to induce complete root apex formation in dog model when used as apexification therapy. It also induces pulp regeneration in 85% of the treated group. Thus, the aim of this study was to investigate the nature of the remaining regenerated calcified tissues of the RAP group that showed no pulp regeneration compared to the calcium hydroxide treated group (CH). METHODS: A total of 240 dogs' open apex root canals were used, after establishment of canals contamination...
December 4, 2018: BMC Oral Health
Özge Lalegül-Ülker, Şükran Şeker, Ayşe Eser Elçin, Yaşar Murat Elçin
Repair of volumetric muscle loss (VML) injuries is a complicated endeavour which necessitates the collaborative use of different regenerative approaches and technologies. Herein is proposed the development of fibrin-based microbeads (FMs) alone or as a bone marrow mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) encapsulation matrix for modular muscle engineering. FMs were generated through the ionotropic gelation of alginate and fibrinogen obtained from the platelet-rich plasma of whole blood, and then removing the alginate by citrate treatment...
December 4, 2018: Artificial Cells, Nanomedicine, and Biotechnology
Mengying Liu, Yonggang Lv
Bone defects caused by fracture, disease or congenital defect remains a medically important problem to be solved. Bone tissue engineering (BTE) is a promising approach by providing scaffolds to guide and support the treatment of bone defects. However, the autologous bone graft has many defects such as limited sources and long surgical procedures. Therefore, xenograft bone graft is considered as one of the best substitutions and has been effectively used in clinical practice. Due to better preserved natural bone structure, suitable mechanical properties, low immunogenicity, good osteoinductivity and osteoconductivity in natural bone graft, decellularized and demineralized bone matrix (DBM) scaffolds were selected and discussed in the present review...
December 3, 2018: Nanomaterials
Shichao Zhang, Malcolm M Q Xing, Bingyun Li
Many applications using drug-carrying biomedical materials require on-demand, localized delivery of multiple therapeutic agents in precisely controlled and patient-specific time sequences, especially after assembly of the delivery vehicles; however, creating such materials has proven extremely challenging. Here we report a novel strategy to create polypeptide multilayer films integrated with capsules as vehicles for co-delivery of multiple drugs using layer-by-layer self-assembly technology. Our approach allows the multilayered polypeptide nanofilms and pre-impregnated capsules to assemble into innovative biomedical materials with high and controllable loading of multiple drugs at any time post-preparation, and to achieve pH-responsive and sustained release...
December 4, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jiayong Yi, Dong Liu, Jian Xiao
Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ADSCs) are an important source of stem cells for tissue repair and regeneration but the regulatory mechanism of stem cell differentiation is still unclear. Runt-related gene 2 (Runx2) is a bone-specific transcription factor that plays an important role in promoting osteogenic differentiation. Protein levels of Runx2 are regulated by non-coding RNA. In order to identify the regulatory mechanism underlying non-coding RNA regulation of Runx2, we employed bioinformatics analysis, quantitative reverse transcription PCR (qRT-PCR), osteoblast differentiation induction, immunohistochemical and bifluorescein reporter experiments...
December 3, 2018: Cell and Tissue Research
A Longoni, L Knežević, K Schepers, H Weinans, A J W P Rosenberg, D Gawlitta
Tissue engineered cartilage substitutes, which induce the process of endochondral ossification, represent a regenerative strategy for bone defect healing. Such constructs typically consist of multipotent mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) forming a cartilage template in vitro, which can be implanted to stimulate bone formation in vivo. The use of MSCs of allogeneic origin could potentially improve the clinical utility of the tissue engineered cartilage constructs in three ways. First, ready-to-use construct availability can speed up the treatment process...
2018: NPJ Regenerative Medicine
Zhao Jing, Yan Yi, Huang Xi, Lun-Quan Sun, Li Yanping
Objective: Bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) transplantation has a therapeutic effect on the thin endometrium in animal researches and clinical trials. The present study aims at assessing whether transplantation of VEGF-transfected BMSCs (VEGF-BMSCs) have a better therapeutic effect on endometrial regeneration and endometrial receptivity compared with BMSCs therapy alone. Methods: Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in the study. Thin endometrium model was established with 95% ethanol injection into uterine...
2018: Stem Cells International
Saba Zahid, Abdul Samad Khan, Aqif Anwar Chaudhry, Sarah Ghafoor, Qurat Ul Ain, Ahtasham Raza, Muhammad Imran Rahim, Oliver Goerke, Ihtesham Ur Rehman, Asma Tufail
Development of a guided occlusive biodegradable membrane with controlled morphology in order to restrict the ingrowth of epithelial cells is still a challenge in dental tissue engineering. A bilayer membrane with a non-porous upper layer (polyurethane) and porous lower layer (polycaprolactone and bioactive glass composite) with thermoelastic properties to sustain surgery treatment was developed by lyophilization. Morphology, porosity, and layers attachment were controlled by using the multi-solvent system. In vitro and in vivo biocompatibility, cell attachment, and cell proliferation were analyzed by immunohistochemistry and histology...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biomaterials Applications
Jun-Beom Park
RATIONALE: The purpose of this report is to present a case of peri-implantitis with successful regeneration. The surface of the affected dental implant was decontaminated with an ultrasonic scaler and treated with bovine-derived hydroxyapatite and enamel matrix derivative. PATIENT CONCERNS: A 52-year-old male was referred for evaluation of a dental implant placed in the mandibular right second premolar area. DIAGNOSIS: The radiographic evaluation showed the loss of supporting bone around the dental implant...
November 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Zhiai Hu, Chi Ma, Yongxi Liang, Shujuan Zou, Xiaohua Liu
Diabetes mellitus (DM) affects hundreds of million people worldwide and the impaired bone healing is an important DM-related complication. Understanding how DM affects the activities of osteoclasts and the underlying mechanisms is crucial to the development of effective approaches for accelerating bone healing in DM condition. To date, however, the influence of DM on osteoclasts remains obscure and controversial. In this study, we established a type 2 DM (T2DM) alveolar bone defect model, which closely simulates the pathogenesis of human T2DM, to explore the diabetic osteoclast activity during bone regeneration...
November 30, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
Seong-Yeong Heo, Seok-Chun Ko, Gun-Woo Oh, Namwon Kim, Il-Whan Choi, Won Sun Park, Won-Kyo Jung
Fish bone extract (FBE) containing a trioligopeptide (FBP-KSA, Lys-Ser-Ala) isolated from Johnius belengerii could induce osteogenic activities on MC3T3-E1 pre-osteoblasts in our previous study. Regarding the osteogenic effect of FBE, in the present study, we fabricated the three-dimensional (3D) interconnected polycaprolactone (PCL)/FBE scaffolds for bone tissue regeneration. After fabrication of PCL scaffolds using 3D printing, FBE was coated on the surface of PCL scaffolds by self-assembly process. In the physical characteristic and mechanical property tests, the results demonstrated that the fabricated scaffolds have the strut diameter (between 340 and 345 μm), pore size (between 470 and 480 μm), porosity (between 50% and 55%), and tensile properties (Young's modulus: 9...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
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