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Deepak Gautam, Rajesh Malhotra
BACKGROUND: Despite significant pain relief following total hip arthroplasty (THA) in patients with ankylosing spondylitis, a small subset of patients presenting with extra-articular extension contracture of hips remains unsatisfied. METHODS: We retrospectively evaluated the patients with ankylosing spondylitis who underwent simultaneous bilateral THA and had extensor tightness of both hips preoperatively. They were managed with modified Z-plasty of iliotibial band...
August 29, 2018: Journal of Arthroplasty
Keitaro Kubo
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to examine changes in tendon properties measured during ramp and ballistic contractions after static stretching and to elucidate the relationship between stretching-induced changes in tendon properties (particularly hysteresis) and collagen fiber orientation. METHODS: Thirteen males performed static stretching, in which the ankle was passively flexed to 36° dorsiflexion and remained stationary for 10 min. Before and after stretching, the stiffness and hysteresis of tendon structures in the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography during ramp and ballistic contractions...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Susumu Saito, Ryoma Bise, Aya Yoshikawa, Hiroyuki Sekiguchi, Itaru Tsuge, Masakazu Toi
This study aimed to characterize in vivo human digital arteries in three-dimensions using photoacoustic tomography in order to understand the specific mechanism underlying arterial deformation associated with movement of the proximal interphalangeal joint. Three-dimensional morphological data were obtained on the radialis indicis artery (radial artery of the index finger) at different angles of the joint. The association between increased curvature of the deformation and the anatomical region was assessed...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery, European Volume
Sarah J Gilmore, Megan Davidson, Andrew J Hahne, Jodie A McClelland
PURPOSE: Measuring step count using activity monitors is an increasingly popular method of quantifying physical activity, however it is unknown whether gait irregularities or the use of gait aids affect the accuracy of these devices. This study evaluates the validity of the ActivPAL3, Fitbit Flex, and Jawbone UP Move activity monitors for measuring step count in hospital inpatients after lumbar fusion. METHODS: The ActivPAL3 was tested on the thigh, the Fitbit, and the Jawbone were tested on the wrist and thigh, each monitor was tested 20 times...
October 16, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
Enrico Ferrari, Giulia Piazza, Martin Scoglio, Denis Berdajs, Piergiorgio Tozzi, Francesco Maisano, Ludwig Karl Von Segesser
Transcatheter aortic root repair (TARR) is still not available because of the complex anatomy. In order to develop future TARR technologies, a human-derived bench test model is required before performing animal tests. For this purpose, we aimed to validate computed tomography (CT)-derived 3D-printed root models for TARR technologies. Four human CT-derived roots were printed using different resins: Visijet M3 Crystal, Photopolymer gel SUP705, Formlabs flexible resin, and Materialise HeartPrint Flex. A stress test was performed using a 26-mm balloon-expandable Sapien valve deployed in aortic position...
October 10, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
Asa Bartonek, Cecilia Lidbeck, Kerstin Hellgren, Elena Gutierrez-Farewik
Thirty children with cerebral palsy (CP) and 22 typical developing (TD) were tested with 3D-gait analysis. At turning, trunk rotation was larger in CP2 (GMFCS II) than in TD and CP1 (GMFCS I), and head flexion was larger in CP3 (GMFCS III) than TD. Maximum head and trunk flexion values during the entire trial were larger in CP3 than in the other groups, and trunk flexion was larger in CP2 than in TD. Trial time increased with GMFCS-level. Less trunk rotation than TD and CP1 reflects spatial insecurity in CP2, which in CP3 is compensated by the walker...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
Saed A Al Bimani, Lucy S Gates, Martin Warner, Catherine Bowen
BACKGROUND: Ankle sprain is a very common injury, yet uncertainty exists in what is appropriate time to return to play (RTP). Such guidance may inform treatment pathways and effective practice. OBJECTIVES: To determine if consensus exist about potential influencing factors for time to RTP in conservatively treated ankle sprain. METHODS: We searched AMED, CINAHL Plus, Cochrane library, EMBASE, MEDLINE (EBSCO), SPOERDiscus, PsycINFO, PEDro, Scopus, unpublished literature and ongoing trials and Google Scholar from inception until April 2017...
