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Leishmaniasis OR Leishmania

Ana Paula de Azevedo Dos Santos, Saara Nery Fialho, Daniel Sol Sol de Medeiros, Ana Fidelina Gómez Garay, Jorge Alfonso Ruiz Diaz, Maria Celeste Vega Gómez, Carolina Bioni Garcia Teles, Leonardo de Azevedo Calderon
INTRODUCTION: Leishmaniasis, Chagas disease, and malaria cause morbidity globally. The drugs currently used for treatment have limitations. Activity of cinnamic acid analogs against Leishmania spp., Trypanosoma cruzi, and Plasmodium falciparum was evaluated in the interest of identifying new antiprotozoal compounds. METHODS: In vitro effects of analogs against L. braziliensis, L. infantum chagasi, T. cruzi, and P. falciparum, and hemolytic and cytotoxic activities on NCTC 929 were determined...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Ana Paula Stefanello da Silveira, Victor Bruno Duarte Vieira, Leticia Surian Batalini, Silvia Barbosa do Carmo, Elisabete Friozi, Eduardo José de Arruda, Manoel Sebastião da Costa Lima Junior, Herintha Coeto Neitzke-Abreu
INTRODUCTION: Peripheral blood of 400 dogs infected with Leishmania and Ehrlichia were analyzed using polymerase chain reaction (PCR), and clinical signs were characterized. METHODS: PCR and parasitological tests were conducted. RESULTS: PCR was positive for Leishmania in 84.75%, and parasitological tests showed that 63.25% and 31.75% were positive for Leishmania and Ehrlichia, respectively. All animals showed more than three clinical signs...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Cícero Roberto Pinheiro Grangeiro Júnior, João Vitor Cândido Pimentel, Antonio Gilvan Teixeira Júnior, Aline Felipe de Jesus, Thaila Cristhina Fernandes Galvão, Lorenza Andrés Almeida de Souza, Maria do Socorro Vieira Gadelha, Kécia Silva Damasceno, Modesto Leite Rolim Neto, Marcos Antonio Pereira de Lima, Vânia Barbosa do Nascimento, Cláudio Gleidiston Lima da Silva
INTRODUCTION: This study characterized the clinico-epidemiological profile of American cutaneous leishmaniasis (ACL) cases in Barbalha, Ceará State, Brazil. METHODS: Medical records of 363 patients visiting Federal University of Cariri between 2009 and 2014 were analyzed. RESULTS: ACL was more prevalent in men with low education level from rural zones. The main presentation was a single ulcer, mainly in the lower limbs, and 49.8% also presented lymphadenomegaly...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Jamyra Iglesias Cataldo, Fátima Conceição-Silva, Liliane de Fátima Antônio, Armando de Oliveira Schubach, Mauro Célio de Almeida Marzochi, Cláudia Maria Valete-Rosalino, Maria Inês Fernandes Pimentel, Marcelo Rosandiski Lyra, Raquel de Vasconcellos Carvalhaes de Oliveira, Juliana Helena da Silva Barros, Raquel da Silva Pacheco, Maria de Fátima Madeira
INTRODUCTION: Favorable responses in American tegumentary leishmaniasis (ATL) patients to treatment with 5 mg Sbv/kg/day meglumine antimoniate (MA) has been reported in Rio de Janeiro, but little is known regarding the therapeutic response to low doses in patients from other locations. METHODS: A retrospective review of medical records was conducted to compare the therapeutic response to 5 mg Sbv/kg/day MA treatment among 36 patients who acquired ATL in Brazilian states other than Rio de Janeiro (OS group) and 72 patients from Rio de Janeiro (RJ group)...
November 2018: Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical
Angélica M Vera, Omar A Casadiego, Julio C Mantilla, Patricia Escobar
The effectiveness of various pharmaceutical formulations of ketoconazole was evaluated in experimental models of cutaneous leishmaniasis (LC) in BALB C mice. Topical gel, lipogel, and cream formulations containing permeation enhancers and different concentrations of ketoconazole were prepared. Stability, toxicity and anti-Leishmania activity were determined in vitro. In addition, the effectiveness of topically applied formulations in LC-infected mice infected with Leishmania (Viannia) braziliensis was evaluated in vivo...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Diogo Tiago da Silva, Maria Luana Alves, Júlio Cesar Pereira Spada, Rita de Cássia Viveiros da Silveira, Trícia Maria Ferreira de Sousa Oliveira, Wilma Aparecida Starke-Buzetti
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is a disease caused by the protozoa Leishmania infantum and can cause an inflammatory reaction in the gastrointestinal tract, however the role of granulocytic cells (neutrophils, eosinophils, and mast cells) in the intestine of dogs infected is not fully understood. We performed a quantitative analysis these cells in the intestinal wall of dogs with canine visceral leishmaniasis (CVL). Twenty dogs were assigned to one of three groups: group 1 (G1, n=8), dogs with CVL and L. infantum amastigotes in the intestine; group 2 (G2, n=9), dogs with CVL but without intestinal amastigotes; and group 3 (G3, n=3), uninfected dogs (control group)...
