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Microvascular inflammation

Xin Zhang, Seo Rin Kim, Christopher M Ferguson, Behzad Ebrahimi, Ahmad F Hedayat, Amir Lerman, Lilach O Lerman
Background: The collateral circulation is important in maintenance of blood supply to the ischemic kidney distal to renal artery stenosis (RAS). Obesity-metabolic syndrome (MetS) preserves renal blood flow (RBF) in the stenotic kidney, but whether this is related to an increase of collateral vessel growth is unknown. We hypothesized that MetS increased collateral circulation around the renal artery. Methods: Twenty-one domestic pigs were randomly divided into unilateral RAS fed an atherogenic (high-fat/high-fructose, MetS-RAS) or standard diet, or controls (n=7 each)...
August 9, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Yingzhu Feng, Chien-Sheng Chen, Jessica Ho, Donna Pearce, Shaohui Hu, Bochu Wang, Prashant Desai, Kwang Sik Kim, Heng Zhu
Bacterial meningitis in neonates and infants is an acute lethal disease and occurs in response to microbial exploitation of the blood brain barrier (BBB), resulting in the intracranial inflammation. Several pathogens, such as Escherichia coli (E. coli), can cause this devastating disease; however, the underlying molecular mechanisms by which these pathogens exploit the BBB remain incompletely understood. To identify important players on both the pathogen and host sides that govern the E. coli-BBB cell interactions, we took advantage of the E...
August 14, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Guido Carpino, Vincenzo Cardinale, Trine Folseraas, Diletta Overi, Krzysztof Grzyb, Daniele Costantini, Pasquale Bartolomeo Berloco, Sabina Di Matteo, Tom Hemming Karlsen, Domenico Alvaro, Eugenio Gaudio
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) is a chronic inflammatory cholangiopathy frequently complicated by cholangiocarcinoma (CCA). Massive proliferation of biliary tree stem/progenitor cells (BTSCs), expansion of peribiliary glands (PBGs), and dysplasia were observed in PSC. The aims of the present study were to evaluate the involvement of PBGs and BTSCs in CCA which emerged in PSC patients. Specimens from normal liver (N=5), PSC (N=20), and PSC-associated CCA (N=20) were included. Samples were processed for histology, immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence...
August 13, 2018: Hepatology: Official Journal of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases
Fariborz Soroush, Yuan Tang, Kimberly Guglielmo, Alex Engelmann, Elisabetta Liverani, Jordan Langston, Shuang Sun, Satya Kunapuli, Mohammad F Kiani, Laurie E Kilpatrick
BACKGROUND: Neutrophil dysfunction plays an important role in inflammation-induced tissue injury. Previously, we identified Protein Kinase C-delta (PKCδ) as a critical controller of neutrophil activation and trafficking but how PKCδ is regulated in inflammation hasn't been delineated. PKCδ activity is regulated by tyrosine phosphorylation on multiple sites. Tyrosine155 is a key regulator of apoptosis and gene expression, but its role in proinflammatory signaling is not known. METHODS: In vitro studies: superoxide anion (O2) and neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) were measured in bone marrow neutrophils (BMN) isolated from wild type (WT) and PKCδY155F knock-in mice (PKCδ tyrosine 155 →phenylalanine)...
August 7, 2018: Shock
Mohammed Nuru, Nino Muradashvili, Anuradha Kalani, David Lominadze, Neetu Tyagi
Methionine is an essential amino acid found in rich quantities in average American diet such as meats, fish and eggs. Excessive consumption of such food often exceeds the normal requirement of the methionine in our body; which found to be related to the development of neurodegenerative disorders. However, the mechanistic pathways of methionine's influence on the brain are unclear. The present study is focus on the effects of high methionine, low folate and low vitamin B6/B12 (HM-LF-LV) diet on the dysfunction of neuronal and vascular specific markers in the brain...
August 9, 2018: Metabolic Brain Disease
Vivian K Lee, Brett M Hosking, Joanna Holeniewska, Ewa C Kubala, Peter Lundh von Leithner, Peter J Gardner, Richard H Foxton, David T Shima
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: Diabetic retinopathy is increasing in prevalence worldwide and is fast becoming a global epidemic and a leading cause of visual loss. Current therapies are limited, and the development of effective treatments for diabetic retinopathy requires a greater in-depth knowledge of disease progression and suitable modelling of diabetic retinopathy in animals. The aim of this study was to assess the early pathological changes in retinal morphology and neuronal, inflammatory and vascular features consistent with diabetic retinopathy in the ob/ob mouse model of type 2 diabetes, to investigate whether features similar to those in human diabetic retinopathy were present...
