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Obesity insulin inflammation

Anne Tournadre, Gaelle Vial, Frédéric Capel, Martin Soubrier, Yves Boirie
Sarcopenia is defined as a combination of low muscle mass with low muscle function. The term was first used to designate the loss of muscle mass and performance associated with aging. Now, recognized causes of sarcopenia also include chronic disease, a physically inactive lifestyle, loss of mobility, and malnutrition. Sarcopenia should be differentiated from cachexia, which is characterized not only by low muscle mass but also by weight loss and anorexia. Sarcopenia results from complex and interdependent pathophysiological mechanisms that include aging, physical inactivity, neuromuscular compromise, resistance to postprandial anabolism, insulin resistance, lipotoxicity, endocrine factors, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and inflammation...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Bernard Cortet, Stéphanie Lucas, Isabelle Legroux-Gerot, Guillaume Penel, Christophe Chauveau, Julien Paccou
Both type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus are associated with bone disorders, albeit via different mechanisms. Early studies in patients with type 1 diabetes suggested a 10-fold increase in the hip fracture risk compared to nondiabetic controls. Metaanalyses published more recently indicate a somewhat smaller risk increase, with odds ratios of 6 to 7. Diminished bone mineral density is among the contributors to the increased fracture risk. Both types of diabetes are associated with decreased bone strength related to low bone turnover...
August 8, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Tetsuo Horimatsu, Aaron S Patel, Rosaria Prasad, Lauren E Reid, Tyler W Benson, Abdalrahman Zarzour, Mourad Ogbi, Thiago Bruder do Nascimento, Eric Belin de Chantemele, Brian K Stansfield, Xin-Yun Lu, Ha Won Kim, Neal L Weintraub
PURPOSE: Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) surrounds the arterial adventitia and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT expands in obesity, and inflamed PVAT can locally promote endothelial dysfunction and atherosclerosis. Here, using adipose tissue transplantation, we tested the hypothesis that expansion of PVAT can also remotely exacerbate vascular disease. METHODS: Fifty milligrams of abdominal aortic PVAT was isolated from high-fat diet (HFD)-fed wild-type mice and transplanted onto the abdominal aorta of lean LDL receptor knockout mice...
August 10, 2018: Cardiovascular Drugs and Therapy
Suzanne A B M Aarts, Myrthe E Reiche, Myrthe den Toom, Linda Beckers, Marion J J Gijbels, Norbert Gerdes, Menno P J de Winther, Esther Lutgens
Obesity is a low-grade inflammatory disease that increases the risk for metabolic disorders. CD40-CD40L signaling plays a central role in obesity-induced inflammation. Genetic deficiency of CD40L in diet-induced obesity (DIO) ameliorates adipose tissue inflammation, hepatic steatosis and increases insulin sensitivity. Unexpectedly, absence of CD40 worsened insulin resistance and caused excessive adipose tissue inflammation and hepatosteatosis. To investigate whether deficiency of macrophage CD40 is responsible for the phenotype observed in the CD40-/- mice, we generated CD40flflLysMcre and fed them a standard (SFD) and 54% high fat obesogenic diet (HFD) for 13 weeks...
2018: PloS One
Satu Seppä, Sirpa Tenhola, Raimo Voutilainen
Context: Elevated IL-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1Ra) concentrations are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, and cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in adults. Objective: To determine if serum IL-1Ra and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP) levels are associated with markers of reduced insulin sensitivity (IS) and serum lipids in 12-year-old children. Design and Participants: Of 191 children (n = 109 girls), 78 were categorized as having had birth weight and length appropriate for gestational age (AGA), 69 were small for gestational age, and 44 were AGA and from preeclamptic pregnancies...
August 1, 2018: Journal of the Endocrine Society
Eman Mokbel Alissa
Objectives: The objective of this study was to examine the associations of serum gamma-glutamyltransferase (GGT) levels with the metabolic syndrome (MetS) and its components in Saudi adults. Methods: The study comprised 400 participants (70 men and 330 women), aged between 40 and 88 years, randomly selected from the medicine clinics at the King Abdulaziz University Hospital in Jeddah, Saudi Arabia, in a cross-sectional study design. A standardized questionnaire was used to determine demographics variables, general health, lifestyle habits, and medical history...
March 2018: Journal of Family Medicine and Primary Care
Elisa Principi, Ambra Buschiazzo, Andrea Papait, Patrizio Castagnola, Delfina Costa, Roberta Pece, Irena Maric, Mara Scussolini, Cecilia Marini, Gianmario Sambuceti, Felice Strollo, Sara Tavella
BACKGROUND: Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is widely expressed in the organism with pleiotropic roles. In particular, its overexpression correlates with tissue stress conditions including inflammation, metabolic disorders, chronic diseases and cancer. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of systemic LCN2 overexpression on adipose tissue and glucose metabolism. SUBJECTS: Eighteen-month-old transgenic mice with systemic LCN2 overexpression (LCN2-Tg) and age/sex-matched wild-type mice...