October 2018: Revista Brasileira de Parasitologia Veterinária, Brazilian Journal of Veterinary Parasitology
Jaqueline Poleto Bragato, Larissa Martins Melo, Gabriela Lovizutto Venturin, Gabriela Torres Rebech, Leandro Encarnação Garcia, Flavia Lombardi Lopes, Valéria Marçal Felix de Lima
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) in humans is a chronic and often fatal disease if left untreated. Dogs appear to be the main reservoir host for L. infantum infection, however, in many regions other canids such as jackals, foxes, wolves and other mammals, such as hares or black rats, have been implicated as wild reservoirs. Most dogs cannot form an effective immune response against this infection, and this could be modulated by small non-coding RNAs, called microRNAs, responsible for post-transcriptional control of gene expression...
2018: PloS One
Jihen Ati, Cyril Colas, Pierre Lafite, Ryan P Sweeney, Ruixiang Blake Zheng, Todd L Lowary, Richard Daniellou
Galactofuranosyltransferases are poorly described enzymes despite their crucial role in the virulence and the pathogenicity of numerous microorganisms. These enzymes are considered as potential targets for therapeutic action. In addition to the only well-characterised prokaryotic GlfT2 from Mycobacterium tuberculosis, four putative genes in Leishmania major were previously described as potential galactofuranosyltransferases. In this study, we have cloned, over-expressed, purified and fully determined the kinetic parameters of these four eukaryotic enzymes, thus demonstrating their unique potency in catalysing the transfer of the galactofuranosyl moiety into acceptors...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Teresa Cruz-Bustos, Ana Karina Ibarrola-Vannucci, Isabel Díaz-Lozano, José Luis Ramírez, A Osuna
BACKGROUND: Leishmaniasis, a disease caused by parasites of the genus Leishmania, infects roughly 12 million people worldwide, with about two million new cases per year. Prohibitins (PHBs) are highly conserved proteins belonging to the stomatin-prohibitin flotillin-HflC/K (SPFH) protein superfamily. In this study, we examine the potential functions of two proteins of Leishmania major, PHB1 and PHB2, as well as how they might help protect the protozoan against oxidative stress. RESULTS: By immunolocalization in the parasite cells, PHB1 appeared in the mitochondria and plasma membrane, whereas PHB2 was grouped in the nucleus...
December 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Simone Cristina de M Lima, Juliana da Silva Pacheco, André M Marques, Eduardo Raul Pereira Veltri, Rita de Cássia Almeida-Lafetá, Maria Raquel Figueiredo, Maria Auxiliadora Coelho Kaplan, Eduardo Caio Torres-Santos
Leishmaniasis is the generic denomination to the neglected diseases caused by more than 20 species of protozoa belonging to the genus Leishmania . The toxic and parenteral-delivered pentavalent antimonials remain to be the first-line treatment. However, all the current used drugs have restrictions. The species Aureliana fasciculata (Vell.) Sendtner var. fasciculata is a native Brazilian species parsimoniously studied on a chemical point of view. In this study, the antileishmanial activity of A. fasciculata was evaluated...
November 30, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Petra Sumova, Michal Sima, Tatiana Spitzova, Maha E Osman, Anderson B Guimaraes-Costa, Fabiano Oliveira, Dia-Eldin A Elnaiem, Asrat Hailu, Alon Warburg, Jesus G Valenzuela, Petr Volf
BACKGROUND: Phlebotomus orientalis is a vector of Leishmania donovani, the causative agent of life threatening visceral leishmaniasis spread in Eastern Africa. During blood-feeding, sand fly females salivate into the skin of the host. Sand fly saliva contains a large variety of proteins, some of which elicit specific antibody responses in the bitten hosts. To evaluate the exposure to sand fly bites in human populations from disease endemic areas, we tested the antibody reactions of volunteers' sera against recombinant P...
December 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
Fábio Resadore, Antônio Marques Pereira Júnior, Paula Frassinetti Medeiros de Paulo, Luiz Herman Soares Gil, Moreno Magalhães de Souza Rodrigues, Maísa da Silva Araújo, Genimar Rebouças Julião, Jansen Fernandes Medeiros
This study examined sand fly diversity and the natural infection of sand flies by Leishmania in three localities in Rondônia State: Santo Antônio and São Vicente farm, which are anthropized environments, and the Jamari FLONA, which has not been anthropized. Sand flies were collected in canopies and at ground level using CDC light traps and BG-Sentinel CO2 traps. Female sand flies were grouped into pools that were subjected to DNA extraction and the samples were subjected to PCR to detect and identify Leishmania...
December 4, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Temmy Sunyoto, Marleen Boelaert, Filip Meheus
Leishmaniasis is a poverty-related disease that causes a significant socioeconomic burden to affected households. Visceral leishmaniasis is fatal if untreated, yet illness costs may lead to delays in accessing care. Skin manifestations of leishmaniasis cause a psychological burden and even longer treatment trajectories. The objective of this review is to evaluate illness costs associated with leishmaniasis across different settings (Asia, Africa, and Latin America) and the consequences to households. Areas covered: Through a systematic review of cost-of-illness studies, we documented the distribution of costs, the health-seeking behavior, and the consequences of leishmaniasis...
