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bacterial metabolism

Jennifer L Kaczmarek, Xiaoji Liu, Craig S Charron, Janet A Novotny, Elizabeth H Jeffery, Harold E Seifried, Sharon A Ross, Michael J Miller, Kelly S Swanson, Hannah D Holscher
The human gastrointestinal microbiota is increasingly linked to health outcomes; however, our understanding of how specific foods alter the microbiota is limited. Cruciferous vegetables such as broccoli are a good source of dietary fiber and phytonutrients, including glucosinolates, which can be metabolized by gastrointestinal microbes. This study aimed to determine the impact of broccoli consumption on the gastrointestinal microbiota of healthy adults. A controlled feeding, randomized, crossover study consisting of two 18-day treatment periods separated by a 24-day washout was conducted in healthy adults (n=18)...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Ki Hong Nam, Sang Ah Yi, Jaecheol Lee, Min Gyu Lee, Jee Hun Park, Hwamok Oh, Jieun Lee, Jong Woo Park, Jeung-Whan Han
Eudesmin has been reported to possess diverse therapeutic effects, including anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities. However, its molecular action has not been implicated in metabolic disease. In this study, we show that treatment of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) with eudesmin disturbs adipogenesis via suppression of S6K1 signaling pathway. Eudesmin treatment inhibited activation and nuclear translocation of S6K1. Consequently, S6K1-mediated phosphorylation of H2B at serine 36 (H2BS36p) was reduced upon eudesmin treatment, further inducing the expression of Wnt6, Wnt10a, and Wnt10b, which disturbed adipogenic differentiation...
October 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Yusong Jiang, Mengjun Huang, Meixia Zhang, Jianbi Lan, Weixun Wang, Xiang Tao, Yiqing Liu
Ginger (Zingiber officinale Roscoe), one of the most economically valuable plants in the Zingiberaceae family, is widely used as a spice and flavoring agent for beverages, bakery, confectionary, and pharmaceutics. Bacterial wilt disease, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, is one of the most detrimental production constraints in ginger cultivation. Field cultivation experiments indicated that soil moisture affects the incidence of bacterial wilt disease. However, the relationship between soil moisture and bacterial wilt incidence as well as the mechanism that underlie this infection remain unclear...
October 9, 2018: Plant Physiology and Biochemistry: PPB
Ferhat Can Özkaya, Weaam Ebrahim, Mona El-Neketi, T Tansel Tanrıkul, Rainer Kalscheuer, Werner E G Müller, Zhiyong Guo, Kun Zou, Zhen Liu, Peter Proksch
A comparative study on the metabolic profile of the sponge-associated fungus Aspergillus carneus using the OSMAC approach was conducted. The fungal strain was fermented on three different media including solid rice medium with or without sea salt and modified Czapek medium. Three new natural products, isopropylchaetominine (1), isoterrelumamide A (2) and 5'-epi-averufanin (3), together with fourteen known compounds (4-17) were isolated. The structures of the new compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopic analysis as well as by HRESIMS...
October 9, 2018: Fitoterapia
Gyorgy Baffy
Gut microbiota is the largest collection of commensal microorganisms in the human body, engaged in reciprocal cellular and molecular interactions with the liver. This mutually beneficial relationship may break down and result in dysbiosis, associated with disease phenotypes. Altered composition and function of gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathobiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a prevalent condition linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. NAFLD may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which is the result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and altered splanchnic circulation...
October 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Yusuke Kurihara, Ryota Itoh, Akinori Shimizu, Nirwana Fitriani Walenna, Bin Chou, Kazunari Ishii, Toshinori Soejima, Aya Fujikane, Kenji Hiromatsu
Chlamydia trachomatis is an obligate intracellular bacterium that scavenges host metabolic products for its replication. Mitochondria are the power plants of eukaryotic cells and provide most of the cellular ATP via oxidative phosphorylation. Several intracellular pathogens target mitochondria as part of their obligatory cellular reprogramming. This study was designed to analyze the mitochondrial morphological changes in response to C. trachomatis infection in HeLa cells. Mitochondrial elongation and fragmentation were found at the early stages and late stages of C...
October 12, 2018: Cellular Microbiology
Juliane Fischer, Sebastian Y Müller, Tina Netzker, Nils Jäger, Agnieszka Gacek-Matthews, Kirstin Scherlach, Maria C Stroe, María García-Altares, Francesco Pezzini, Hanno Schoeler, Michael Reichelt, Jonathan Gershenzon, Mario Kc Krespach, Ekaterina Shelest, Volker Schroeckh, Vito Valiante, Thorsten Heinzel, Christian Hertweck, Joseph Strauss, Axel A Brakhage
The eukaryotic epigenetic machinery can be modified by bacteria to reprogram the response of eukaryotes during their interaction with microorganisms. We discovered that the bacterium Streptomyces rapamycinicus triggered increased chromatin acetylation and thus activation of the silent secondary metabolism ors gene cluster in the fungus Aspergillus nidulans . Using this model we aim at understanding mechanisms of microbial communication based on bacteria-triggered chromatin modification. By genome-wide ChIP-seq analysis of acetylated histone H3 we uncovered the unique chromatin landscape in A...