August 9, 2018: Diabetologia
Sanja Cicko, Thomas Christian Köhler, Cemil Korcan Ayata, Tobias Müller, Nicolas Ehrat, Anja Meyer, Madelon Hossfeld, Andreas Zech, Francesco Di Virgilio, Marco Idzko
Acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) is a life-threating lung condition resulting from a direct and indirect injury to the lungs [1, 2]. Pathophysiologically it is characterized by an acute alveolar damage, an increased permeability of the microvascular-barrier, leading to protein-rich pulmonary edema and subsequent impairment of arterial oxygenation and respiratory failure [1]. This study examined the role of extracellular ATP in recruiting inflammatory cells to the lung after induction of acute lung injury with lipopolysaccharide (LPS)...
July 17, 2018: Oncotarget
Lichun Zhang, Qiuhe Li, Zhenning Liu, Wei Liu, Min Zhao
Fasudil, a rock kinase inhibitor, can inhibit systemic inflammation and prevent paraquat (PQ)-induced acute lung injuries in rats; however, the mechanisms for these protective effects remain elusive. This study investigated how the Rho/ROCK signaling pathway enables fasudil to protect against acute lung injuries in PQ-treated rats. Wistar rats (n = 240) were pretreated with fasudil (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.p.) 1 h prior to PQ administration. When compared to rats with PQ-induced lung injuries, rats pretreated with fasudil had significantly fewer polymorphonuclear neutrophils and lower concentrations of protein, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 in their bronchoalveolar lavage fluid...
August 7, 2018: Inflammation
Lyn M Wise, Gabriella S Stuart, Nicola C Real, Stephen B Fleming, Andrew A Mercer
Objective: Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) family members are critical regulators of tissue repair and depending on their distinct pattern of receptor specificity can also promote inflammation and scarring. This study utilized a receptor-selective VEGF to examine the role of VEGF receptor (VEGFR)-2 in scar tissue (ST) formation. Approach: Cutaneous skin wounds were created in mice using a 4 mm biopsy punch and then treated until closure with purified VEGF-E derived from orf virus stain NZ-2. Tissue samples were harvested to measure gene expression using quantitative PCR and to observe ST formation through histological examination and changes in cell populations by immunofluorescence...
August 1, 2018: Advances in Wound Care
Takashi Yamashita, Katja Lakota, Takashi Taniguchi, Ayumi Yoshizaki, Shinichi Sato, Wen Hong, Xingchun Zhou, Snezn Sodin-Semrl, Feng Fang, Yoshihide Asano, John Varga
The hallmarks of systemic sclerosis (SSc) are autoimmunity, microangiopathy and fibrosis. Skin fibrosis is accompanied by attrition of the dermal white adipose tissue layer, and alterations in the levels and function of adiponectin. Since these findings potentially implicate adiponectin in the pathogenesis of SSc, we employed a novel pharmacological approach to augment adiponectin signaling using AdipoRon, an orally active adiponectin receptor agonist. Chronic treatment with AdipoRon significantly ameliorated bleomycin-induced dermal fibrosis in mice...
August 7, 2018: Scientific Reports
Xiao-Jun Cai, Jing-Jing Zhao, Yi Lu, Jian-Ping Zhang, Bing-Yan Ren, Ting-Ting Cao, Zheng Jiao, Guang-Jun Xi, Zai-Wang Li, Yun Xu
OBJECTIVE: To characterize the microenvironment following blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) damage and to evaluate the role of BSCB disruption in secondary damage of spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: A model of BSCB damage was established by co-culture of primary microvascular endothelial cells and glial cells obtained from rat spinal cord tissue followed by oxygen glucose deprivation/re-oxygenation (OGD/R). Permeability was evaluated by measuring the transendothelial electrical resistance(TEER)and the leakage test of Fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran)...
August 4, 2018: Brain Research Bulletin
Yujin Suto, Katsuhiro Nagata, Syed Ahmed, Christina Jacovides, Kevin D Browne, John Cognetti, Victoria E Johnson, Ryan Leone, Lewis J Kaplan, Douglas H Smith, Jose L Pascual
Progression of severe TBI is associated with worsening cerebral inflammation but it is unknown how a concomitant bone fracture (FX) affects this progression. Enoxaparin (ENX), a low molecular weight heparin often used for venous thromboembolic prophylaxis, decreases penumbral leukocyte (LEU) mobilization in isolated TBI and improves neurological recovery. We investigated if TBI accompanied by a FX worsens leukocyte mediated cerebral inflammation and if ENX alters this process. CD1 male mice underwent controlled cortical impact (CCI) or sham craniotomy with or without an open tibial fracture, and received either ENX (1mg/kg, 3 times/day) or saline for 2 days following injury...
August 7, 2018: Journal of Neurotrauma
Kelly M T Schmidt, John Nan, Dawn C Scantlebury, Niti R Aggarwal
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Paradoxically, although women have a lower burden of coronary atherosclerosis, they experience more symptoms, more frequent hospitalizations, and a worse prognosis compared to men. This is in part due to biological variations in pathophysiology between the two sexes, and in part related to inadequate understanding of these differences, subconscious referral bias, and suboptimal application of existing women-specific guidelines. We sought to review the contemporary literature and provide an update on risk assessment, diagnosis, and management of IHD in women...