December 4, 2018: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
Vito Colella, Adnan Hodžić, Roberta Iatta, Gad Baneth, Amer Alić, Domenico Otranto
Leishmania infantum causes potentially life-threatening disease in humans. To determine the extent of the animal reservoir for this pathogen in Bosnia and Herzegovina, we tested dogs and cats. We found that a large proportion of dogs were exposed to or infected with L. infantum, indicating endemicity in dogs and zoonotic risk for humans.
February 17, 2019: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Mona M Okba, Omar M Sabry, An Matheeussen, Essam Abdel-Sattar
AIM: Antiprotozoal activity of 36 medicinal plants was evaluated. MATERIALS & METHODS: In vitro potency against Trypanosoma brucei brucei, T. b. rhodesiense, T. cruzi and Leishmania infantum beside cytotoxicity on MRC-5 fibroblasts were determined. RESULTS & CONCLUSION: Maytenus parviflora showed the highest activity against T. b. brucei (IC50 of 0.6 μg/ml) and T. b. rhodesiense (IC50 of 0.5 μg/ml) with low cytotoxicity (CC50 of 30 μg/ml)...
December 4, 2018: Future Medicinal Chemistry
Adriana Egui, Darién Ledesma, Elena Pérez-Antón, Andrés Montoya, Inmaculada Gómez, Sara María Robledo, Juan José Infante, Ivan Darío Vélez, Manuel C López, M Carmen Thomas
The host immunological response is a key factor determining the pathogenesis of cutaneous leishmaniasis. It is known that a Th1 cellular response is associated with infection control and that antigen-specific memory T cells are necessary for the development of a rapid and strong protective cellular response. The present manuscript reports the analysis of the functional and phenotypic profiles of antigen-specific CD4+ and CD8+ T cells from patients cured of cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL), patients with an active process of cutaneous leishmaniasis, asymptomatic individuals with a positive Montenegro test and healthy donors (HD)...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Nora Mirza, Anna S Sowa, Katja Lautz, Thomas A Kufer
NOD-like receptors (NLR) are critical regulators of innate immune signaling. The NLR family consists of 22 human proteins with a conserved structure containing a central oligomerization NACHT domain, an N-terminal interaction domain, and a variable number of C-terminal leucine-rich repeats. Most NLR proteins function as cytosolic pattern recognition receptors with activation of downstream inflammasome signaling, NF-κB, or MAPK activation. Although NLRP10 is the only NLR protein lacking the leucine rich repeats, it has been implicated in multiple immune pathways, including the regulation of inflammatory responses toward Leishmania major and Shigella flexneri infection...
December 3, 2018: Journal of Immunology: Official Journal of the American Association of Immunologists
Shuai Han, Wei-Ping Wu, Kai Chen, Israyil Osman, Kaisar Kiyim, Jun Zhao, Yan-Yan Hou, Ying Wang, Li-Ying Wang, Can-Jun Zheng
BACKGROUND: Leishmania parasites cause visceral leishmaniasis (VL), an important infectious disease that is endemic to large parts of the world and often leads to epidemics. Sand flies are the primary transmission vector for the parasite in endemic regions. We hypothesized that sheep might serve as an overlooked reservoir for Leishmania transmission to humans due to the asymptomatic nature of infection in many species. As a preliminary test of this hypothesis, the aim of the present study was to investigate sheep in an area of China that is endemic for the desert sub-type of zoonotic VL and establish if they are potential carriers of Leishmania...
December 3, 2018: BMC Veterinary Research
Douglas de Souza Moreira, Mariana Vieira Xavier, Silvane Maria Fonseca Murta/
Ascorbate peroxidase (APX) is a redox enzyme of the trypanothione pathway that converts hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) into water molecules. In the present study, the APX gene was overexpressed in Leishmania braziliensis to investigate its contribution to the trivalent antimony (SbIII)-resistance phenotype. Western blot results demonstrated that APX-overexpressing parasites had higher APX protein levels in comparison with the wild-type line (LbWTS). APX-overexpressing clones showed an 8-fold increase in the antimony-resistance index over the parental line...
November 14, 2018: Memórias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz
Eugenia Bifeld, Stephan Lorenzen, Katharina Bartsch, Juan-José Vasquez, T Nicolai Siegel, Joachim Clos
The 90-kDa heat shock protein (HSP90) of eukaryotes is a highly abundant and essential chaperone required for the maturation of regulatory and signal proteins. In the protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani, causative agent of the fatal visceral leishmaniasis, HSP90 activity is essential for cell proliferation and survival. Even more importantly, its inhibition causes life cycle progression from the insect stage to the pathogenic, mammalian stage. To unravel the molecular impact of HSP90 activity on the parasites' gene expression, we performed a ribosome profiling analysis of L...
November 2018: MSystems
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