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Obesity insulin inflammation

P Mysliwiec, B Choromanska, M M Winnicka, K Kaminski, H Mysliwiec, J Dadan, E Supruniuk, A Chabowski
Chronic inflammation is a critical feature of obesity in the development of myocardial dysfunction. The observations that interleukin-6 (IL-6) is implicated in lipid and glucose homeostasis as well as its connection with the pathogenesis of insulin resistance might suggest the involvement of this cytokine in metabolic disorders of the failing heart. In the present study we aimed to assess the effects of IL-6 ablation in mice fed with normal and high fat diet on the myocardial expression of glucose and fatty acid transporting proteins, and to evaluate the paralleled alterations in lipid content...
August 2018: Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology: An Official Journal of the Polish Physiological Society
Margaret Murray, Aimee L Dordevic, Katherine H M Cox, Andrew Scholey, Lisa Ryan, Maxine P Bonham
INTRODUCTION: Hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and chronic inflammation are risk factors for chronic diseases cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes. Polyphenols are bioactive compounds found in marine algae with potential antihyperlipidaemic, antihyperglycaemic and anti-inflammatory effects. The modulation of these risk factors using bioactive polyphenols may represent a useful strategy for disease prevention and management; research in humans, however, remains limited. This trial aims to determine the impact of a polyphenol-rich brown seaweed extract on fasting hyperlipidaemia, hyperglycaemia and inflammation...
December 14, 2018: BMJ Open
Maggie S Burhans, Derek K Hagman, Jessica N Kuzma, Kelsey A Schmidt, Mario Kratz
The objective of this comprehensive review is to summarize and discuss the available evidence of how adipose tissue inflammation affects insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance. Low-grade, chronic adipose tissue inflammation is characterized by infiltration of macrophages and other immune cell populations into adipose tissue, and a shift toward more proinflammatory subtypes of leukocytes. The infiltration of proinflammatory cells in adipose tissue is associated with an increased production of key chemokines such as C-C motif chemokine ligand 2, proinflammatory cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α and interleukins 1β and 6 as well as reduced expression of the key insulin-sensitizing adipokine, adiponectin...
December 13, 2018: Comprehensive Physiology
Jessica A Breznik, Avee Naidoo, Kevin P Foley, Christian Schulz, Trevor C Lau, Dessi Loukov, Deborah M Sloboda, Dawn M E Bowdish, Jonathan D Schertzer
Inflammation contributes to obesity-related hyperinsulinemia and insulin resistance, which often precede type 2 diabetes. Inflammation is one way that obesity can promote insulin resistance. It is not clear if the extent of obesity, hyperinsulinemia, or hyperglycemia, underpins changes in cellular immunity during diet-induced obesity. In particular, the requirement for obesity or directionality in the relationship between insulin resistance and monocyte characteristics is poorly defined. Inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNF) can contribute to insulin resistance...
December 2018: Physiological Reports
Lisa A Bell, Elly A Fletcher, Anna Timperio, Peter Vuillermin, Kylie Hesketh
OBJECTIVES: Higher physical activity (PA) levels in adults are associated with lower cardiovascular disease risk, however it is unclear whether this association is evident in children younger than five years. Given that cardiovascular disease has early life origins, this study systematically reviews evidence of associations between PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors among children aged 3-5.5years. DESIGN: Systematic review. METHOD: A systematic search of multiple data bases was conducted to identify published papers reporting associations between any measure of PA and cardiovascular disease risk factors...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
Maija Ruuth, Jarkko Soronen, Essi Kaiharju, Krista Merikanto, Julia Perttilä, Jari Metso, Miriam Lee-Rueckert, Marja-Riitta Taskinen, Petri T Kovanen, Katariina Öörni, Vesa M Olkkonen, Matti S Jauhiainen, Pirkka-Pekka Laurila
BACKGROUND: The focus of studies on high-density lipoproteins (HDL) has shifted from HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C) to HDL function. We recently demonstrated that low USF1 expression in mice and humans associates with high plasma HDL-C and low triglyceride levels, as well as protection against obesity, insulin resistance, and atherosclerosis. Here, we studied the impact of USF1 deficiency on HDL functional capacity and macrophage atherogenic functions, including inflammation, cholesterol efflux, and cholesterol accumulation...
December 13, 2018: Lipids in Health and Disease
Mita Varghese, Cameron Griffin, Kaitlin McKernan, Leila Eter, Nicholas Lanzetta, Devyani Agarwal, Simin Abrishami, Kanakadurga Singer
Males are known to have profound adipose tissue macrophage (ATM) accumulation in gonadal white adipose tissue (GWAT) during obesity, while females are protected from such an inflammatory response even with increased adiposity. The inflammatory tone in males is linked to insulin resistance and might be the underlying cause for sex differences in metabolic disease. Factors regulating the meta-inflammatory response remain unclear but enhanced lipid storage in females may explain the reduced inflammatory response to high fat diets...
