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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30107549/vicinal-land-use-change-strongly-drives-stream-bacterial-community-in-a-tropical-montane-catchment
#1
Huong T Le, Emma Rochelle-Newall, Yves Auda, Olivier Ribolzi, Oloth Sengtaheuanghoung, Elisa Thébault, Bounsamay Soulileuth, Thomas Pommier
Impact of land use (LU) change on stream environmental conditions and the inhabiting bacterial community remains rarely investigated, especially in tropical montane catchments. We examined the effects of LU change and its legacy along a tropical stream by comparing seasonal patterns of dissolved organic carbon (DOC)/colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in relation to variations in structure, diversity and metabolic capacities of particle-attached (PA) and free-living (FL) bacterial communities. We hypothesized that despite seasonal differences, hydrological flows that accumulate allochthonous carbon along the catchment are a major controlling factor of the bacterial community...
August 9, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30106293/-candidatus-liberibacter-asiaticus-minimally-alters-expression-of-immunity-and-metabolism-proteins-in-the-hemolymph-of-diaphorina-citri-the-insect-vector-of-huanglongbing
#2
Angela Kruse, John S Ramsey, Richard Johnson, David G Hall, Michael J MacCoss, Michelle Heck
Huanglongbing (HLB), also known as citrus greening disease, is the most serious disease of citrus plants. It is associated with the Gram-negative bacterium 'Candidatus Liberibacter asiaticus' (CLas), which is transmitted between host plants by the hemipteran insect vector Diaphorina citri in a circulative, propagative manner involving specific interactions with various insect tissues, including the hemolymph, fluid that occupies the body cavity akin to insect blood. High resolution quantitative mass spectrometry was performed to investigate the effect of CLas exposure on D...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Proteome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105955/mulberry-and-dandelion-water-extracts-prevent-alcohol-induced-steatosis-with-alleviating-gut-microbiome-dysbiosis
#3
Sunmin Park, Da S Kim, Xuangao Wu, Qiu J Yi
Chronic alcohol intake causes hepatic steatosis and changes the body composition and glucose metabolism. We examined whether water extracts of mulberry (WMB) and white flower dandelion ( Taraxacum coreanum Nakai, WTC) can prevent and/or delay the symptoms of chronic ethanol-induced hepatic steatosis in male Sprague Dawley rats, and explored the mechanisms. Ethanol degradation was examined by orally administering 3 g ethanol/kg bw after giving them 0.3 g/kg bw WMB or WTC. All rats were continuously provided about 7 g ethanol/kg bw/day for four weeks and were given either of 0...
July 2018: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105504/comparative-genomics-of-nitrogen-cycling-pathways-in-bacteria-and-archaea
#4
Michaeline B N Albright, Bibek Timalsina, Jennifer B H Martiny, John Dunbar
Despite the explosion of metagenomic sequencing data, using -omics data to predict environmental biogeochemistry remains a challenge. One or a few genes (referred to as marker genes) in a metabolic pathway of interest in meta-omic data are typically used to represent the prevalence of a biogeochemical reaction. This approach often fails to demonstrate a consistent relationship between gene abundance and an ecosystem process rate. One reason this may occur is if a marker gene is not a good representative of a complete pathway...
August 13, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30105081/effect-of-wine-wastes-extracts-on-the-viability-and-biofilm-formation-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-staphylococcus-aureus-strains
#5
Carolina María Viola, Romina Torres-Carro, Elena Cartagena, María Inés Isla, María Rosa Alberto, Mario Eduardo Arena
In this work, we intended to inhibit the biofilm synthesis and the metabolism of Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria using two highly available wastes (stem and marc) obtained after the manufacturing of Torrontes wine at Cafayate, Argentina. Wine wastes contain a significant amount of bioactive compounds, mainly phenolic compounds, which makes them a potential source of compounds with beneficial properties to human health, as they could inhibit the virulence of pathogenic bacteria or protect the tissue against oxidative stress...
