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Leishmaniasis OR Leishmania

Mary Ângela Aranda-Souza, Virginia Maria Barros de Lorena, Maria Tereza Dos Santos Correia, Regina Célia Bressan Queiroz de Figueiredo
Leishmania amazonensis and Leishmania braziliensis are the main causative agents of American Tegumentary Leishmaniasis (ATL) in Brazil. As intracellular parasites, the infection by Leishmania species is dependent on the host immune response and the immunotherapy could be promissory for the development of new strategies to combat ATL. In this work we investigated the leishmanicidal potential of a galactose-binding lectin from the snake venom of Bothrops leucurus (BLL) during the infection with L. amazonensis and L...
August 14, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Mohd Arish, Atahar Husein, Rahat Ali, Shams Tabrez, Farha Naz, Zulfazal Ahmad, Abdur Rub
BACKGROUND: Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) is a crucial regulator of a wide array of cellular processes, such as apoptosis, cell proliferation, migration, and differentiation, but its role in Leishmania donovani infection is unknown. METHODOLOGY/ PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In the present study, we observed that L. donovani infection in THP-1 derived macrophages (TDM) leads to decrease in the expression of S1pr2 and S1pr3 at mRNA level. We further observed that Leishmania infection inhibits the phosphorylation of sphingosine kinase 1 (sphK1) in a time-dependent manner...
August 17, 2018: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
B Sarkari, R Alirezaei, A Layegh Gigloo, Z Rezaei, F Mikaeili, M S Bahreini, M Fararouei
The current study was performed to find out the seroprevalence of Toxocara infection in children living in a rural community in Fars province, southern Iran. Venous blood was taken from 617 children and evaluated for anti-Toxocara antibodies, using an ELISA system. Of the 617 studied children, 318 (51.5%) were boys and 299 (48.5%) were girls. Mean age of the participants was 9.2 (±10.7) years. Most cases of the recruited subjects (37.4%) were in the age group of 0-5 year. Anti-Toxocara antibodies were detected in sera of 39 (6...
August 16, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Amir Hossein Zahirnia, Ali Bordbar, Sahar Ebrahimi, Adel Spotin, Somayeh Mohammadi, Seyedeh Maryam Ghafari, Setareh Ahmadvand, Negar Jabbari, Ahmad Reza Esmaeili Rastaghi, Parviz Parvizi
BACKGROUND: Leishmania major is a causative agent of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in the center of Iran, Abarkouh district. Molecular characterization and precise incrimination of Leishmania species was carried out to perform controlling measurements and to design treatment programs for zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis. METHODS: All smears isolated from ulcers of suspected patients were examined under a light microscope and graded for amastigotes frequency. Extraction of DNA, PCR, RFLP and sequencing of ITS-rDNA genotype were done to increase the efficacy of Leishmania parasites identification at their species-specific level and to detect any Leishmania infections within...
August 13, 2018: Brazilian Journal of Infectious Diseases
Mariana Del M Chanampa, Raquel M Gleiser, Carlos L Hoyos, Griselda N Copa, Carolina Mangudo, Julio R Nasser, José F Gil
The sand fly fauna in Hipólito Yrigoyen, Argentina, a locality where cutaneous leishmaniasis cases occur, was surveyed with zones of higher abundance of sand flies correlated to vegetation cover estimated through normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI). Sand flies were collected with 10 CDC traps during six nights, from December 2009 to January 2010. A map was built of expected sand flies abundance in which levels of NDVI were categorized. In total, 1,392 Phlebotominae (Diptera: Psychodidae) specimens were collected, comprised of the following species: Nyssomyia neivai (Pinto 1926), Migonemyia migonei (França 1920), species of the cortelezzii complex (Brèthes 1923), Evandromyia sallesi (Galvão & Coutinho 1940), and Psathyromyia shannoni (Dyar 1929)...