October 12, 2018: ELife
Nitasha Sehgal, M Eileen Sylves, Ansuman Sahoo, Jacky Chow, Sarah E Walker, Paul J Cullen, James O Berry
Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) are a revolutionary tool based on a bacterial acquired immune response system. CRISPR has gained widespread use for gene editing in a variety of organisms and is an increasingly valuable tool for basic genetic research, with far-reaching implications for medicine, agriculture, and industry. This lab is based on the premise that upper division undergraduate students enrolled in a Life Sciences curriculum must become familiar with cutting edge advances in biotechnology that have significant impact on society...
October 12, 2018: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Education
Chenhe Wang, Yanfeng Zhou, Dawei Lv, You Ge, Huan Li, Yang You
As an important organ to maintain the host's homeostasis, intestinal microbes play an important role in development of the organism. In contrast to those of terrestrial animals, the intestinal microbes of aquatic organisms are affected by environmental microorganisms (including water microorganisms and sediment microorganisms). In the present study, the compositional differences of intestinal microbes in three representative developmental stages of the Chinese mitten crab (Eriocheir sinensis) were studied. Meanwhile, network association analysis, and visualization of the water microorganisms of the crabs' habitat, the environment microorganisms in the pond, and the intestinal microbes, was carried out...
October 11, 2018: MicrobiologyOpen
Tomislav Cernava, Ines Aline Aschenbrenner, Jung Soh, Christoph W Sensen, Martin Grube, Gabriele Berg
The role of host-associated microbiota in enduring dehydration and drought is largely unknown. We have used lichens to study this increasingly important problem because they are the organisms that are optimally adapted to reoccurring hydration/dehydration cycles, and they host a defined and persistent bacterial community. The analysis of metatranscriptomic datasets from bacterial communities of the lung lichen (Lobaria pulmonaria (L.) Hoffm.), sampled under representative hydration stages, revealed significant structural shifts and functional specialization to host conditions...
October 11, 2018: ISME Journal
Christian Robben, Susanne Fister, Anna Kristina Witte, Dagmar Schoder, Peter Rossmanith, Patrick Mester
Effective monitoring of microbial pathogens is essential for a successful preventive food safety and hygiene strategy. However, as most monitoring strategies are growth-based, these tests fail to detect pathogenic bacteria that have entered the viable but non-culturable (VBNC) state. The present study reports the induction of the VBNC state in five human pathogens by commercially available household cleaners in combination with inorganic salts. We determined that non-ionic surfactants, a common ingredient in household cleaners, can induce the VBNC state, when combined with salts...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
E L Sweeney, S S Al-Shehri, D M Cowley, H G Liley, N Bansal, B G Charles, P N Shaw, J A Duley, C L Knox
Neonates are exposed to microbes in utero and at birth, thereby establishing their microbiota (healthy microbial colonisers). Previously, we reported significant differences in the neonatal oral microbiota of breast-fed and formula-fed babies after first discovering a primal metabolic mechanism that occurs when breastmilk (containing the enzyme xanthine oxidase) and neonatal saliva (containing highly elevated concentrations of the substrates for xanthine oxidase: xanthine and hypoxanthine). The interaction of neonatal saliva and breast milk releases antibacterial compounds including hydrogen peroxide, and regulates the growth of bacteria...
October 11, 2018: Scientific Reports
Damini Sood, Neeraj Kumar, Aarushi Singh, Meena Kishore Sakharkar, Vartika Tomar, Ramesh Chandra
Fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotics are an important class of synthetic antibacterial agents. These are the most extensively used drugs for treating bacterial infections in the field of both human and veterinary medicine. Herein, the antibacterial and pharmacological properties of four fluoroquinolones: lomefloxacin, norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, and ofloxacin have been studied. The objective of this study was to analyze the antibacterial characteristics of the different fluoroquinolones. Also, the pharmacological properties of the compounds including the Lipinski rule of five, absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, LD50, drug likeliness, and toxicity were evaluated...