October 16, 2018: Physician and Sportsmedicine
Oliver Chan, Karan Malhotra, Olatunbosun Buraimoh, Nick Cullen, Matthew Welck, Andy Goldberg, Dishan Singh
BACKGROUND: Gastrocnemius tightness is believed to be associated with multiple musculoskeletal pathologies such as back pain, plantar fasciitis and metatarsalgia. Although surgical treatment of gastrocnemius tightness is gaining popularity the objective definition of a gastrocnemius contracture has not been determined. The aim of our study was therefore to quantify gastrocnemius tightness in a normal population. METHODS: Adult participants with no obvious foot and ankle pathology were recruited...
April 12, 2018: Foot and Ankle Surgery: Official Journal of the European Society of Foot and Ankle Surgeons
Tyler J Bradshaw, Gengyan Zhao, Hyungseok Jang, Fang Liu, Alan B McMillan
This study evaluated the feasibility of using only diagnostically relevant magnetic resonance (MR) images together with deep learning for positron emission tomography (PET)/MR attenuation correction (deepMRAC) in the pelvis. Such an approach could eliminate dedicated MRAC sequences that have limited diagnostic utility but can substantially lengthen acquisition times for multibed position scans. We used axial T2 and T1 LAVA Flex magnetic resonance imaging images that were acquired for diagnostic purposes as inputs to a 3D deep convolutional neural network...
September 2018: Tomography: a Journal for Imaging Research
German G Miroshnichenko, Alexander Yu Meigal, Irina V Saenko, Liudmila I Gerasimova-Meigal, Liudmila A Chernikova, Natalia S Subbotina, Saara M Rissanen, Pasi A Karjalainen
Dry immersion (DI) is acknowledged as a reliable space flight analog condition. At DI, subject is immersed in water being wrapped in a waterproof film to imitate microgravity (μG). Microgravity is known to decrease muscle tone due to deprivation of the sensory stimuli that activate the reflexes that keep up the muscle tone. In contrary, parkinsonian patients are characterized by elevated muscle tone, or rigidity, along with rest tremor and akinesia. We hypothesized that DI can diminish the elevated muscle tone and/or the tremor in parkinsonian patients...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
Ada J Klinkhamer, Heinrich Mallison, Stephen F Poropat, Trish Sloan, Stephen Wroe
The evolution of extraordinarily large size among Sauropoda was associated with a number of biomechanical adaptations. Changes in muscle moment arms undoubtedly accompanied these adaptations, but since muscles rarely fossilise, our ability to understand them has been restricted. Here, we use three-dimensional (3D) musculoskeletal modelling to reconstruct and quantitatively assess leverage of forelimb muscles in the transition from the narrow-gauge stance of basal sauropods to a wide-gauge stance in titanosaurs...
October 12, 2018: Anatomical Record: Advances in Integrative Anatomy and Evolutionary Biology
Jorge M Nieto, Fernando Ataúlfo González, José María Alonso, Eva Golvano, Lucia Guerrero, Beatriz Albarrán, Ana Villegas, Rafael B Martínez, Paloma Ropero
AIMS: Fusion proteins of unequal recombination events at the β-globin locus have pathological effect. The haemoglobin (Hb) variants of type Lepore are fusion proteins characterised by β-like globin chains with a δ-globin ( HBD ) N-terminus and a β-globin ( HBB ) C-terminus, whereas reciprocal products of underlying crossover events hold a HBB N-terminus and HBD C-terminus instead. Finally, Hb Parchman contains a β-like globin chain with a central HBB fragment and HBD -derived N-termini and C-termini, whereas reciprocal hybrid proteins are as yet unknown...
October 12, 2018: Journal of Clinical Pathology
Jennifer M Bosco, Angela Chuang
We describe a new spider species of the genus Agelenopsis Giebel 1869 (Agelenidae) from adult males and females. Agelenopsis riechertii is found in dry desert scrub habitats in the southwestern United States. While A. riechertii is similar to other sympatric congeners (A. aleenae, A. aperta, and A. spatula) in morphology and courtship behavior, it can be distinguished by an examination of its genitalia. Males possess an embolus that gradually narrows into a twisted tip which displays a convex edge from the lateral view...
