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Manish Sreenivasa, Matthew Millard, Idsart Kingma, Jaap H van Dieën, Katja Mombaur
Computational models of the human body coupled with optimization can be used to predict the influence of variables that cannot be experimentally manipulated. Here, we present a study that predicts the motion of the human body while lifting a box, as a function of flexibility of the hip and lumbar joints in the sagittal plane. We modeled the human body in the sagittal plane with joints actuated by pairs of agonist-antagonist muscle torque generators, and a passive hamstring muscle. The characteristics of a stiff, average and flexible person were represented by co-varying the lumbar range-of-motion, lumbar passive extensor-torque and the hamstring passive muscle-force...
July 29, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Mateusz Kurcinski, Tymoteusz Oleniecki, Maciej Pawel Ciemny, Aleksander Kuriata, Andrzej Kolinski, Sebastian Kmiecik
Summary: CABS-flex standalone is a Python package for fast simulations of protein structure flexibility. The package combines simulations of protein dynamics using CABS coarse-grained protein model with the reconstruction of selected models to all-atom representation and analysis of modeling results. CABS-flex standalone is designed to allow for command-line access to the CABS computations and complete control over simulation process. CABS-flex standalone is equipped with features such as: modeling of multimeric and large-size protein systems, contact map visualizations, analysis of similarities to the reference structure and configurable modeling protocol...
August 7, 2018: Bioinformatics
Christina Mackaill, Gregori Sponchiado, Ana K Leite, Paola Dias, Michele Da Rosa, Elliot J Brown, Julio C M de Lima, Lucas Rehnberg, Thais Russomano
INTRODUCTION: 2015 UK resuscitation guidelines aim for 50-60 mm depth when giving external chest compressions (ECCs). This is achievable in hypogravity if the rescuer flexes and extends their arms during CPR, or using a new method trialed; the 'Mackaill-Russomano' (MR CPR) method. METHODS: 10 participants performed 3 sets of 30 ECCs in accordance with 2015 guidelines. A control was used at 1Gz, with eight further conditions using Mars and Moon simulations, with and without braces in the terrestrial position and using the MR CPR method...
August 2018: Life Sciences in Space Research
Yi-Hsien Chen, Shondra M Pruett-Miller
The availability of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) and progress in genome engineering technology have altered the way we approach scientific research and drug development screens. Unfortunately, the procedures for genome editing of hPSCs often subject cells to harsh conditions that compromise viability: a major problem that is compounded by the innate challenge of single-cell culture. Here we describe a generally applicable workflow that supports single-cell cloning and expansion of hPSCs after genome editing and single-cell sorting...
August 4, 2018: Stem Cell Research
Francesco Ascione, Christopher M Kilian, Mitzi S Laughlin, Giulia Bugelli, Peter Domos, Lionel Neyton, Arnaud Godeneche, T Bradley Edwards, Gilles Walch
BACKGROUND: Scapular stress fractures after reverse shoulder arthroplasty (RSA) are a potentially serious complication with modern lateralized and onlay implants. The aim of this study was to report the scapular spine stress fracture rate after RSA with an onlay, 145° humeral stem, analyzing potential fracture risk factors and clinical outcomes in a large cohort of patients. METHODS: A consecutive series of 485 RSAs were implanted with the Aequalis Ascend Flex stem...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery
Giovanni Merolla, Ilaria Parel, Andrea Giovanni Cutti, Maria Vittoria Filippi, Paolo Paladini, Giuseppe Porcellini
AIM OF THE STUDY: To evaluate total (TSA) and reverse total shoulder arthroplasty (RTSA) using the Constant-Murley score (CMS) and the scapula-weighted (SW) CMS, an integrated outcome measure that takes into account the compensatory movements of the scapula. METHODS: Twenty-five consecutive patients, 12 with TSA and 13 with RTSA, underwent kinematic analysis before and after shoulder replacement. Measurements included flexion (FLEX) and abduction (ABD) for the humerus and Protraction-Retraction (PR-RE), Medio-Lateral rotation (ME-LA), and Posterior-Anterior tilting (P-A) for the scapula...
August 10, 2018: International Orthopaedics
Constance Delaugerre, Christophe Rodriguez, Catherine Capitant, Marie-Laure Nere, Mélanie Mercier-Darty, Diane Carette, Gilles Pialoux, Laurent Cotte, Isabelle Charreau, Jean-Michel Molina
BACKGROUND: The IPERGAY ANRS trial showed that on-demand pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) with tenofovir (TDF) and emtricitabine (FTC) was highly effective in preventing HIV infection among highly exposed men who have sex with men. Here we analyzed drug resistance-associated mutations (RAMs) among all participants who acquired HIV infection during this trial. METHODS: Resistance was analyzed on frozen plasma at the time of HIV diagnosis among participants enrolled in the double-blind and open-label phases of the ANRS IPERGAY trial...
