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Leishmaniasis OR Leishmania

R Nazari-Vanani, N Sattarahmady, H Yadegari, N Delshadi, G R Hatam, H Heli
Detecting and monitoring the pathogens with high selectivity and sensitivity is critical for public health. In the present study, we demonstrated a specific analytical strategy for sensitive detection of Leishmania infantum genome. The developed sensor utilized toluidine blue as a hybridization indicator and a Leishmania infantum-specific capture DNA sequence immobilized on a high-surface area gold nanostructure as an electrochemical transducer. The produced analytical response was based on the hybridization of the single-stranded DNA from the target with the immobilized DNA sequence at the electrode surface...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Eyob Alemayehu Gebreyohannes, Akshaya Srikanth Bhagvathula, Tadesse Melaku Abegaz, Mohammed Assen Seid
BACKGROUND: Ethiopia has the highest number of visceral leishmaniasis (VL) cases after Sudan in Sub-Saharan Africa. However, there was lack of comprehensive data on VL treatment outcome despite the huge burden of the diseases in the country. Hence, we aimed to perform a systematic review and meta-analysis on this topic to obtain stronger evidence on treatment outcomes of VL from the existing literature in Ethiopia. METHODS: The Cochrane guidelines to conduct meta-analysis following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic review and Meta-Analysis statement was used to conduct a computerized systematic search of the PubMed, Google Scholar, and ScienceDirect databases...
October 19, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Grasiele S V Tavares, Débora V C Mendonça, Carolina K Miyazaki, Daniela P Lage, Tauane G Soyer, Lívia M Carvalho, Flaviano M Ottoni, Daniel S Dias, Patrícia A F Ribeiro, Luciana M R Antinarelli, Fernanda Ludolf, Mariana C Duarte, Elaine S Coimbra, Miguel A Chávez-Fumagalli, Bruno M Roatt, Daniel Menezes-Souza, José Mário Barichello, Ricardo J Alves, Eduardo A F Coelho
Clioquinol (5-chloro-7-iodoquinolin-8-ol or ICHQ) was recently showed to presents an in vitro effective antileishmanial action, causing changes in membrane permeability, mitochondrial functionality, and parasite morphology. In the present study, ICHQ was incorporated into a Poloxamer 407-based polymeric micelles system (ICHQ/M), and its antileishmanial activity was in vivo evaluated in L. amazonensis-infected BALB/c mice. Amphotericin B (AmpB) and its liposomal formulation (Ambisome®) were used as controls...
October 16, 2018: Parasitology International
Pankaj Verma, Amit Kumar Kureel, Sheetal Saini, Satya Prakash, Smita Kumari, Sarath Kumar Kottarath, Sandeep Kumar Srivastava, Madhusudan Bhat, Amit Kumar Dinda, Chandreshwar Prasad Thakur, Shivesh Sharma, Ambak Kumar Rai
People suffering from malnutrition become susceptible to the infection like Leishmania sp., as it results in a compromised immune response. Retinoic acid (RA), an important constituent of nutrition, shows an immune-modulatory activity. However, its role in the containment of infection is not yet ascertained, particularly in case of visceral leishmaniasis (VL). VL patients (n = 10) and healthy endemic controls (n = 9) were recruited to measure the serum levels of RA. An in vitro model of Leishmania infection using the murine mφ cell line J774...
October 18, 2018: Parasitology Research
Piyarat Srinontong, Zhiliang Wu, Katsuya Sato, Hitoshi Nagaoka, Yoichi Maekawa
Visceral leishmaniasis, the most severe form of leishmaniasis, is caused by Leishmania donovani and L. infantum. Immunity to Leishmania infection has been shown to depend on the development of Th1 cells; however, the roles of B cells and antibodies during infection remain unclear. In the present study, we showed that AID and μs double-deficient mice (DKO), which have B cells but not circulating immunoglobulins (cIgs), became resistant to L. donovani infection, whereas μs or AID single-deficient mice did not...
October 15, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Laís Moraes Paiz, Gabriela Motoie, Virgínia Bodelão Richini-Pereira, Helio Langoni, Benedito Donizete Menozzi, José Eduardo Tolezano, Maria Rita Donalisio
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne parasitic protozoan infection that affects mammals and involves a complex epidemiology. Although dogs are considered the main reservoir in zoonotic visceral leishmaniasis (VL), the possible presence of other mammalian species acting as reservoirs has been associated as a possible cause of lack of success in the control of human VL in many endemic areas. The knowledge about natural infections of some species is still scarce, such as nonhuman primates (NHP), especially from the genus Callithrix (marmosets)...
