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Obesity insulin inflammation

Shefaa AlAsfoor, Theresa V Rohm, Angela J T Bosch, Thomas Dervos, Diego Calabrese, Matthias S Matter, Achim Weber, Claudia Cavelti-Weder
Macrophages have been recognized as key players in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). Our aim was to assess whether pharmacological attenuation of macrophages can be achieved by imatinib, an anti-leukemia drug with known anti-inflammatory and anti-diabetic properties, and how this impacts on NAFLD. We analyzed the pro- and anti-inflammatory gene expression of murine macrophages and human monocytes in vitro in the presence or absence of imatinib. In a time-resolved study, we characterized metabolic disease manifestations such as hepatic steatosis, systemic and adipose tissue inflammation as well as lipid and glucose metabolism in obese mice at one and three months of imatinib treatment...
October 17, 2018: Scientific Reports
Ivanka Perčić, Ivana Urošević, Edita Stokić, Dragana Tomić Naglić, Ivana Milošević
BACKGROUND/AIM: To determine insulin sensitivity before chemotherapy and during febrile neutropenia in patients with acute leukemia and to assess its effect on the number of documented infections, the severity of infection and the outcome of the first hospitalization. To compare insulin sensitivity in the study group to a group of patient with obesity. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study group consisted of 30 (37% of the total number) patients with newly diagnosed acute leukemia...
October 17, 2018: Acta Clinica Belgica
Rafał Filip, Radosław P Radzki, Marek Bieńko
Excess fat deposition and insulin resistance are considered the main risk factors for nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), and therefore, not surprisingly, the global prevalence of NAFLD increases in parallel with both obesity and type 2 diabetes. Although deterioration of bone homeostasis in patients with NAFLD is commonly observed, its etiology has not been fully elucidated yet. It was shown in several studies that bone tissue seems to be independently associated with NAFLD. A mechanistic perspective puts the liver at the center of mutual interdependencies obviously involving adipose tissue and muscles and also the bone matrix and bone cells, which are relatively novel...
2018: Clinical Interventions in Aging
Pijun Yan, Yong Xu, Zhihong Zhang, Chenlin Gao, Jianhua Zhu, Hua Li, Qin Wan
Neuregulin-4 (Nrg4) is a novel adipokine associated with obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia, inflammation, and oxidative stress in mice and humans. However, no report has demonstrated the relationship of circulating Nrg4 with diabetic peripheral neuropathy (DPN). The objective of our study was to investigate the relationship between circulating Nrg4 and DPN in a cross-sectional study. Circulating Nrg4 levels were determined with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays kit in 132 newly diagnosed type 2 diabetes mellitus (nT2DM) patients and 41 normal controls (NC group)...
October 12, 2018: Cytokine
Muhammad Umair Ijaz, Muhammad Ijaz Ahmed, Xiaoyou Zou, Muzahir Hussain, Min Zhang, Fan Zhao, Xinglian Xu, Guanghong Zhou, Chunbao Li
Consumption of dietary protein at recommended levels is considered a potential strategy to promote satiety and weight management, but how protein from different dietary sources effect the obesity development, lipid metabolism, and gut microbiota is not known. This study focused on the effects of beef, casein, and soy protein diet on lipid metabolism, triglycerides accumulation, and microbial diversity in colon of C57BL/6J mice, which were given either low-fat diets (LFD, 12% Kcal) or high-fat diets (HFD, 60% Kcal) for 12 weeks...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Lin Wang, Liyuan Chen, Zheran Liu, Yaofang Liu, Mao Luo, Ni Chen, Xin Deng, Yulin Luo, Jing He, Liping Zhang, Michael A Hill, Rong Li, Jianbo Wu
Background: Plasminogen activator inhibitor (PAI)-1 levels and activity are known to increase during metabolic syndrome and obesity. In addition, previous studies have implicated PAI-1 in adipose tissue (AT) expansion while also contributing to insulin resistance. As inflammation is also known to occur in AT during obesity, we hypothesized that in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model PAI-1 contributes to macrophage-mediated inflammation and metabolic dysfunction. Methods: Four- to five-weeks-old male C57B6/6J mice were fed a HFD (45%) for 14 weeks, while age-matched control mice were fed a standard laboratory chow diet (10% fat)...