August 8, 2018: AIDS
Alex S Huang, Rafaella C Penteado, Sajib K Saha, Jian L Do, Phillip Ngai, Zhihong Hu, Robert N Weinreb
PURPOSE: To evaluate aqueous humor outflow (AHO) in intact eyes of live human subjects during cataract surgery using fluorescein aqueous angiography. METHODS: Aqueous angiography was performed in 8 live human subjects (56 - 86▒y old; 2 men and 6 women). After anesthesia, fluorescein (2%) was introduced into the eye (either alone or after indocyanine green [ICG; 0.4%]) from a sterile, gravity-driven constant-pressure reservoir. Aqueous angiographic images were obtained with a Spectralis HRA+OCT and FLEX module (Heidelberg Engineering)...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Glaucoma
Kyoung-Tak Kang, Yong-Gon Koh, Juhyun Son, Oh-Ryong Kwon, Kwan Kyu Park
PURPOSE: The kinematics and biomechanics of the knee joint are important in ensuring patient satisfaction and functional ability after total knee arthroplasty (TKA). There has been no study on knee joint mechanics with regard to the sagittal alignment of the femoral component. The objective of this study is to determine the extent of the impact of the femoral component's sagittal alignment on kinematics and biomechanics. METHODS: A validated computational TKA model was used...
August 9, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Alejandro Espejo-Baena, Alejandro Espejo-Reina, María Josefa Espejo-Reina, Jaime Dalla Rosa-Nogales, Joaquina Ruiz-Del Pino, María Belén Martín-Castilla
A technique for augmentation of the partial anterior cruciate ligament is presented. The patient is positioned supine with the knee flexed 90°. After addressing intra-articular injuries, the autologous semitendinosus tendon is harvested and measured in a doubled manner; after that, the tibial tunnel is performed in the outside-in direction, of the same diameter of the doubled graft. Both ends of the graft are sutured together, after inserting it through the loop of a suspension device, which is attached in its augmentation piece...
July 2018: Arthroscopy Techniques
William V Massey, Megan B Stellino, Margaret Fraser
The purpose of this study was to examine individual variables associated with children's levels of recess physical activity (PA), as well as environmental influences that influence children's engagement during recess. Participants ( n  = 146) were 4-6th grade students across seven schools. PA data were collected using the Fitbit Flex. Psychological need satisfaction at recess data were collected with a basic psychological need satisfaction for recess PA survey. Observations of recess activity engagement and the quality of the recess environment were also collected at 134 recess periods ( n  = 8340 children) across nine schools...
September 2018: Preventive Medicine Reports
Charles Philip Gabel, Hamid Reza Mokhtarinia, Jonathan Hoffman, Jason Osborne, E-Liisa Laakso, Markus Melloh
OBJECTIVES: Investigate the relationships between the ability/inability to perform five physical test exercises and the presence or absence of low back pain (LBP). SETTING: Regional Australian council training facility. PARTICIPANTS: Consecutive participants recruited during 39 back education classes (8-26 participants per class) for workers in general office/administration, parks/gardens maintenance, roads maintenance, library, child care and management...
August 8, 2018: BMJ Open
Alexander Ritz Mait, Jason Lee Forman, Bingbing Nie, John Paul Donlon, Adwait Mane, Ali Reza Forghani, Robert B Anderson, M Truitt Cooper, Richard W Kent
Background: Forced external rotation of the foot is a mechanism of ankle injuries. Clinical observations include combinations of ligament and osseous injuries, with unclear links between causation and injury patterns. By observing the propagation sequence of ankle injuries during controlled experiments, insight necessary to understand risk factors and potential mitigation measures may be gained. Hypothesis: Ankle flexion will alter the propagation sequence of ankle injuries during forced external rotation of the foot...
June 2018: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
Matthew C O'Neill, Brigitte Demes, Nathan E Thompson, Brian R Umberger
Humans are unique among apes and other primates in the musculoskeletal design of their lower back and pelvis. While the last common ancestor of the Pan-Homo lineages has long been thought to be 'African ape-like', including in its lower back and ilia design, recent descriptions of early hominin and Miocene ape fossils have led to the proposal that its lower back and ilia were more similar to those of some Old World monkeys, such as macaques. Here, we compared three-dimensional kinematics of the pelvis and hind/lower limbs of bipedal macaques, chimpanzees and humans walking at similar dimensionless speeds to test the effects of lower back and ilia design on gait...