2018: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30102294/development-of-a-synthetic-live-bacterial-therapeutic-for-the-human-metabolic-disease-phenylketonuria
#6
Vincent M Isabella, Binh N Ha, Mary Joan Castillo, David J Lubkowicz, Sarah E Rowe, Yves A Millet, Cami L Anderson, Ning Li, Adam B Fisher, Kip A West, Philippa J Reeder, Munira M Momin, Christopher G Bergeron, Sarah E Guilmain, Paul F Miller, Caroline B Kurtz, Dean Falb
Phenylketonuria (PKU) is a genetic disease that is characterized by an inability to metabolize phenylalanine (Phe), which can result in neurotoxicity. To provide a potential alternative to a protein-restricted diet, we engineered Escherichia coli Nissle to express genes encoding Phe-metabolizing enzymes in response to anoxic conditions in the mammalian gut. Administration of our synthetic strain, SYNB1618, to the Pahenu2/enu2 PKU mouse model reduced blood Phe concentration by 38% compared with the control, independent of dietary protein intake...
August 13, 2018: Nature Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101803/activity-assessment-of-microalgal-bacterial-consortia-based-on-respirometric-tests
#7
S Rossi, M Bellucci, F Marazzi, V Mezzanotte, E Ficara
Respirometric techniques are useful tools to evaluate bacterial activities in activated sludge processes due to their fast execution and the possibility to obtain several kinetic parameters from a single test. Using such techniques in microalgae-bacteria consortia treating wastewater could allow a better understanding of mutual interactions between the microbial populations as a function of environmental parameters. This work aims at developing and testing a novel experimental respirometric protocol to determine oxygen uptake rates and oxygen production rates by a microalgae-bacteria consortium...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101767/bacterial-species-diversity-as-an-indicator-of-dibromonitrilopropionamide-dbnpa-biocide-efficacy
#8
Kelley Reynolds-Clausen, Karen Surridge-Talbot, Marelize Botes, T Eugene Cloete
Microorganism growth in industrial systems is controlled through the use of biocides and biodispersants. There is, however, no simple means of determining the efficacy of these control mechanisms, but it is currently tested using complex bacterial culturing techniques. Biolog Ecoplates® have been used to detect bacterial population changes in various communities. These microtitre plates comprise 31 different carbon substrates (in triplicate) with wells. When a sample is added to the wells, bacteria capable of metabolising the relevant carbon sources respire the substrates, causing the tetrazolium dye in the well to turn purple, indicating a positive result...
August 2018: Water Science and Technology: a Journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30101405/implication-of-gut-microbiota-metabolites-in-cardiovascular-and-metabolic-diseases
#9
REVIEW
Francois Brial, Aurélie Le Lay, Marc-Emmanuel Dumas, Dominique Gauguier
Evidence from the literature keeps highlighting the impact of mutualistic bacterial communities of the gut microbiota on human health. The gut microbita is a complex ecosystem of symbiotic bacteria which contributes to mammalian host biology by processing, otherwise, indigestible nutrients, supplying essential metabolites, and contributing to modulate its immune system. Advances in sequencing technologies have enabled structural analysis of the human gut microbiota and allowed detection of changes in gut bacterial composition in several common diseases, including cardiometabolic disorders...
August 12, 2018: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30100619/the-gut-microbiome-is-associated-with-behavioural-task-in-honey-bees
#10
J C Jones, C Fruciano, J Marchant, F Hildebrand, S Forslund, P Bork, P Engel, W O H Hughes
The gut microbiome is recognised as playing an integral role in the health and ecology of a wide variety of animal taxa. However, the relationship between social behavioural traits and the microbial community has received little attention. Honey bees are highly social and the workers perform different behavioural tasks in the colony that cause them to be exposed to different local environments. Here we examined whether the gut microbial community composition of worker honey bees is associated with the behavioural tasks they perform, and therefore also the local environment they are exposed to...
