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Microvascular inflammation

Alina Mihaela Leustean, Manuela Ciocoiu, Anca Sava, Claudia Florida Costea, Mariana Floria, Claudia Cristina Tarniceriu, Daniela Maria Tanase
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Hideyuki Takahashi, Haruo Watanabe, Kwang Sik Kim, Shigeyuki Yokoyama, Tatsuo Yanagisawa
While Neisseria meningitidis typically exists in an asymptomatic nasopharyngeal carriage state, it may cause potentially lethal diseases in humans, such as septicemia or meningitis, by invading deeper sites in the body. Since the nutrient compositions of human cells are not always conducive to meningococci, N. meningitidis needs to exploit nutrients from host environments. In the present study, the utilization of cysteine by the meningococcal cysteine transport system (CTS) was analyzed for the pathogenesis of meningococcal infections...
December 11, 2018: MBio
Mohammad Afzal Khan, Talal Shamma
Complement factor and T-cell signaling during an effective alloimmune response plays a key role in transplant-associated injury, which leads to the progression of chronic rejection (CR). During an alloimmune response, activated complement factors (C3a and C5a) bind to their corresponding receptors (C3aR and C5aR) on a number of lymphocytes, including T-regulatory cells (Tregs), and these cell-molecular interactions have been vital to modulate an effective immune response to/from Th1-effector cell and Treg activities, which result in massive inflammation, microvascular impairments, and fibrotic remodeling...
December 11, 2018: Journal of Leukocyte Biology
You Dong Liu, Liang Yu, Le Ying, Jesse Balic, Hugh Gao, Nian Tao Deng, Alison West, Feng Yan, Cheng Bo Ji, Daniel Gough, Patrick Tan, Brendan J Jenkins, Ji Kun Li
Toll-like receptors (TLRs) play critical roles in host defence following recognition of conserved microbial- and host-derived components, and their dysregulation is a common feature of various inflammation-associated cancers, including gastric cancer (GC). Despite the recent recognition that metabolic reprogramming is a hallmark of cancer, the molecular effectors of altered metabolism during tumorigenesis remain unclear. Here, using bioenergetics function assays on human GC cells, we reveal that ligand-induced activation of TLR2, predominantly through TLR1/2 heterodimer, augments both oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) and glycolysis, with a bias towards glycolytic activity...
December 11, 2018: International Journal of Cancer. Journal International du Cancer
Sharmila Dorbala, Leslee J Shaw
Cardiac sarcoidosis and amyloidosis have gained recent attention due to substantial advances in imaging and management. In this issue of the Journal of Nuclear Cardiology, imaging experts discuss the role of microvascular perfusion, innervation, targeted imaging of the heart and whole body, and novel molecular targets for imaging inflammation, fibrosis, and amyloidosis. In addition to cutting edge science, experts provide, for the first time, a patient page with information for patients with sarcoidosis and amyloidosis...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Nuclear Cardiology: Official Publication of the American Society of Nuclear Cardiology
Arwin M Valencia, Maria A Abrantes, Jamal Hasan, Jacob V Aranda, Kay D Beharry
The lungs of extremely low gestational age neonates (ELGANs) are deficient in pulmonary surfactant and are incapable of efficient gas exchange necessary for successful transition from a hypoxic intrauterine environment to ambient air. To improve gas exchange and survival, ELGANs often receive supplemental oxygen with mechanical ventilation which disrupts normal lung developmental processes, including microvascular maturation and alveolarization. Factors that regulate these developmental processes include vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinases, both of which are influenced by generation of oxygen byproducts, or reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
November 2018: Reactive Oxygen Species (Apex, N.C.)