August 6, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Tyler S Beyett, Xinmin Gan, Shannon M Reilly, Louise Chang, Andrew V Gomez, Alan R Saltiel, Hollis D Showalter, John Jg Tesmer
Chronic, low-grade inflammation is a hallmark of obesity, which is a risk factor for the development of type 2 diabetes. The drug amlexanox inhibits inhibitor of NF-κB kinase ϵ (IKKϵ) and TANK binding kinase 1 (TBK1) to promote energy expenditure and improve insulin sensitivity. Recent clinical studies have demonstrated efficacy in a subset of diabetic patients with underlying adipose tissue inflammation, albeit with moderate potency, necessitating the need for improved analogs. Herein we report crystal structures of TBK1 in complex with amlexanox and a series of analogs that modify its carboxylic acid moiety...
August 6, 2018: Molecular Pharmacology
Bronson A Haynes, Ryan W Huyck, Ashley J James, Meghan E Carter, Omnia U Gaafar, Marjorie Day, Avennette Pinto, Anca D Dobrian
Obesity is accompanied by an extensive remodeling of adipose tissue primarily via adipocyte hypertrophy. Extreme adipocyte growth results in a poor response to insulin, local hypoxia, and inflammation. By stimulating the differentiation of functional white adipocytes from progenitors, radical hypertrophy of the adipocyte population can be prevented and, consequently, the metabolic health of adipose tissue can be improved along with a reduction of inflammation. Also, by stimulating a differentiation of beige/brown adipocytes, the total body energy expenditure can be increased, resulting in weight loss...
July 17, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Ki Hak Moon, So Young Park, Yong Woon Kim
Obesity is a major public health issue worldwide and is frequently associated with erectile dysfunction (ED). Both conditions may share an internal pathologic environment, also known as common soil. Their main pathophysiologic processes are oxidative stress, inflammation, and resultant insulin and leptin resistance. Moreover, the severity of ED is correlated with comorbid medical conditions, including obesity. Therefore, amelioration of these comorbidities may increase the efficacy of ED treatment with phosphodiesterase 5 inhibitors, the first-line medication for patients with ED...
July 25, 2018: World Journal of Men's Health
Eline N Kuipers, Andrea D van Dam, Dov B Ballak, Ellemiek A de Wit, Charles A Dinarello, Rinke Stienstra, Janna A van Diepen, Patrick C N Rensen, Mariëtte R Boon
The human cytokine interleukin (IL)-37 is an anti-inflammatory member of the IL-1 family of cytokines. Transgenic expression of IL-37 in mice protects them from diet-induced obesity and associated metabolic complications including dyslipidemia, inflammation and insulin resistance. The precise mechanism of action leading to these beneficial metabolic effects is not entirely known. Therefore, we aimed to assess in detail the effect of transgenic IL-37 expression on energy balance, including food intake and energy expenditure...
August 2, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Maayan Waldman, Keren Cohen, Dor Yadin, Vadim Nudelman, Dan Gorfil, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Ran Kornwoski, Dan Aravot, Nader G Abraham, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: Metabolic disorders such as obesity, insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2) are all linked to diabetic cardiomyopathy that lead to heart failure. Cardiomyopathy is initially characterized by cardiomyocyte hypertrophy, followed by mitochondrial dysfunction and fibrosis, both of which are aggravated by angiotensin. Caloric restriction (CR) is cardioprotective in animal models of heart disease through its catabolic activity and activation of the expression of adaptive genes...
August 2, 2018: Cardiovascular Diabetology
Anthony Ravussin, Yun-Hee Youm, Jil Sander, Seungjin Ryu, Kim Nguyen, Luis Varela, Gerald I Shulman, Sviatoslav Sidorov, Tamas L Horvath, Joachim L Schultze, Vishwa Deep Dixit
Inducers of satiety are drug targets for weight loss to mitigate obesity-associated diseases. Nucleobindin-2 (Nucb2) is thought to be post-translationally processed into bioactive nesfatin-1 peptide, which reportedly induces satiety, causes weight loss, and thus improves insulin sensitivity. Here, we show that deletion of Nucb2 did not affect food intake or adiposity and, instead, caused insulin resistance in mice fed a high-fat diet. In addition, ablation of Nucb2 in orexigenic hypothalamic Agrp neurons did not affect food intake, and nesfatin-1 was detectable in serum, despite global deletion of Nucb2 protein...
July 31, 2018: Cell Reports
Ann Hammarstedt, Silvia Gogg, Shahram Hedjazifar, Annika Nerstedt, Ulf Smith
The subcutaneous adipose tissue (SAT) is the largest and best storage site for excess lipids. However, it has a limited ability to expand by recruiting and/or differentiating available precursor cells. When inadequate, this leads to a hypertrophic expansion of the cells with increased inflammation, insulin resistance, and a dysfunctional prolipolytic tissue. Epi-/genetic factors regulate SAT adipogenesis and genetic predisposition for type 2 diabetes is associated with markers of an impaired SAT adipogenesis and development of hypertrophic obesity also in nonobese individuals...
