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Microvascular inflammation

Qiying Fan, Hua Mao, Liang Xie, Xinchun Pi
Acute lung injury and its more severe form, the acute respiratory distress syndrome, are life-threatening respiratory disorders. Overwhelming pulmonary inflammation and endothelium disruption are commonly observed. Endothelial cells (ECs) are well recognized as key regulators in leukocyte adhesion and migration in response to bacterial infection. Prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD)-2 protein, a major PHD in ECs, plays a critical role in intracellular oxygen homeostasis, angiogenesis, and pulmonary hypertension...
October 16, 2018: American Journal of Pathology
Alberto González-Almada, José M Arreola-Guerra, José Argenis López-Sánchez, Eric Cuevas, Mario Vilatoba, Alan G Contreras, Luis E Morales-Buenrostro, Josefina Alberu, Norma O Uribe-Uribe
The association between anti-AT1Rabs and microvascular injury observed in antibody-mediated rejection has been described in kidney graft Biopsies (KGBx). METHODS: We herein describe the histopathologic findings of KGBx performed during the first year of transplantation (Tx) in 134 patients tested for pre-Tx anti-AT1Rabs in cryopreserved sera (04/2009 to 09/2013). Protocol KGBx before implantation (time-zero), 1 year after Tx and for cause KGBx were included. 21/134 Tx patients were anti-AT1Rab positive (≥17 U/mL); 7/21 experienced acute rejection...
October 15, 2018: Transplant Immunology
Sandesh Parajuli, Robert R Redfield, Neetika Garg, Fahad Aziz, Maha Mohamed, Brad C Astor, Weixong Zhong, Arjang Djamali, Didier A Mandelbrot
BACKGROUND: Limited information exists about outcomes of HLA DSA negative (DSA-) microvascular inflammation (MVI). METHODS: We report our experience with 25 DSA- patients with MVI compared to 155 DSA+ patients who met Banff 2013 criteria for ABMR. We also compared outcomes to 228 DSA+ patients whose biopsies were negative for rejection, and served as a negative control. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the baseline characteristics between the DSA- MVI and DSA+ ABMR groups...
October 17, 2018: Transplantation
Gönül Vural, Şadiye Gümüsyayla
The monocyte-to-high density lipoprotein ratio (MHR) has recently been implemented as an indicator of inflammation and oxidative stress. The present study characterized MHR in patients with diabetic polyneuropathy (DPN), in which oxidative stress and microvascular damage play a role in pathogenesis, relative to patients with non-DPN, diabetic patients without polyneuropathy, and healthy individuals. We further aimed to evaluate the association between MHR and the decreased compound muscle action potential (CMAP) amplitude of patients with diabetic axonal polyneuropathy...
October 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Salini Scaria Joy, Khalid Siddiqui
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is considered as most common microvascular complication of diabetes affected by one in three people who are suffered for diabetes. Several pathophysiological mechanisms and adhesion molecules may play an etiologic role in the development of diabetes and its complications. The adhesion molecules located on both leucocytes and endothelial cells and considered as important molecules which can assessed the endothelial function. The functions of adhesion molecules involved in the cellular margination, slow rolling and transmigration of leukocytes...
October 16, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
Prithu Sundd, Mark T Gladwin, Enrico M Novelli
Since the discovery of sickle cell disease (SCD) in 1910, enormous strides have been made in the elucidation of the pathogenesis of its protean complications, which has inspired recent advances in targeted molecular therapies. In SCD, a single amino acid substitution in the β-globin chain leads to polymerization of mutant hemoglobin S, impairing erythrocyte rheology and survival. Clinically, erythrocyte abnormalities in SCD, manifest in hemolytic anemia and cycles of microvascular vaso-occlusion leading to endorgan ischemia-reperfusion injury and infarction...
October 17, 2018: Annual Review of Pathology
Xin Li, Daniel Staub, Vasileios Rafailidis, Mohammed Al-Natour, Sanjeeva Kalva, Sasan Partovi
Ultrasound has been established as an important diagnostic tool in assessing vascular abnormalities. Standard B-mode and Doppler techniques have inherent limitations with regards to detection of slow flow and small vasculature. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) is a complementary tool and is useful in assessing both the macro- and microvascular anatomy of the aorta. CEUS can also provide valuable physiological information in real-time scanning sessions due to the physical and safety profiles of the administered microbubbles...