2018: Insectes Sociaux
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099890/gut-bacterial-composition-in-a-mouse-model-of-parkinson-s-disease
#11
P Perez-Pardo, H B Dodiya, P A Engen, A Naqib, C B Forsyth, S J Green, J Garssen, A Keshavarzian, A D Kraneveld
The mechanism of neurodegeneration in Parkinson's disease (PD) remains unknown but it has been hypothesised that the intestinal tract could be an initiating and contributing factor to the neurodegenerative processes. In PD patients as well as in animal models for PD, alpha-synuclein-positive enteric neurons in the colon and evidence of colonic inflammation have been demonstrated. Moreover, several studies reported pro-inflammatory bacterial dysbiosis in PD patients. Here, we report for the first time significant changes in the composition of caecum mucosal associated and luminal microbiota and the associated metabolic pathways in a rotenone-induced mouse model for PD...
August 13, 2018: Beneficial Microbes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099750/pathogen-infections-and-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#12
REVIEW
Atsushi Tanaka, Patrick S C Leung, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is a multifactorial disease caused by the interaction of both genetic predisposition and environmental triggers. Bacterial infection has been investigated most intensively, both epidemiologically and experimentally, as a prime environmental etiology in PBC. The association of recurrent history of urinary tract infection (UTI) with PBC has been frequently confirmed by several large-scale, case-control studies, despite variation in geographic area or case-finding methods. Escherichia coli (E...
August 11, 2018: Clinical and Experimental Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30099683/development-of-an-oxidative-stress-sensor-in-live-bacteria-using-the-optimized-hyper2-protein
#13
B Franco, Felipe Padilla-Vaca, Naurú Idalia Vargas-Maya, Luz Janeth Herrera-Gutiérrez, Josué Daniel Mora-Garduño, Margarita Daniela Tafoya-Ramírez, Itzel Páramo-Pérez, Fernando Anaya-Velázquez, Claudia Leticia Mendoza-Macías
Oxidative stress is a key regulator in many cellular processes but also an important burden for living organisms. The source of oxidative damage usually is difficult to measure and assess with analytical tools or chemical indicators. One major limitation is to discriminate the presence of secondary oxidant molecules derived from the cellular metabolism after exposure to the oxidant or the scavenging capacity of reactive oxygen species by cells. Using a whole-cell reporter system based on an optimized HyPer2 protein for Escherichia coli expression, we demonstrate that, as previously shown for eukaryotic organisms, the effect at the transcriptional level of hydrogen peroxide can be monitored in vivo using flow cytometry of bacterial cells without the need of a direct analytical measurement...
August 11, 2018: Antonie Van Leeuwenhoek
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097663/integrative-analysis-of-fitness-and-metabolic-effects-of-plasmids-in-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-pao1
#14
Alvaro San Millan, Macarena Toll-Riera, Qin Qi, Alex Betts, Richard J Hopkinson, James McCullagh, R Craig MacLean
Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) mediated by the spread of plasmids fuels evolution in prokaryotes. Although plasmids provide bacteria with new adaptive genes, they also produce physiological alterations that often translate into a reduction in bacterial fitness. The fitness costs associated with plasmids represent an important limit to plasmid maintenance in bacterial communities, but their molecular origins remain largely unknown. In this work, we combine phenomics, transcriptomics and metabolomics to study the fitness effects produced by a collection of diverse plasmids in the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1...
August 10, 2018: ISME Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30097448/orthologues-of-bacillus-subtilis-spore-crust-proteins-have-a-structural-role-in-the-bacillus-megaterium-qm-b1551-spore-exosporium
#15
Julia Manetsberger, Abhinaba Ghosh, Elizabeth A H Hall, Graham Christie
The exosporium of Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spores is morphologically distinct to exosporia observed in spores of many other species. Previous work has demonstrated that unidentified genes encoded on one of the large indigenous plasmids are required for the assembly of the Bacillus megaterium exosporium. Here we provide evidence that pBM600-encoded orthologues of the Bacillus subtilis CotW and CotX proteins, which form the crust layer in spores of that species, are structural components of the Bacillus megaterium QM B1551 spore exosporium...