September 2018: Genomics & Informatics
Jing Tang, XiaoXin Tang, YangMei Qin, QiuShun He, Yin Yi, ZhiLiang Ji
Karst rocky desertification is a severe irreversible ecosystem failure. The karst ecosystem is so fragile that it is vulnerable to environmental changes, degrading into rocky desertification. Prior studies revealed the potential connections between the soil bacterial community, the edaphic properties and the aboveground vegetation cover in the karst ecosystem. However, how these three elements affect each other and work together in propelling in the karst rocky desertification progress largely remains unexplored...
February 1, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Jing Li, Jun-Tao Wang, Hang-Wei Hu, Zhang-Jie Cai, Yin-Ru Lei, Wei Li, Man-Yin Zhang, Zong-Ming Li, Yi-Nuo Zhu, Li-Juan Cui
Microorganisms play crucial roles in the nitrogen removal processes of wetlands. However, the key functional genes and microbes related to the nitrogen removal remain largely unknown in the free water surface constructed wetland (FWS CW). Here we studied the abundances of denitrifiers by targeting the key functional genes (nirS, nirK and nosZ) and investigated the community compositions of denitrifiers and their correlations with the abiotic variables in a FWS CW. The increase of nosZ/(nirS + nirK) and nirS/nirK ratios in the outlet indicated a shift of denitrifiers' communities which tended to release less nitrous oxide at the genetic potential level...
February 10, 2019: Science of the Total Environment
Nunzia Picone, Huub Jm Op den Camp
For decades rare earth elements (or lanthanides) were considered not to be involved in biological processes, until their discovery in the active site of the XoxF-type methanol dehydrogenase of the methanotrophic bacterium Methylacidiphilum fumariolicum SolV. Follow-up studies revealed the presence of lanthanides in other pyrroloquinoline quinone-containing enzymes involved in alcohol metabolism. This review discusses the biochemistry of the lanthanide-dependent enzymes and the ability of these metals of influencing the gene expression and the type of methanol dehydrogenase used by microorganisms...
October 8, 2018: Current Opinion in Chemical Biology
Hye-Jung Kim, Albert W Lee, Chongjin Park
Microbacterium foliorum is a naturally occurring bacteria in cruciferous vegetables and ripened cheese. The safety of M. foliorum SYG27B-MF has been assessed in both acute and subchronic studies and a battery of mutagenicity and clastogenicity tests. In a single dose acute study, the LD50 of M. foliorum SYG27B-MF was greater than 3 g/kg bw or 5.1 × 1016 colony forming unit (CFU)/kg bw, the highest dose tested. In a 90-day subchronic toxicity study in 80 Sprague-Dawley rats, no animals died and there were no treatment-related abnormalities at doses of 0, 500, 1000, or 2000 mg/kg bw...
October 8, 2018: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
Francisco Esteves, Diana Campelo, Philippe Urban, Sophie Bozonnet, Thomas Lautier, José Rueff, Gilles Truan, Michel Kranendonk
Cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are key enzymes involved in drug and xenobiotic metabolism. A wide array of in vitro methodologies, including recombinant sources, are currently been used to assess CYP catalysis, to identify the metabolic profile of compounds, potential drug-drug interactions, protein-protein interactions in the CYP enzyme complex and the role of polymorphic enzymes. We report here on a bacterial whole-cells high-throughput method for the activity evaluation of human CYP1A2, 2A6, and 3A4, when sustained by NADPH cytochrome P450 oxidoreductase (CPR), in the absence or presence of cytochrome b5 (CYB5)...
October 8, 2018: Biochemical Pharmacology
Bo-Hye Nam, Jisung Jang, Kelsey Caetano-Anolles, Young-Ok Kim, Jung Youn Park, Hawsun Sohn, Sook Hee Yoon, Heebal Kim, Woori Kwak
Haliotis discus hannai, a species of Pacific abalone, is a highly valuable food source throughout Northeast Asia. As H. discus hannai primarily feed on brown algae and largely extract their energy from algal polysaccharides, understanding the mechanisms by which they digest algal polysaccharides is essential for elucidating their energy metabolism. Gut microbes, as well as the host animal, are involved in the process of polysaccharide degradation. To identify algal polysaccharide-digestion mechanisms and their origin, we analyzed the metagenome and metatranscriptome of abalone visceral extracts...
2018: PloS One
E Bona, N Massa, G Novello, L Boatti, P Cesaro, V Todeschini, V Magnelli, M Manfredi, E Marengo, F Mignone, G Berta, G Lingua, E Gamalero
The rhizosphere is a hot spot of microbial activity where the release of root exudates stimulates bacterial density and diversity. The majority of the bacterial cells in soil results to be viable, unculturable, but active. Proteomic tools could be useful to gain information about microbial community activity and to better understand the real interactions pathways between roots and soil. The aim of this work was to characterize the bacterial community associated with Vitis vinifera cv. Pinot Noir roots using a metaproteome approach...
October 11, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
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