August 2018: Journal of the Royal Society, Interface
Matthew Clyde, Andrew Pipe, Robert Reid, Charl Els, Heather Tulloch
Self-efficacy is routinely associated with abstinence in the addictions literature, and is a major component relapse-prevention models. The magnitude of this relationship has been brought into question following equivocal results in studies controlling for concurrent smoking status. The aim of our study was to clarify the relationship between cessation self-efficacy, smoking status, and cessation outcomes in a cohort of treatment-seeking smokers. Smokers participating in the FLEX trial, a randomized trial investigating the efficacy of three pharmacologic treatments for smoking cessation, completed questionnaires assessing cessation self-efficacy at baseline and at weeks 1, 3, 5 and 10 post-target quit date; smoking status was verified using expired carbon monoxide...
August 8, 2018: Addiction Biology
A López-Valenciano, F Ayala, M De Ste Croix, D Barbado, F J Vera-Garcia
PURPOSE: To analyse the relationship between several parameters of neuromuscular performance with unilateral dynamic balance measured through the Y-Balance test, as well as to determine the possible sex-related differences. METHODS: The Y-Balance test, isokinetic (concentric and eccentric) knee flexion and extension strength, isometric hip abduction and adduction strength, lower extremity joint range of motion (ROM) (hip, knee and ankle) and core stability were assessed in male (n = 88) and female (n = 44) professional football players...
August 7, 2018: Knee Surgery, Sports Traumatology, Arthroscopy: Official Journal of the ESSKA
Peter R Worsley, Caitlan Conington, Holly Stuart, Alice Patterson, Dan L Bader
Background: The ankle joint is a common site of musculoskeletal pathology. Measurement of its functional range of motion is a primary indicator for rehabilitation outcomes in therapy settings. The present study was designed to assess reliability and validity of a new standardised method using a D-Flex device to assess ankle range of motion. Methods: A cohort of 20 healthy volunteers were recruited to measure the weight-bearing ankle range of motion using three assessment tools, namely, a goniometer, inclinometer and the D-Flex measurement devices...
2018: Journal of Foot and Ankle Research
Dawn P Andrews, Kari B Odland-Wolf, James May, Russell Baker, Alan Nasypany, Eric M Dinkins
Objectives: Mechanical neck pain (MNP) is common in the athletic population. While symptoms may present at the cervical spine for patients complaining of MNP, thoracic spinal alignment or dysfunction may influence cervical positioning and overall cervical function. Clinicians often employ cervical high-velocity low-amplitude (HVLA) thrust manipulations to treat MNP, albeit with a small level of inherent risk. Mulligan Concept positional sustained natural apophyseal glides (SNAGs) directed at the cervicothoracic region are emerging to treat patients with cervical pain and dysfunction, as evidence supporting an interdependent relationship between the thoracic and cervical spine grows...
August 2018: Journal of Manual & Manipulative Therapy
Sanjay Agarwala, Vivek Shetty, Lnvsl Kishore Karumuri, Mayank Vijayvargiya
Background: Anterior knee pain following total knee arthroplasty (TKA) remains one of the important reasons for patient dissatisfaction. The management of patellofemoral joint is controversial and a decision whether to resurface the patella or not, is important. The present study compares the clinical and radiological outcomes between patellar resurfacing and nonresurfacing in patients undergoing bilateral TKA. Materials and Methods: This is a prospective comparative study with 60 patients undergoing bilateral simultaneous TKA (120 knees) with posterior stabilized Hi flex fixed bearing knee (Zimmer, Warsaw, Indiana), by two surgeons...
July 2018: Indian Journal of Orthopaedics
Hossein Gholizadeh, Edward D Lemaire, Emily H Sinitski
BACKGROUND: People with lower limb amputation may experience walking limitations on slopes because of missg musculoskeletal and neuromuscular systems. Elevated vacuum suspension could benefit transtibial amputee gait for slope walking, but research is lacking to inform clinical practice. METHODS: Twelve people with unilateral transtibial amputation were fitted with the Unity elevated vacuum suspension system (Össur) and Pro-Flex XC foot. 3D motion analysis was performed for 7° incline, 7° decline, and level walking within a CAREN-Extended system virtual Park environment...
July 26, 2018: Gait & Posture
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