2018: Frontiers in Pharmacology
Claudiane Guay, Janine K Kruit, Sophie Rome, Véronique Menoud, Niels L Mulder, Angelika Jurdzinski, Francesca Mancarella, Guido Sebastiani, Alena Donda, Bryan J Gonzalez, Camilla Jandus, Karim Bouzakri, Michel Pinget, Christian Boitard, Pedro Romero, Francesco Dotta, Romano Regazzi
Type 1 diabetes is an autoimmune disease initiated by the invasion of pancreatic islets by immune cells that selectively kill the β cells. We found that rodent and human T lymphocytes release exosomes containing the microRNAs (miRNAs) miR-142-3p, miR-142-5p, and miR-155, which can be transferred in active form to β cells favoring apoptosis. Inactivation of these miRNAs in recipient β cells prevents exosome-mediated apoptosis and protects non-obese diabetic (NOD) mice from diabetes development. Islets from protected NOD mice display higher insulin levels, lower insulitis scores, and reduced inflammation...
October 5, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Vittorio Emanuele Bianchi
The metabolic sources of energy for myocardial contractility include mainly free fatty acids (FFA) for 95%, and in lesser amounts for 5% from glucose and minimal contributions from other substrates such lactate, ketones, and amino acids. However, myocardial efficiency is influenced by metabolic condition, overload, and ischemia. During cardiac stress, cardiomyocytes increase glucose oxidation and reduce FFA oxidation. In patients with ischemic coronary disease and heart failure, the low oxygen availability limits myocardial reliance on FFA and glucose utilization must increase...
September 11, 2018: Current Problems in Cardiology
Debrup Chakraborty, Jamie J Bernard
The obesity epidemic is a critical public health problem closely associated with the development of metabolic disease. In obesity there is excess white adipose tissue, a dynamic tissue that has many biological functions. Specifically visceral adipose tissue (VAT) is an active endocrine organ producing hormones that control systemic metabolism. VAT accumulates immune cells that produce cytokines that drive chronic inflammation and promote insulin resistance. VAT can be surgically removed in experimental animals (lipectomy) to explore mechanisms by which VAT participates in metabolic, endocrine, and immunological functions...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
Andrea Kristina Horst, Sonia M Najjar, Christoph Wagener, Gisa Tiegs
Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 1 (CEACAM1) is a transmembrane glycoprotein that is expressed on epithelial, endothelial and immune cells. CEACAM1 is a differentiation antigen involved in the maintenance of epithelial polarity that is induced during hepatocyte differentiation and liver regeneration. CEACAM1 regulates insulin sensitivity by promoting hepatic insulin clearance, and controls liver tolerance and mucosal immunity. Obese insulin-resistant humans with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease manifest loss of hepatic CEACAM1...
October 11, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gyorgy Baffy
Gut microbiota is the largest collection of commensal microorganisms in the human body, engaged in reciprocal cellular and molecular interactions with the liver. This mutually beneficial relationship may break down and result in dysbiosis, associated with disease phenotypes. Altered composition and function of gut microbiota has been implicated in the pathobiology of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), a prevalent condition linked to obesity, insulin resistance, and endothelial dysfunction. NAFLD may progress to cirrhosis and portal hypertension, which is the result of increased intrahepatic vascular resistance and altered splanchnic circulation...
October 12, 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
Shams Tabrez, Ghulam Md Ashraf, Salwa Hindawi
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a well-known endocrine disorder affecting a significant number of individuals across the globe. Risk factors such as inflammation, obesity, high blood glucose level, cardiovascular disease, and genetic alteration are believed to be the reason for T2DM onset. The current study was intended to envisage the possible association between polymorphisms in the interleukin-1β (IL-1β) promoter and IL-1β serum levels in Saudi T2DM patients. Biochemical parameters such as fasting blood glucose (FBS), percentage glycosylated hemoglobin (HbAic), and lipid profile were measured spectrophotometrically...
2018: Critical Reviews in Eukaryotic Gene Expression
Janice K Kiecolt-Glaser, Stephanie J Wilson, Annelise Madison
Couples influence each other's mental and physical health. This review focuses on how couples' relationships, the partners' individual and joint vulnerabilities, and their health behaviors influence health through changes in the gut microbiota, metabolism, and immune function. Couples' shared stressors and emotions and their intertwined lifestyles and routines serve to promote common disease risks in part through parallel changes in their gut microbiotas. Marital discord, stress, and depression have strong bidirectional links, fueling one another...