July 3, 2018: Zootaxa
Jian Wang, Zhao-Chi Zeng, Zhi-Tong Lyu, Zu-Yao Liu, Ying-Yong Wang
A new species of tree frog, G. guangdongensis sp nov., is described based on a series of specimens collected from Dawuling Forest Station, Mount Nankun and Nanling Nature Reserve of Guangdong Province, southeastern China. The new species is distinguished from all known congeners by a significant genetic divergence at the mitochondrial 16S rRNA gene fragment examined (p-distance ≥ 4.6%) and the following combination of morphological characters: relatively small body size (SVL 26.1-34.7 mm in adult males, 34...
May 16, 2018: Zootaxa
Yabin Zhou, Cheng Zhang, Shimeng Zhao, Qingxian Wang
RATIONALE: Traumatic hip dislocation is a common joint dislocation. Delayed reduction has been shown to increase the risk of avascular necrosis of the femoral head. Most of the traditional methods must be performed under general anesthesia or spinal anesthesia to relax hip muscles. Anesthesia will prolong the interval between the injury and the reduction. PATIENT CONCERNS: 16 patients presented with hip pain and a leg shortened, flexed, internally rotated and adducted...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Alexander Tuchman, Lee A Tan, Jamal N Shillingford, Xudong J Li, K Daniel Riew
Though dynamic changes in the physical exam of patients being evaluated for cervical spine pathology have been reported, there is limited information on the prevalence and clinical features associated with reflex changes in a population undergoing surgical evaluation for cervical spine pathology. Fifty-one patients with at least grade 1 cervical stenosis on MRI underwent initial surgical evaluation for cervical spine pathology. All patients received complete neurologic examinations including dynamic reflex testing in three positions (neck neutral, extended, and flexed) by 2 spine surgeons...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
Munsur Rahman, Akin Cil, Antonis P Stylianou
Computational elbow joint models, capable of simulating medial collateral ligament deficiency, can be extremely valuable tools for surgical planning and refinement of therapeutic strategies. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of varying levels of medial collateral ligament deficiency on elbow joint stability using subject-specific computational models. Two elbow joint models were placed at the pronated forearm position and passively flexed by applying a vertical downward motion on humeral head...
October 10, 2018: Bioengineering
D C Sá-Caputo, L L Paineiras-Domingos, Ricardo Oliveira, Mario F T Neves, Andrea Brandão, Pedro J Marin, Borja Sañudo, Trentham Furness, Redha Taiar, M Bernardo-Filho
The aim of the study was to assess the acute effect of whole-body vibration (WBV) exercise, with low frequency (5 Hz), on the pain level (PL), trunk flexibility, and cardiovascular responses (blood pressure [BP] and heart rate [HR]) in individuals with metabolic syndrome (MetS). Forty-four individuals were included in the study (control: 15) or in (WBV exercise: 29) groups. They were submitted to 3 bouts (1 minute each) of WBV exercise (5 Hz and peak-to-peak displacements of 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 mm, corresponding to peak accelerations of 0...
October 2018: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
Michael J Persky, Mohamad Issa, Jennifer R Bonfili, Neerav Goyal, David Goldenberg, Umamaheswar Duvvuri
BACKGROUND: This multicenter, retrospective review documents the initial experience using the Flex system for transoral surgery in 2 United States academic centers. METHODS: All patients who underwent transoral robotic surgery using the Medrobotics Flex Robotic System (Raynham, MA) between September 2015 and May 2017 were reviewed. Rates of successful surgery and complications were evaluated. RESULTS: Thirty-six men and 32 women were enrolled in the study...
October 10, 2018: Head & Neck
Eugenia Hoi Chi Woo, Peter White, Christopher Wai Keung Lai
PURPOSE: To investigate the effects of static hand postures during various finger and wrist positions on morphological changes of the median nerve within the carpal tunnel in intensive and nonintensive electronic device users. METHODS: Forty-eight university students, equally divided into intensive and nonintensive users (≥5 h/d and <5 h/d of electronic device usage, respectively), were randomly selected after questionnaire responses and evaluated clinically and by ultrasonography...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Hand Surgery
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