October 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Sarvesh Chelvanambi, Natalia Bogatcheva, Mariola Bednorz, Stuti Agarwal, Bernhard Maier, Nathan J Alves, Wei Li, Farooq Syed, Manal M Saber, Noelle Dahl, Hongyan Lu, Richard B Day, Patricia Smith, Paul Jolicoeur, Qigui Yu, Navneet K Dhillon, Norbert Weissmann, Homer L Twigg Iii, Matthias Clauss
It remains a mystery why HIV-associated end-organ pathologies persist in the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (ART). One possible mechanism is the continued production of HIV encoded proteins in latently HIV-infected T cells and macrophages. The pro-apoptotic protein HIV-Nef persists in the blood of ART treated patients within extracellular vesicles (EV) and PBMC. Here we demonstrate that HIV-Nef is present in cells and extracellular vesicles (EV) isolated from bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) of patients on ART...
October 15, 2018: American Journal of Respiratory Cell and Molecular Biology
Xiaofei An, Maoxiang Zhang, Sisi Zhou, Tian Lu, Yongjun Chen, Lin Yao
Hyperglycemia induces glomerular hyper-filtration, which contributes to the development of diabetic nephropathy (DN), a condition that remains a challenge for treatment. The present study investigated the effect of Xiao-Shen-Formula (XSF) used for treatment of renal injury in type 1 DN mice model induced by streptozotocin (STZ) and its underlying mechanism in cultured human glomerular endothelial cell (hGECs). Studies were performed using control, diabetic DN, DN treated with XSF groups (1 g/kg/d, LXSF or 3 g/kg/d, HXSF) for 6 weeks and hGECs were post-treated with mice serum containing HXSF (MS-HXSF) and arginase inhibitor (ABH, 100 μM) in high glucose medium...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Peilin Lv, Jingni Yu, Xiayu Xu, Tianjian Lu, Feng Xu
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is one of the most common microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus and is considered as a leading cause of blindness. Oxidative stress and inflammation are significant drivers for the development of DR. Eriodictyol, a flavonoid compound, was proved to possess anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, and antidiabetic activities. However, the role of eriodictyol in DR has not been unveiled. In the current study, we explored the protective effects of eriodictyol on high glucose (HG)-induced rat retinal ganglial cells (RGCs)...
October 14, 2018: Journal of Cellular Biochemistry
John D Belcher, Edward Gomperts, Julia Nguyen, Chunsheng Chen, Fuad Abdulla, Zachary M Kiser, David Gallo, Howard Levy, Leo E Otterbein, Gregory M Vercellotti
Carbon monoxide (CO) at low, non-toxic concentrations has been previously demonstrated to exert anti-inflammatory protection in murine models of sickle cell disease (SCD). However CO delivery by inhalation, CO-hemoglobin infusion or CO-releasing molecules presents problems for daily CO administration. Oral administration of a CO-saturated liquid avoids many of these issues and potentially provides a platform for self-administration to SCD patients. To test if orally-delivered CO could modulate SCD vaso-occlusion and inflammation, a liquid CO formulation (HBI-002) was administered by gavage (10 ml/kg) once-daily to NY1DD and Townes-SS transgenic mouse models of SCD...
2018: PloS One
Tameshwar Ganesh, Eric Zakher, Marvin Estrada, Hai-Ling Margaret Cheng
BACKGROUND: Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury involves damage to the microvessel structure (eg, increased permeability) and function (blunted vasomodulation). While microstructural damage can be detected with dynamic contrast-enhanced (DCE) MRI, there is no diagnostic to detect deficits in microvascular function. PURPOSE: To apply a novel MRI method for evaluating dynamic vasomodulation to assess microvascular dysfunction in skeletal muscle following I/R injury...
October 9, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Harshini Chakravarthy, Vasudharani Devanathan
Diabetic retinopathy (DR) is a devastating complication of diabetes with a prevalence rate of 35%, and no effective treatment options. Since the most visible clinical features of DR are microvascular irregularities, therapeutic interventions often attempt to reduce microvascular injury, but only after permanent retinal damage has ensued. However, recent data suggests that diabetes initially affects retinal neurons, leading to neurodegeneration as an early occurrence in DR, before onset of the more noticeable vascular abnormalities...
October 6, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
Grace Z Yu, Svetlana Reilly, Adam J Lewandowski, Christina Y L Aye, Lisa J Simpson, Laura Newton, Esther F Davis, Sha J Zhu, Willow R Fox, Anuj Goel, Hugh Watkins, Keith M Channon, Suzanne M Watt, Theodosios Kyriakou, Paul Leeson
Offspring of hypertensive pregnancies are at increased risk of developing hypertension in adulthood. In the neonatal period they display endothelial cell dysfunction and altered microvascular development. MicroRNAs, as important endothelial cellular regulators, may play a role in this early endothelial dysfunction. Therefore we identified differential microRNA patterns in endothelial cells from offspring of hypertensive pregnancies and determined their role in postnatal vascular cell function. Studies were performed on human umbilical vein endothelial cell (HUVECs) samples from 57 pregnancies...