October 18, 2018: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
Jerome B Taxy, Harry M Goldin, Sara Dickie, Thomas Cibull
The ulcerated papules of cutaneous leishmaniasis represent an unusual form of granulomatous dermatitis caused by Leishmania species, a protozoan transmitted by sandfly bites. As the disease is not native to North America, clinical suspicion is partially based on a compatible travel history and may result in a biopsy. The key role of standard morphology is the identification of Leishmania organisms, supplemented by Giemsa and/or CD1a immunostaining. Histologically, the organism may be confused with Histoplasma species, which is resolved by staining with methenamine silver or PAS...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Surgical Pathology
Khalid Rehman, Julia Walochnik, Johannes Mischlinger, Bodour Alassil, Richard Allan, Michael Ramharter
Since the onset of the ongoing civil war in Syria, the governmental surveillance system for leishmaniasis has lost access to provinces of northern Syria. The MENTOR Initiative, an international not-for-profit organization, was commissioned to implement an integrated leishmaniasis control program, providing an opportunity to reassess the epidemiology of leishmaniasis in northern Syria. Epidemiologic data and biologic samples for molecular species diagnostics were collected from collaborating local health centers...
November 2018: Emerging Infectious Diseases
Andrés Montoya, Lina Yepes, Alexander Bedoya, Raúl Henao, Gabriela Delgado, Iván D Vélez, Sara M Robledo
Introduction: In cutaneous leishmaniasis, the host immune response is responsible for the development of skin injuries but also for resolution of the disease especially after antileishmanial therapy. The immune factors that participate in the regulation of inflammation, remodeling of the extracellular matrix, cell proliferation and differentiation may constitute biomarkers of diseases or response to treatment. In this work, we analyzed the production of the growth factors EGF, TGFβ1, PDGF, and FGF during the infection by Leishmania parasites, the development of the injuries and the early response to treatment...
2018: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
Margaret A Phillips
Polyamines are polycationic organic amines that are required for all eukaryotic life, exemplified by the polyamine spermidine, which plays an essential role in translation. They also play more specialized roles that differ across species, and their chemical versatility has been fully exploited during the evolution of protozoan pathogens. These eukaryotic pathogens, which cause some of the most globally widespread infectious diseases, have acquired species-specific polyamine-derived metabolites with essential cellular functions and have evolved unique mechanisms that regulate their core polyamine biosynthetic pathways...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Guilherme Curty Lechuga, Mirian C S Pereira, Saulo C Bourguignon
Neglected tropical diseases caused by protozoan parasites affect the life of millions of people worldwide, causing mortality, morbidity and high economic and social burden. The search for new drug targets and therapeutic strategies to fight these pathogens are necessary, since many current drugs have limited effects, cause severe side effects and their use has resulted in pathogen resistance. Heme (iron protoporphyrin IX) is a ubiquitous molecule important in many biological processes, including the homeostasis, growth and development of human pathogens such as trypanosomatids (Trypanosoma cruzi, Trypanosoma brucei and Leishmania spp...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Drug Targeting
Diego Lins Guedes, Zulma Medeiros, Elis Dionísio da Silva, Audrey Violeta Martins de Vasconcelos, Mariana Santana da Silva, Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva, Paulo Sérgio Ramos de Araújo, Demócrito de Barros Miranda-Filho
Common in four continents, visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is an important but neglected disease. HIV infection increases the risk of developing VL in people from leishmaniasis-endemic areas, with worse prognosis when there is coinfection. We conducted a cross-sectional study to determine the prevalence of HIV/VL coinfection in patients admitted in three referral hospitals for HIV/AIDS in Pernambuco, Brazil, and to compare epidemiological, clinical, and laboratory characteristics among HIV/VL coinfected and HIV mono-infected individuals...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
Larissa de Mattos Oliveira, Janay Stefany Carneiro Araújo, David Bacelar Costa Junior, Isis Bugia Santana, Angelo Amâncio Duarte, Franco Henrique Andrade Leite, Raquel Guimarães Benevides, Manoelito Coelho Dos Santos Junior
Leishmaniasis is caused by protozoa of the genus Leishmania spp. and is considered the second most important protozoa in the world due to the number of cases and mortality. Despite its importance in terms of public health, the treatment of patients is limited and has mostly low levels of efficacy and safety. Farnesyl pyrophosphate synthase (FPPS) acts in the early stages of isoprenoid synthesis, and is important for maintaining the integrity of the lipid bilayer of the parasite that causes the disease. The aim of this work was to identify one potential inhibitor of the FPPS of Leishmania major through virtual screening by pharmacophore modeling and docking...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular Modeling
Danyil Grybchuk, Alexei Y Kostygov, Diego H Macedo, Jan Votýpka, Julius Lukeš, Vyacheslav Yurchenko
In this work, we analyzed viral prevalence in trypanosomatid parasites ( Blechomonas spp.) infecting Siphonaptera and discovered nine species of viruses from three different groups (leishbunyaviruses, narnaviruses, and leishmaniaviruses). Most of the flagellate isolates bore two or three viral types (mixed infections). Although no new viral groups were documented in Blechomonas spp., our findings are important for the comprehension of viral evolution. The discovery of bunyaviruses in blechomonads was anticipated, since these viruses have envelopes facilitating their interspecific transmission and have already been found in various trypanosomatids and metatranscriptomes with trypanosomatid signatures...