October 10, 2018: Psychosomatic Medicine
Li Hu, Fengli He, Melfeng Huang, Melhua Peng, Zhiguang Zhou, Feng Liu, Yan-Shan Dai
Nuclear factors of activated T cells (NFAT) c3 have a prominent role in the regulation of proinflammatory factors in immune cells. The classically activated M1 macrophages are key players in the initiation and maintenance of adipose tissue (AT) inflammation. The role of NFATc3 in obesity and AT inflammation is unknown. We set out to determine how deficiency of NFATc3 effected macrophage polarization, inflammation and insulin resistance in visceral AT of high-fat diet (HFD)-fed mice. Nfatc3−/− and WT mice were fed a HFD for 8–17 weeks...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Molecular Endocrinology
Tomoaki Hayakawa, Tomomi Minemura, Toshiharu Onodera, Jihoon Shin, Yosuke Okuno, Atsunori Fukuhara, Michio Otsuki, Iichiro Shimomura
Active glucocorticoid levels are elevated in the adipose tissue of obesity due to the enzyme 11 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1. Glucocorticoids can bind and activate both glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptor (MR), and pharmacological blockades of MR prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. To determine the significance of MR in adipocytes, we generated adipocyte-specific MR-knockout mice (AdipoMR-KO) and fed them high-fat/high-sucrose diet. We found that adipocyte-specific deletion of MR did not affect the body weight, fat weight, glucose tolerance or insulin sensitivity...
October 1, 2018: Journal of Endocrinology
Claire L Lyons, Helen M Roche
Nutritional status provides metabolic substrates to activate AMP-Activated Protein Kinase (AMPK), the energy sensor that regulates metabolism. Recent evidence has demonstrated that AMPK has wider functions with respect to regulating immune cell metabolism and function. One such example is the regulatory role that AMPK has on NLRP3-inlflammasome and IL-1β biology. This in turn can result in subsequent negative downstream effects on glucose, lipid and insulin metabolism. Nutrient stress in the form of obesity can impact AMPK and whole-body metabolism, leading to complications such as type 2 diabetes and cancer risk...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Lei Liu, Ningning Wang, Yanan Ma, Yang Liu, Deliang Wen
Obesity is a severe public health problem worldwide. Our study aims to assess whether a saponin-enriched extract from the leaves of Boussingaultia gracilis (SBG) could attenuate obesity and its related metabolic disorders in mice and to explore the potential mechanism of this effect. Three-week old male mice were fed with a HFD for 7 weeks followed by a 10-week period in which the mice were supplemented with distilled water or SBG (250 mg per kg bodyweight). We demonstrated that SBG supplementation for 10 weeks mitigated obesity and its complications in diet-induced obesity (DIO) mice, such as reducing the hepatic damage underlying steatosis, modulating lipid metabolism, enhancing adipocyte thermogenesis, restoring insulin sensitivity and glucose homeostasis, and alleviating inflammation status...
October 10, 2018: Food & Function
Roel Tans, Janna A van Diepen, Sabina Bijlsma, Lars Verschuren, Anouk Suppers, Rinke Stienstra, Ron A Wevers, Cees J Tack, Jolein Gloerich, Alain J van Gool
BACKGROUND: Overweight and obesity can lead to adipose tissue inflammation, which causes insulin resistance and on the long-term type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D). The inflammatory changes of obese-adipose tissue are characterized by macrophage infiltration and activation, but validated circulating biomarkers for adipose tissue inflammation for clinical use are still lacking. One of the most secreted enzymes by activated macrophages is chitotriosidase (CHIT1). OBJECTIVE: To test whether circulating CHIT1 enzymatic activity levels reflect adipose tissue inflammation...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Durgesh Kumar, Sanket Kumar Pandya, Salil Varshney, Kripa Shankar, Sujith Rajan, Ankita Srivastava, Abhishek Gupta, Sanchita Gupta, Achchhe Lal Vishwakarma, Amit Misra, Anil N Gaikwad
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Chronic low-grade inflammation/meta-inflammation in adipose tissue leads to obesity-associated metabolic complications. Despite growing understanding, the roles of immune cell subsets, their interrelationship, and chronological events leading to progression of obesity-associated insulin resistance (IR) remains unclear. METHODS: We carried out temporal immunometabolic profiling of adipose tissue from C57BL/6 mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 4, 8, 12, 16, and 20 weeks...
October 9, 2018: International Journal of Obesity: Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity
Volatiana Rakotoarivelo, Bhavesh Variya, Subburaj Ilangumaran, Marie-France Langlois, Sheela Ramanathan
Chronic inflammation in adipose tissues has been associated with obesity and metabolic syndrome over the years. Various studies using animal models have contributed to our knowledge on the pro- and anti- inflammatory mediators that regulate obesity. Analyses of cytokine profiles in humans have not revealed a clear scenario. Likewise, treatments targeting inflammation to control obesity and insulin resistance has not yielded promising results. In this review we summarize the data available in human obesity and discuss the possible reasons that could explain the difficulties in treating obesity and insulin resistance by targeting pro-inflammatory cytokines...
October 4, 2018: Cytokine & Growth Factor Reviews
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