August 3, 2018: Journal of Medical Entomology
Kumar Avishek, Kavita Ahuja, Dibyabhaba Pradhan, Sreenivas Gannavaram, Angamuthu Selvapandiyan, Hira L Nakhasi, Poonam Salotra
The morphological and biochemical alterations between the two life stages of Leishmania are governed by stage-regulated expression of several genes. Amastigote-specific genes are believed to have a role in the survival and replication of the parasite in the hostile environment of the mammalian host. Previously, we have reported the upregulated expression of A1 gene (LdA1) at the amastigote stage at RNA level. In the present study, we have further characterized LdA1, in order to understand its role in Leishmania...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
Katharina Arens, Christodoulos Filippis, Helen Kleinfelder, Arthur Goetzee, Gabriele Reichmann, Peter Crauwels, Zoe Waibler, Katrin Bagola, Ger van Zandbergen
Tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) drives the pathophysiology of human autoimmune diseases and consequently, neutralizing antibodies (Abs) or Ab-derived molecules directed against TNFα are essential therapeutics. As treatment with several TNFα blockers has been reported to entail a higher risk of infectious diseases such as leishmaniasis, we established an in vitro model based on Leishmania -infected human macrophages, co-cultured with autologous T-cells, for the analysis and comparison of anti-TNFα therapeutics...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Sarfaraz Ahmad Ejazi, Anirban Bhattacharyya, Somsubhra Thakur Choudhury, Sneha Ghosh, Abdus Sabur, Krishna Pandey, Vidya Nand Ravi Das, Pradeep Das, Mehebubar Rahaman, Rama Prosad Goswami, Nahid Ali
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), a potentially fatal disease is an outcome of infection caused by the parasite Leishmania donovani. The clinical diagnostic tests for this disease are still related to invasive tissue aspiration or serological immunochromatography. Advancements in immunoproteomics such as two-dimensional gel electrophoresis, mass spectrometry, B cell epitope prediction, and peptide synthesis have enabled researchers to discover newer biomarkers for disease diagnosis. In this study, we have screened several urine-reactive leishmanial membrane proteins as potential biomarker candidates...
August 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
E González, R Molina, M Jiménez
Phlebotomine sand flies are known vectors of several pathogens. In Spain, Phlebotomus perniciosus and Phlebotomus ariasi are the proven vectors of Leishmania infantum. Since 2010 a human leishmaniasis outbreak has been notified in Madrid region, central Spain. Studies have shown that P. perniciosus is the only vector confirmed in the focus area and that rabbits and hares are the wild reservoirs incriminated in the cycle of the parasite in the outbreak. Trypanosoma nabiasi is a trypanosomatid found in wild rabbits and its presence has been reported in wild rabbits from southern Spain...
August 11, 2018: Acta Tropica
M Junaid Dar, Fakhar Ud Din, Gul Majid Khan
Topical drug delivery against cutaneous leishmaniasis (CL) signifies an effective alternate for improving the availability and reducing the toxicity associated with the parenteral administration of conventional sodium stibogluconate (SSG) injection. The basic aim of the study was to develop nano-deformable liposomes (NDLs) for the dermal delivery of SSG against CL. NDLs were formulated by a modified thin film hydration method and optimized via Box-Behnken statistical design. The physicochemical properties of SSG-NDLs were established in terms of vesicle size (195...
November 2018: Drug Delivery
Mohammad Amin Ghatee, Hossein Mirhendi, Mehdi Karamian, Walter R Taylor, Iraj Sharifi, Massood Hosseinzadeh, Zahra Kanannejad
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is endemic in Iran and is caused predominantly by Leishmania infantum, but L. tropica is emerging as an important cause. We studied the intra-species population structure of Leishmania spp. causing VL in southwest Iran by sequence analysis of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) 1 of DNA samples from 29 bone marrow aspiration smears. L. infantum (n = 25) and L. tropica (n = 4) were identified, consisting of 10 and three ITS1 sequence types (STs), respectively. Compared to GenBank ITS1 STs, our L...
August 13, 2018: Parasitology Research
Kaiming Bi, Yuyang Chen, Songnian Zhao, Yan Kuang, Chih-Hang John Wu
Visceral leishmaniasis (VL), one of the deadliest parasitic diseases in the world, causes more than 50,000 human deaths each year and afflicts millions of people throughout South America, East Africa, South Asia, and Mediterranean Region. In 2015 the World Health Organization classified VL as a neglected tropical disease (NTD), prompting concentrated study of the VL epidemic using mathematical and simulation models. This paper reviews literature related to prevalence and prevention control strategies. More than thirty current research works were reviewed and classified based on VL epidemic study methods, including modeling approaches, control strategies, and simulation techniques since 2013...
2018: BioMed Research International
Victor Sebastián-Pérez, Sarah Hendrickx, Jane C Munday, Titilola Kalejaiye, Ana Martínez, Nuria E Campillo, Harry de Koning, Guy Caljon, Louis Maes, Carmen Gil
The available treatments for leishmaniasis are less than optimal due to inadequate efficacy, toxic side-effects and the emergence of resistant strains, clearly endorsing the urgent need for discovery and development of novel drug candidates. Ideally, these should act via an alternative mechanism-of-action to avoid cross-resistance with the current drugs. As cyclic nucleotide specific phosphodiesterases (PDEs) of L. major have been postulated as putative drug targets, a series of potential inhibitors of Leishmania PDEs was explored...
August 13, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Ayalew Assefa
Leishmaniasis is a neglected tropical disease caused by obligate intracellular protozoa of the genus Leishmania . Ethiopia does not have an overall estimation of prevalence of leishmaniasis infection at a country level. The objective of this systematic review and meta-analysis was to summarize and pool estimates of studies that report the prevalence of leishmaniasis in Ethiopia. The literature search was conducted to identify all published studies reporting the prevalence of leishmaniasis with clearly designed inclusion and exclusion criteria...