Selvalakshmi Rathinavelu, Crissy Guidry-Elizondo, Jameela Banu
Diabetes is a common disease affecting majority of populations worldwide. Since 1980, there has been an increase in the number of people diagnosed as prediabetic and diabetic. Diabetes is characterized by high levels of circulating glucose and leads to most microvascular and macrovascular complications such as retinopathy, nephropathy, neuropathy, stroke, and myocardial infarction. Bone marrow vascular disruption and increased adiposity are also linked to various complications in type II diabetes mellitus. In addition to these complications, type 2 diabetic patients also have fragile bones caused by faulty mineralization mainly due to increased adiposity among diabetic patients that affects both osteoblast and osteoclast functions...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Sorino Claudio, Scichilone Nicola, Pedone Claudio, Negri Stefano, Visca Dina, Spanevello Antonio
A significant interaction between kidneys and lungs has been shown in physiological and pathological conditions. The two organs can both be targets of the same systemic disease (eg., some vasculitides). Moreover, loss of normal function of either of them can induce direct and indirect dysregulation of the other one. Subjects suffering from COPD may have systemic inflammation, hypoxemia, endothelial dysfunction, increased sympathetic activation and increased aortic stiffness. As well as the exposure to nicotine, all the foresaid factors can induce a microvascular damage, albuminuria, and a worsening of renal function...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Nephrology
Hong Chen, Yixue Huang, Xiuqin Zhu, Chong Liu, Yangmian Yuan, Hua Su, Chun Zhang, Chengyu Liu, Mingrui Xiong, Yannan Qu, Peng Yun, Ling Zheng, Kun Huang
KEY POINTS: Diabetic kidney disease (DKD) is a major complication of diabetes. We found that UTX, a histone demethylase, was upregulated in the renal mesangial and tubular cells of diabetic mice and DKD patients. In cultured renal mesangial and tubular cells, UTX overexpression promoted palmitic acid-induced elevation of inflammation and DNA damage; while UTX knockdown or GSK-J4 treatment showed the opposite effects. We found that UTX demethylase activity-dependently regulated the transcription of inflammatory genes and apoptosis; moreover, UTX bound with p53 and p53-dependently exacerbated DNA damage...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Zhendong Guo, Zhe Li, Yuxiao Deng, Sung-Liang Chen
Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) is a noninvasive imaging technique and is excellent to study structural and functional changes in the microcirculation. In this work, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced inflammation model in mice is noninvasively evaluated by PAM. PAM is used to image the microvascular structural changes in mice for 8 hours after the LPS with different concentrations is applied. Quantitative analysis of five vessel parameters is conducted, which shows that the rate of reduction in microvasculature is highly dependent on the applied LPS concentrations...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Biophotonics
Bendik C Brinchmann, Eric Le Ferrec, Normand Podechard, Dominique Lagadic-Gossmann, Jørn A Holme, Johan Øvrevik
Exposure to diesel exhaust particles (DEP) may contribute to endothelial dysfunction and cardiovascular disease. DEP, extractable organic material from DEP (DEP-EOM) and certain PAHs seem to trigger [Ca2+ ]i increase as well as inflammation via GPCRs like βARs and PAR-2. In the present study we explored the involvement of βARs and PAR-2 in effects of DEP-EOM on [Ca2+ ]i and expression of inflammation-associated genes in the endothelial cell-line HMEC-1. We exposed the human microvascular endothelial cell line HMEC-1 to DEP-EOM fractionated by sequential extraction with solvents of increasing polarity: n-hexane (n-Hex-EOM), dichloromethane (DCM-EOM), methanol (Methanol-EOM) and water (Water-EOM)...
November 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Gamze Aslan, Veli Polat, Evin Bozcali, Selçuk Opan, Nurcan Çetin, Dilek Ural
OBJECTIVES: Coronary microvascular dysfunction plays a major role in the pathogenesis of microvascular angina (MVA). Along with endothelial dysfunction, microvascular atherosclerosis and inflammation seem to contribute to the development of coronary microvascular dysfunction. Serum soluble ST2 (sST2) and serum soluble CD40 ligand (sCD40L) are two biomarkers associated with inflammation and atherosclerosis. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of these biomarkers in the pathogenesis of MVA and determine their possible association with coronary microvascular dysfunction...
November 28, 2018: Microvascular Research
Vito Dozio, Jean-Charles Sanchez
BACKGROUND: Astrocytes are the most abundant cells in the central nervous system and are responsible for a wide range of functions critical to normal neuronal development, synapse formation, blood-brain barrier regulation, and brain homeostasis. They are also actively involved in initiating and perpetuating neuroinflammatory responses. However, information about their proteomic phenotypes under inflammation is currently limited. METHOD: Data-independent acquisition mass spectrometry was applied to extensively characterize the profile of more than 4000 proteins in immortalized human fetal astrocytes under distinct inflammatory conditions induced by TNF, IL-1β, and LPS, while multiplex immunoassay-based screening was used to quantify a wide range of cytokines released under these inflammatory conditions...