August 10, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094534/fragment-of-the-aspartyl-trna-synthetase-applicable-as-a-shared-classification-and-phylogenetic-marker-in-particular-representatives-of-the-order-lactobacillales
#16
Chahrazed Mekadim, Jiří Killer, Radko Pechar, Jakub Mrázek
The order Lactobacillales represents a morphologically, metabolically, and physiologically diverse group of bacteria. Lactic acid bacteria represent the core of this phylogenetic group. They are a part of epiphytic microflora, fermented dairy, meat, fruit and vegetable products, and the digestive tract of humans and animals. Despite the fact that these bacteria form a phenotypically and genotypically heterogeneous group, their phylogenetic relationship enables to propose a common genetic marker usable in classification, typing, and phylogeny...
August 9, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094085/recent-advances-in-design-of-new-urease-inhibitors-a-review
#17
REVIEW
Paweł Kafarski, Michał Talma
Urease is a nickel-dependent metalloenzyme found in plants, some bacteria, and fungi. Bacterial enzyme is of special importance since it has been demonstrated as a potent virulence factor for some species. Especially it is central to Helicobacter pylori metabolism and virulence being necessary for its colonization of the gastric mucosa, and is a potent immunogen that elicits a vigorous immune response. Therefore, it is not surprising that efforts to design, synthesize and evaluate of new inhibitors of urease are and active field of medicinal chemistry...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30094081/ureases-in-the-gastrointestinal-tracts-of-ruminant-and-monogastric-animals-and-their-implication-in-urea-n-ammonia-metabolism-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Amlan Kumar Patra, Jörg Rudolf Aschenbach
Urea in diets of ruminants has been investigated to substitute expensive animal and vegetable protein sources for more than a century, and has been widely incorporated in diets of ruminants for many years. Urea is also recycled to the fermentative parts of the gastrointestinal (GI) tracts through saliva or direct secretory flux from blood depending upon the dietary situations. Within the GI tracts, urea is hydrolyzed to ammonia by urease enzymes produced by GI microorganisms and subsequent ammonia utilization serves the synthesis of microbial protein...
September 2018: Journal of Advanced Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30093310/a-comparison-of-rodent-models-of-vertical-sleeve-gastrectomy
#19
Rafael Alvarez, Alfor G Lewis, Mouhamadoul H Toure, Randy J Seeley
BACKGROUND: Although vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) is fashioned in humans by applying multiple staple loads, rodent VSG is generally created through a single-staple load application. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the impact of a 2-staple load VSG rat model more closely resembling the multistaple load operation done in humans on weight, metabolic outcomes, and the microbiome and how these compare with those obtained with the standard one-staple load model. SETTING: University research facility, United States...
July 2, 2018: Surgery for Obesity and related Diseases: Official Journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/30092525/degradation-and-defluorination-of-6-2-fluorotelomer-sulfonamidoalkyl-betaine-and-6-2-fluorotelomer-sulfonate-by-gordonia-sp-strain-nb4-1y-under-sulfur-limiting-conditions
#20
Dayton M J Shaw, Gabriel Munoz, Eric M Bottos, Sung Vo Duy, Sébastien Sauvé, Jinxia Liu, Jonathan D Van Hamme
6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonamidoalkyl betaine (6:2 FTAB) is a major component of aqueous film-forming foams (AFFFs) used for firefighting and is frequently detected, along with one of its suspected transformation products, 6:2 fluorotelomer sulfonate (6:2 FTSA), in terrestrial and aquatic ecosystems impacted by AFFF usage. Biochemical processes underlying bacterial biodegradation of these compounds remain poorly understood due to a lack of pure culture studies. Here, we characterized the water-soluble and volatile breakdown products of 6:2 FTSA and 6:2 FTAB produced using Gordonia sp...
August 3, 2018: Science of the Total Environment
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