August 2018: Heliyon
Juliana Cogo, Juan Cantizani, Ignacio Cotillo, Diego Pereira Sangi, Arlene Gonçalves Corrêa, Tânia Ueda-Nakamura, Benedito Prado Dias Filho, José Julio Martín, Celso Vataru Nakamura
Continuous efforts have been made to discover new drugs for the treatment of Chagas' disease, human African trypanosomiasis, and leishmaniasis. We have previously reported the synthesis and antileishmanial and antitrypanosomal (Y strain) properties of 2,3-disubstituted quinoxalines. Considering their promising antiparasitic potential, the present study was conducted to expand our search and take advantage of high-throughput assays to investigate the effects of quinoxaline derivatives against Leishmania donovani, Trypanosoma brucei, and Trypanosoma cruzi (Tulahuen strain)...
August 7, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Issam I Raad, Anne-Marie Chaftari, Rita Wilson Dib, Edward A Graviss, Ray Hachem
The escalating conflicts in the Middle East have been associated with the rapid collapse of the existing healthcare systems in affected countries. As millions of refugees flee their countries, they become vulnerable and exposed to communicable diseases that easily grow into epidemic crises. Here, we describe infectious disease epidemics that have been associated with conflicts in the Middle East, including cholera, poliomyelitis, measles, cutaneous leishmaniasis, and diphtheria, that call for appropriate preventive measures...
August 13, 2018: Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology
Md Sakhawat Hossain, Amresh Kumar, A F M Akhtar Hossain, Md Mahshin, Abhijit Sharma, Md Akter Hossain, Varun Sharma, Rashidul Haque, A K M Shamsuzzaman, Shomik Maruf, Prakash Ghosh, Vivek Ahuja, Dinesh Mondal
BACKGROUND: Adverse effects of antileishmanial drugs can affect patients' quality of life and adherence to therapy for visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and post-kala-azar dermal leishmaniasis (PKDL). In Bangladesh, there are 26 treatment centers that manage leishmaniasis cases coming from 100 endemic upazilas (subdistricts) of 26 districts (these include VL, PKDL, treatment failure, and relapse VL and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases). This study aimed to investigate the feasibility of using focused pharmacovigilance for VL (VLPV) in Bangladesh's National Kala-azar Elimination Programme for the early detection and prevention of expected and unexpected adverse drug reactions (ADRs)...
August 13, 2018: Infectious Diseases of Poverty
Swati Kapil, Pankaj Kumar Singh, Om Silakari
Leishmaniasis is an infectious disease caused by various species of protozoan parasite known as Leishmania, which is transmitted to its mammalian host via bite of an infected sandfly. Clinically, Leishmaniasis appears as following four conditions: Cutaneous Leishmaniasis, Mucocutaneous Leishmaniasis, Visceral Leishmaniasis/Kala-azar, Post Kala azar dermal Leishmaniasis. Current therapies include pentavalent antimonials, Amphotericin B, Paromomycin, Miltefosine, Pentamidine, Sitamaquine. Presence of diverse survival pathways in the parasite to carry out various physiological functions has rendered targeting via drugs inefficient and troublesome...
August 6, 2018: European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry
Stephane Lima Calixto, Nícolas Glanzmann, Michele Maria Xavier Silveira, Juliana da Trindade Granato, Kezia Katiani Gorza Scopel, Thiago Torres de Aguiar, Renato Augusto DaMatta, Gilson Costa Macedo, Adilson David da Silva, Elaine Soares Coimbra
Leishmaniases are infectious diseases, caused by protozoa of the Leishmania genus. These drugs present high toxicity, long-term administration, many adverse effects and are expensive, besides the identification of resistant parasites. In this work, the antileishmanial activity of quinoline derivative salts (QDS) was evaluated, as well as the toxicity on mammalian cells and the mechanism of action of the most promising compound. Among the compound tested, only the compound QDS3 showed activity against promastigotes and amastigotes of Leishmania spp...
August 9, 2018: Chemico-biological Interactions
P Tatarelli, G Fornaro, V Del Bono, L A Nicolini, A M Raiola, F Gualandi, R Varaldo, T Di Muccio, M Gramiccia, L Gradoni, E Angelucci, C Viscoli, M Mikulska
Visceral leishmaniasis has been recognized as an opportunistic infection affecting people with cellular-immunity impairment, including hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT) recipients. We describe the case of a young Italian man with Hodgkin lymphoma, who developed visceral leishmaniasis after multiple lines of chemotherapy and allogenic HCT. Literature review of visceral leishmaniasis in HCT recipients was also performed. Eleven patients (median age 50 years, 9 male) developed visceral leishmaniasis after allogenic (n = 9) and autologous (n = 2) HCT...
August 8, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
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