November 30, 2018: Journal of Neuroinflammation
Brian J Nankivell, Nidhi Agrawal, Ankit Sharma, Anne Taverniti, Chow H P'Ng, Meena Shingde, Germaine Wong, Jeremy R Chapman
The pathological diagnosis of borderline rejection (BL-R) denotes possible T cell mediated rejection (TCMR), but its clinical significance is uncertain. This single-centre, cross-sectional cohort study compared the functional and histological outcomes of consecutive BL-R diagnoses (n=146) against normal controls (n=826) and acute TCMR (n=55) from 551 renal transplant recipients. BL-R was associated with: contemporaneous renal dysfunction, acute tubular necrosis and chronic tubular atrophy (P<0.001); progressive tubular injury with fibrosis by longitudinal sequential histology (45...
November 30, 2018: American Journal of Transplantation
E V Askhadulin, T V Konchugova, S V Moskvin
AIM: The objective of the present study was the evaluation of the effectiveness of the combined treatment of the patients presenting with trophic ulcers associated with chronic venous insufficiency of the lower extremities of venous etiology with the application of low-intensity laser therapy (LILT) at different wavelengths. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included the patients presenting with chronic venous insufficiency (CVI) (class C6 in accordance with the CEAP clinical classification)...
2018: Voprosy Kurortologii, Fizioterapii, i Lechebnoĭ Fizicheskoĭ Kultury
Junggun Jo, Guan Xu, Yunhao Zhu, Mary Burton, Jeffrey Sarazin, Elena Schiopu, Girish Gandikota, Xueding Wang
Light-emitting diode (LED) light sources have recently been introduced to photoacoustic imaging (PAI). The LEDs enable a smaller footprint for PAI systems when compared to laser sources, thereby improving system portability and allowing for improved access. An LED-based PAI system has been employed to identify inflammatory arthritis in human hand joints. B-mode ultrasound (US), Doppler, and PAIs were obtained from 12 joints with clinically active arthritis, five joints with subclinically active arthritis, and 12 normal joints...
November 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Abdel Masieh Metry, Issa Al Salmi, Farida Al Balushi, Mohammed Abdalla Yousef, Faisal Al Ismaili, Alan Hola, Suad Hannawi
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune multisystem inflammatory condition that causes microvascular inflammation with the production of various auto-antibodies that play a major role in its pathogenesis. SLE can affect both sexes, all ages, and all ethnic groups with widespread geographical and socioeconomic backgrounds. Asia encompasses people of many sociocultural backgrounds with diverse ethnic. Due to a lack of national epidemiological research, the incidence and prevalence of SLE in Middle Eastern and Arab countries, have only recently been studied...
November 28, 2018: Anti-inflammatory & Anti-allergy Agents in Medicinal Chemistry
Rana Shafabakhsh, Esmat Aghadavod, Moein Mobini, Reza Heidari-Soureshjani, Zatollah Asemi
Diabetic retinopathy is one of the common and serious microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus, as hyperglycemia has metabolic effects on the retina. Hyperglycemia induces increased oxidative stress, which stimulates inflammation pathways and promotes vascular dysfunction of the retina that leads to increased capillary permeability and vascular leakage. One of the main factors involving diabetic retinopathy is the inflammation signaling pathways. In contemporary times, microRNAs (miRNAs) are identified as functional biomarkers for early detection and treatment of numerous diseases specifically diabetic retinopathy...
November 27, 2018: Journal of Cellular Physiology
Sara Hogan, Mara Weinstein Velez, Michael S Kaminer
Cellulite is a common dermatologic condition and frequent cause of cosmetic concern among women. This paper aims to update what is known about the pathogenesis of cellulite and reviews targeted treatment modalities that address its underlying components of microvascular dysfunction, endocrine-mediated inflammation, and connective tissue fibrosclerosis.
December 2018: Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
Cyrus M Sani, Elahn P L Pogue, Joanna B Hrabia, Alexander G Zayachkowski, Magdaline M Zawadka, Adrian G Poniatowski, Dorota Długosz, Wiktoria Leśniak, Olga Kruszewska, Bernadeta Chyrchel, Andrzej Surdacki
BACKGROUND: A novel paradigm of diastolic heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF) proposed the induction of coronary microvascular dysfunction by HFpEF comorbidities via a systemic pro-inflammatory state and associated oxidative stress. The consequent nitric oxide deficiency would increase diastolic tension and favor fibrosis of adjacent myocardium, which implies not only left ventricular (LV), but all-chamber myocardial stiffening. Our aim was to assess relations between low-grade chronic systemic inflammation and left atrial (LA) pressure-volume relations in real-world HFpEF patients...
2018: Folia Medica Cracoviensia
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