August 7, 2018: Current Treatment Options in Cardiovascular Medicine
Yifei Bian, Ping Liu, Jia Zhong, Yusheng Hu, Shen Zhuang, Kai Fan, Zhongjie Liu
BACKGROUND: In inflammatory bowel disease, activation of microvascular endothelial cells and adhesion of immune cells are required for the initiation and maintenance of inflammation. We evaluated the effects and mechanisms of quercetin, a flavone identified in a wide variety of dietary sources, in LPS-induced rat intestinal microvascular endothelial cells (RIMVECs). METHODS: RIMVECs were pretreated with quercetin of various concentrations (20, 40 and 80 μM) followed by LPS (10 μg/ml) stimulation...
August 4, 2018: Digestive Diseases and Sciences
Jennifer L Mantle, Kelvin H Lee
Inflammation can be a risk factor for neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) and may also contribute to the progression of AD. Here, we sought to understand how inflammation affects the properties of the brain microvascular endothelial cells (BMECs) that compose the blood-brain barrier (BBB), which is impaired in AD. A fully human in vitro BBB model with brain microvascular endothelial cells derived from induced pluripotent stem cells and differentiating neural stem cell (NSC)-derived astrocytic cells was used to investigate the effects of neuroinflammation on barrier function...
July 31, 2018: Neurobiology of Disease
Akihiro Tsuchimoto, Yuta Matsukuma, Kenji Ueki, Takehiro Nishiki, Atsushi Doi, Yasuhiro Okabe, Masafumi Nakamura, Kazuhiko Tsuruya, Toshiaki Nakano, Takanari Kitazono, Kosuke Masutani
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) develops from various etiologies, and it is often difficult to distinguish the etiology of TMA in kidney transplantation. Antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) is one of the differential diagnoses for TMA that may cause acute loss of graft function or fatal thrombotic complications. This report details a 66-year-old male patient with polycythemia after ABO-incompatible kidney transplantation. Antibody screening tests were negative before transplant. Despite administration of an adequate desensitization therapy including plasmapheresis and rituximab, he developed acute graft dysfunction on postoperative day 112 and graft biopsy revealed prominent microvascular inflammation in the glomerular capillaries without immunoglobulin deposits...
August 2, 2018: CEN Case Reports
Oleg A Levada, Alexandra S Troyan
Poststroke depression (PSD) is the most prevalent psychiatric disorder after stroke, which is independently correlated with negative clinical outcome. The identification of specific biomarkers could help to increase the sensitivity of PSD diagnosis and elucidate its pathophysiological mechanisms. The aim of current study was to review and summarize literature exploring potential biomarkers for PSD diagnosis. The PubMed database was searched for papers published in English from October 1977 to December 2017, 90 of which met inclusion criteria for clinical studies related to PSD biomarkers...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Irem Tasci, Caner Feyzi Demir, Tuncay Kuloglu
Objectives: Diabetic neuropathy is the most frequent chronic complication of diabetes. It may attack to sensory, motor or autonomous fibers. Varied mechanisms account for the development of diabetic neuropathy such as metabolic disorders, microvascular damages, neurotrophic support deficit, alternation in neuro-immune interactions, neural and glial cell apoptosis, and inflammation. Alpha lipoic acid (ALA) is a potent lipophilic antioxidant in vitro and in vivo conditions, which plays a main role as cofactor in many mitochondrial reactions, easily absorbed from gastointestinal tract and can easily cross the blood brain barrier (BBB)...
June 2018: Medical Archives
Ana R Santiago, Raquel Boia, Inês D Aires, António F Ambrósio, Rosa Fernandes
Oxidative stress plays key roles in the pathogenesis of retinal diseases, such as diabetic retinopathy. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are increased in the retina in diabetes and the antioxidant defense system is also compromised. Increased ROS stimulate the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, promoting a chronic low-grade inflammation involving various signaling pathways. An excessive production of ROS can lead to retinal endothelial cell injury, increased microvascular permeability, and recruitment of inflammatory cells at the site of inflammation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Dinesh Mani Tripathi, Marina Vilaseca, Erica Lafoz, Hector Garcia-Caldero, Gabriela Viegas Haute, Anabel Fernández-Iglesias, Jarbas Rodrigues de Oliveira, Juan Carlos Garcia-Pagan, Jaime Bosch, Jordi Gracia-Sancho
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Cirrhosis and its clinical consequences can be aggravated by bacterial infections, ultimately leading to the development of acute on chronic liver failure (ACLF), characterized by acute decompensation, organ failure, and high mortality within 28 days. Little is known about cellular and molecular mechanisms of ACLF in patients with cirrhosis, so no therapeutic options are available. We developed a sepsis-associated pre-clinical model of ACLF to facilitate studies of pathogenesis and evaluate the protective effects of simvastatin...
July 25, 2018: Gastroenterology
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