October 1, 2018: Physiological Reviews
Ning Jiang, Yao Li, Ting Shu, Jing Wang
The biological relevance of cytokines is known for more than 20 years. Evidence suggests that adipogenesis is one of the biological events involved in the regulation of cytokines, and pro-inflammatory cytokines (e.g., TNFα and IL-1β) inhibit adipogenesis through various pathways. This inhibitory effect can constrain the hyperplastic expandability of adipose tissues. Meanwhile, chronic low-grade inflammation is commonly observed in obese populations. In some individuals, the impaired ability of adipose tissues to recruit new adipocytes to adipose depots during overnutrition results in adipocyte hypertrophy, ectopic lipid accumulation, and insulin resistance...
August 1, 2018: Frontiers of Medicine
Fernando F Anhê, Renato T Nachbar, Thibault V Varin, Jocelyn Trottier, Stéphanie Dudonné, Mélanie Le Barz, Perrine Feutry, Geneviève Pilon, Olivier Barbier, Yves Desjardins, Denis Roy, André Marette
OBJECTIVE: The consumption of fruits is strongly associated with better health and higher bacterial diversity in the gut microbiota (GM). Camu camu ( Myrciaria dubia ) is an Amazonian fruit with a unique phytochemical profile, strong antioxidant potential and purported anti-inflammatory potential. DESIGN: By using metabolic tests coupled with 16S rRNA gene-based taxonomic profiling and faecal microbial transplantation (FMT), we have assessed the effect of a crude extract of camu camu (CC) on obesity and associated immunometabolic disorders in high fat/high sucrose (HFHS)-fed mice...
July 31, 2018: Gut
Massimiliano Cazzaniga, Bernardo Bonanni
The association between obesity/overweight and carcinogenesis is a recognized highly complex and still partially unknown process. Nevertheless, these conditions are frequently related with several pathological states such as chronic inflammation, presence of dyslipidemia and insulin-resistance (metabolic disorders) which are now accepted features contributing to the increased hormonal-dependent cancer risk. Breast cancer incidence and outcome is strictly related to metabolic disorders. Thus, managing these emerging risk factors, should be a new and optimal strategy in breast cancer prevention and therapy...
August 2018: Anticancer Research
Eun-Young Kwon, So Young Kim, Myung-Sook Choi
This current study aimed to elucidate the effects and possible underlying mechanisms of long-term supplementation with dietary luteolin (LU)-enriched artichoke leaf (AR) in high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity and its complications (e.g., dyslipidemia, insulin resistance, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease) in C57BL/6N mice. The mice were fed a normal diet, an HFD, or an HFD plus AR or LU for 16 weeks. In the HFD-fed mice, AR decreased the adiposity and dyslipidemia by decreasing lipogenesis while increasing fatty acid oxidation, which contributed to better hepatic steatosis...
July 27, 2018: Nutrients
Yuhan Bi, Mengxi Jiang, Weiwei Guo, Xiudong Guan, Meishu Xu, Songrong Ren, Da Yang, Nilesh W Gaikwad, Kyle W Selcer, Wen Xie
Steroid sulfatase (STS), a desulfating enzyme that converts steroid sulfates to hormonally active steroids, plays an important role in the homeostasis of sex hormones. STS is expressed in the adipose tissue of both male and female mice, but the role of STS in the development and function of adipose tissue remains largely unknown. In this report, we first showed that the adipose expression of Sts was induced in the high-fat diet (HFD) and ob/ob models of obesity and type 2 diabetes. Transgenic overexpression of the human STS in the adipose tissue of male mice exacerbated the HFD induced metabolic phenotypes, including increased body weight gain and fat mass, and worsened insulin sensitivity, glucose tolerance and energy expenditure, which were accounted for by adipocyte hypertrophy, increased adipose inflammation, and dysregulation of adipogenesis...
July 27, 2018: Endocrinology
Ontefetse Ntlholang, Kevin McCarroll, Eamon Laird, Anne M Molloy, Mary Ward, Helene McNulty, Leane Hoey, Catherine F Hughes, J J Strain, Miriam Casey, Conal Cunningham
Previous reports investigating adiposity and cognitive function in the population allude to a negative association, although the relationship in older adults is unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the association of adiposity (BMI and waist:hip ratio (WHR)) with cognitive function in community-dwelling older adults (≥60 years). Participants included 5186 adults from the Trinity Ulster Department of Agriculture ageing cohort study. Neuropsychological assessment measures included the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB) and Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS)...
July 30, 2018: British Journal of Nutrition
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