October 2018: Hypertension
Rosa Fernandes, Sofia D Viana, Sara Nunes, Flávio Reis
The increased prevalence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and life expectancy of diabetic patients fosters the worldwide prevalence of retinopathy and nephropathy, two major microvascular complications that have been difficult to treat with contemporary glucose-lowering medications. The gut microbiota (GM) has become a lively field research in the last years; there is a growing recognition that altered intestinal microbiota composition and function can directly impact the phenomenon of ageing and age-related disorders...
October 1, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular basis of disease
Wen-Zhu Li, Yi Yang, Kun Liu, Rui Long, Nan Jin, Shi-Yuan Huang, Ya You, Jing Dai, Cheng Fan, Jue Wang, Zhao-Hui Wang
BACKGROUND: Membrane-associated fibrinogen-like protein 2 (FGL2 prothrombinase, pFGL2) is abundantly expressed in activated microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) and plays a crucial role in microthrombus formation in microcirculatory vasculature. It has been widely reported that coronary microvascular obstruction (CMVO) contributes to adverse outcomes following myocardial ischemia/reperfusion. However, the role of pFGL2 in CMVO is poorly understood. METHODS AND RESULTS: We aimed to identify the effect of MVECs-pFGL2 in CMVO using FGL2 knockout mice...
September 13, 2018: International Journal of Cardiology
Xueli Kong, Guitao Huo, Shurong Liu, Fengnan Li, Wu Chen, Daixun Jiang
Luteolin, an anti-inflammatory ingredient found in the Chinese herb Folium perillae, can inhibit not only the cyclic adenosine monophosphate (cAMP)-phosphodiesterases (PDEs) activity of neutrophils, but also the expression of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 in neutrophils, both of which result in a decrease in the adhesion between neutrophils and microvascular endothelial cells. However, the effect of luteolin on the cAMP-PDEs activity and expression of adhesion molecules in endothelial cells are not clear...
October 1, 2018: Inflammopharmacology
Alexandra Bruel, Justine Bacchetta, Tiphanie Ginhoux, Christelle Rodier-Bonifas, Anne-Laure Sellier-Leclerc, Bérengère Fromy, Pierre Cochat, Dominique Sigaudo-Roussel, Laurence Dubourg
BACKGROUND: Primary hyperoxaluria type 1 (PH1) is an orphan inborn error of oxalate metabolism leading to hyperoxaluria, progressive renal failure, oxalate deposition, and increased cardiovascular complications. As endothelial dysfunction and arterial stiffness are early markers of cardiovascular risk, we investigated early endothelial and vascular dysfunction in young PH1 patients either under conservative treatment (PH1-Cons) or after combined kidney liver transplantation (PH1-T) in comparison to healthy controls (Cont-H) and patients with a past of renal transplantation (Cont-T)...
October 1, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
Marie Billaud, Jennifer C Hill, Tara D Richards, Thomas G Gleason, Julie A Phillippi
Human ascending aortic aneurysms characteristically exhibit cystic medial degeneration of the aortic wall encompassing elastin degeneration, proteoglycan accumulation and smooth muscle cell loss. Most studies have focused on the aortic media and there is a limited understanding of the importance of the adventitial layer in the setting of human aneurysmal disease. We recently demonstrated that the adventitial ECM contains key angiogenic factors that are downregulated in aneurysmal aortic specimens. In this study, we investigated the adventitial microvascular network (vasa vasorum) of aneurysmal aortic specimens of different etiology and hypothesized that the vasa vasorum is disrupted in patients with ascending aortic aneurysm...
2018: Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine
Juliette Peltzer, Marc Aletti, Nadira Frescaline, Elodie Busson, Jean-Jacques Lataillade, Christophe Martinaud
Systemic Sclerosis (SSc) is a rare chronic disease, related to autoimmune connective tissue diseases such as Systemic Lupus Erythematosus and Sjögren's Syndrome. Although its clinical heterogeneity, main features of the disease are: extensive tissue fibrosis with increase matrix deposition in skin and internal organ, microvascular alterations and activation of the immune system with autoantibodies against various cellular antigens. In the diffuse cutaneous scleroderma subtype, the disease is rapidly progressive with a poor prognosis, leading to failure of almost any internal organ, especially lung which is the leading cause of death...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
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