October 16, 2018: MBio
Abdelhafeiz Mahamoud, Yousif Awad, Hussam Ali Osman, Atif El Agib, Rubens Riscala Madi, Saul J Semiao-Santos, Abdallah El Harith
PURPOSE: Based on world-wide evaluation, the direct agglutination test (DAT) is now generally acknowledged as one of the leading diagnostics for visceral leishmaniasis (VL). To enhance more routine and mass application, but simultaneously ensure safety to both user and environment, further improvements need to be introduced. METHODOLOGY: In the current format, a two-sixfold titre decrease was observed due to using formaldehyde as an antigen preservative in DAT. Successful formaldehyde preservative exclusion was achieved by increasing its concentration to 3 % (wt/vol) for conserving promastigote status after β-mercaptoethanol (β-ME) treatment and repeating exposure of the parasite to the fixative after Coomassie Brilliant Blue staining...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Medical Microbiology
Touraj Miandoabi, Fariborz Bahrami, Vahideh Moein Vaziri, Soheila Ajdary
Background: Cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) is a serious public health problem in many tropical countries. The infection is caused by a protozoan parasite of Leishmania genus transmitted by Phlebotominae sandflies. In the present study, we constructed a eukaryotic expression vector to produce a fusion protein containing LmSTI1 from Leishmania major (L. major) and PpSP42 from Phlebotomus papatasi (Ph. papatasi) . In future studies we will test this construct as a DNA vaccine against zoonotic CL...
October 2018: Reports of Biochemistry & Molecular Biology
Nivea F Luz, Ricardo Khouri, Johan Van Weyenbergh, Dalila L Zanette, Paloma P Fiuza, Almerio Noronha, Aldina Barral, Viviane S Boaventura, Deboraci B Prates, Francis Ka-Ming Chan, Bruno B Andrade, Valeria M Borges
Leishmania braziliensis infection causes skin ulcers, typically found in localized cutaneous leishmaniasis (LCL). This tissue pathology associates with different modalities of cell necrosis, which are subverted by the parasite as a survival strategy. Herein we examined the participation of necroptosis, a specific form of programmed necrosis, in LCL lesions and found reduced RIPK3 and PGAM5 gene expression compared to normal skin. Assays using infected macrophages demonstrated that the parasite deactivates both RIPK3 and MLKL expression and that these molecules are important to control the intracellular L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Satish Chandra Pandey, Anubhuti Jha, Awanish Kumar, Mukesh Samant
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is one of the most devastating diseases of the tropical region caused by protozoan parasite Leishmania donovani. So far, there is no effective drug and vaccine available against this fatal disease. The DEAD-box RNA helicase is quite essential for the RNA processing, amastigote differentiation and infectivity in Leishmania. In this study, L. donovani DEAD-box RNA helicase (LdHel-67) was evaluated as a potential drug target against VL. Using in-silico approach we have identified ligands that can specifically bind to this protein by using various application of Schrodinger (Maestro, version 10...
October 12, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Felipe Dutra Rêgo, Getúlio Dornelles Souza, Luiz Fernando Pedroso Dornelles, José Dilermando Andrade Filho
Phlebotomine sand flies are hematophagous insect vectors of the protozoan parasites of the genus Leishmania Ross, 1903 (Kinetoplastida: Trypanosomatida) that infect mammals, including humans, causing leishmaniasis. In Porto Alegre, Brazil, three autochthonous cases of human visceral leishmaniasis were reported in 2016 through 2017. We analyzed for the presence of Leishmania DNA in sand flies collected at the neighborhood of Agronomia, Porto Alegre, Brazil. Phlebotomine sand flies were collected at three sites from October 2014 to September 2015...
October 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Prakash Ghosh, Md Golam Hasnain, Faria Hossain, Md Anik Ashfaq Khan, Rajashree Chowdhury, Khaledul Faisal, Moshtaq Ahmed Mural, James Baker, Rupen Nath, Debashis Ghosh, Shomik Maruf, Mohammad Sohel Shomik, Rashidul Haque, Greg Matlashewski, Shinjiro Hamano, Malcolm S Duthie, Dinesh Mondal
Background: Post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL) is a sequel to visceral leishmaniasis (VL), which is found in VL-endemic countries including Bangladesh. Because of these enigmatic cases, the success of the National Kala-azar Elimination Program is under threat. To date, diagnostic methods for PKDL cases in endemic regions have been limited to clinical examination and rK39 test or microscopy, and a suitable and accurate alternative method is needed. In this study, we investigated the application of real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) as a potential method for diagnosis of PKDL in comparison with microscopy...
October 2018: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
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