December 13, 2018: Endocrinology
Yu-Mi Lee, David R Jacobs, Duk-Hee Lee
Low dose persistent organic pollutants (POPs) have emerged as a new risk for type 2 diabetes (T2D). Despite substantial evidence from human and experimental studies, there are several critical issues which have not been properly addressed by POPs researchers. First, as POPs exist as mixtures, findings about POPs from human studies should be interpreted from the viewpoint of lipophilic chemical mixtures which include both measured and unmeasured POPs. Second, as POPs can directly reduce insulin secretion of beta cells, the role of POPs may be more prominent in the development of beta-cell dysfunction-dominant T2D rather than insulin resistance-dominant T2D...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Alina Mihaela Leustean, Manuela Ciocoiu, Anca Sava, Claudia Florida Costea, Mariana Floria, Claudia Cristina Tarniceriu, Daniela Maria Tanase
The prevalence of diabetes is steadily rising, and once it occurs, it can cause multiple complications with a negative impact on the whole organism. Complications of diabetes may be macrovascular: such as stroke and ischemic heart disease as well as peripheral vascular and microvascular diseases-retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy. Key factors that cause cardiovascular disease in people with diabetes include hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia, obesity, insulin resistance, inflammation, hypertension, autonomic dysfunction, and decreased vascular response capacity...
2018: Journal of Diabetes Research
Ji-Hye Kwon, Hyeon Gyu Lee, Kun-Ho Seo, Hyunsook Kim
SCOPE: This study aimed to determine the separate and combined effect of a prebiotic (Catechin-rich wine grape seed flour, GSF) and a probiotic (newly isolated kefir lactic acid bacteria, LAB) on hepatic steatosis of obese mice. METHODS AND RESULTS: High-fat (HF)-induced obese mice were fed HF diet containing 6% microcrystalline cellulose (MCC, control), 10% GSF, orally administrated LAB, or combination of GSF and LAB for 9 weeks. There was a significant reduction of body weight gain, and liver weights, plasma insulin concentrations, and HOMA-IR in all experimental groups compared to control...
December 11, 2018: Molecular Nutrition & Food Research
David J Orlicky, Andrew E Libby, Elise S Bales, Rachel H McMahan, Jenifer Monks, Francisco G La Rosa, James L McManaman
KEY POINTS: Wild type mice as well as mice with hepatocyte-specific or whole-body deletions of perilipin-2 (Plin2) were used to define hepatocyte and extra-hepatocyte effects of altered cellular lipid storage on obesity and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) pathophysiology in a western-diet (WD) model of these disorders. Extra-hepatocyte actions of Plin2 are responsible for obesity, adipose inflammation, and glucose clearance abnormalities in WD-fed mice. Hepatocyte and extra-hepatic actions of Plin2 mediate fatty liver formation in WD-fed mice through distinct mechanisms...
December 8, 2018: Journal of Physiology
Olga V Kochetova, Diana S Avzaletdinova, Tatyana V Morugova, Olga E Mustafina
Recent studies have shown that chemokines play an important role in the development of chronic inflammation in adipose tissue, obesity pathogenesis, glucose intolerance and type 2 diabetes. It has also been revealed that some SNPs in chemokine genes are associated with obesity, insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and diabetes complications in different ethnic groups. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between SNPs in chemokine genes and type 2 diabetes in participants of Tatar ethnic group, living in Bashkortostan...
December 10, 2018: Molecular Biology Reports
Yong Liu, Lin Wang, Mao Luo, Ni Chen, Xin Deng, Jing He, Liping Zhang, Pei Luo, Jianbo Wu
Plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1) is increasingly recognized as a mediator in extracellular matrix (ECM) accumulation in diabetic nephropathy. Previous studies implicate PAI-1 in adipose tissue (AT) expansion while also contributing to insulin resistance. As inflammation is also known to occur in perirenal AT during obesity, we hypothesized that in a high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obese mouse model, PAI-1 contributes to macrophage-mediated inflammation and diabetic nephropathy. The HFD mice showed increased expression of PAI-1 in perirenal fat and also displayed increased fat weight and macrophage numbers...
December 11, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
Mi-Jeong Lee, R Taylor Pickering, Varuna Shibad, Yuanyuan Wu, Kalypso Karastergiou, Mike Jager, Matthew D Layne, Susan K Fried
Visceral obesity is associated with insulin resistance and higher risk of type 2 diabetes and metabolic diseases. A limited ability of adipose tissues to remodel through the recruitment and differentiation of adipose stem cells (ASCs) is associated with adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and the metabolic syndrome. We show that the lower adipogenesis of omental (Om) compared to abdominal subcutaneous (Abdsc) ASCs was associated with higher secretion of TGFβ ligands that acted in an autocrine/paracrine loop to activate SMAD2 and suppress adipogenesis...
December 7, 2018: Diabetes
Reem T Attia, Yousra Abdel-Mottaleb, Dalaal M Abdallah, Hanan S El-Abhar, Nabila N El-Maraghy
AIM: Obesity is a continually growing pandemic leading to many diseases that affect the overall quality of life. The widely marketed Garcinia cambogia (GC) and Raspberry ketone (RK) were used in this study. Despite their known dietetic effect, however, the metabolomic/signaling pathways involved in this effect are not fully elucidated. Hence, our study comprehends the possible trajectories of their combination against obesity and insulin resistance in addition to exploring their combination merit...
December 6, 2018: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
Raghunath Singh, Yashika Bansal, Bikash Medhi, Anurag Kuhad
Atypical antipsychotics (AAPs) are the drug of choice in the management of mental illnesses by virtue of their advantage over typical antipsychotics i.e. least tendency of producing extrapyramidal motor symptoms (EPS) or pseudoparkinsonism. Despite the clinical efficacy, AAPs produces troublesome adverse effects, particularly hyperphagia, hyperglycemia, dyslipidemia weight gain, diabetes mellitus, insulin resistance and QT prolongation which further develops metabolic and cardiac complications with subsequent reduction in life expectancy, poor patient compliance, and sudden death...
December 7, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Nicolai J Wewer Albrechtsen, Philipp E Geyer, Sophia Doll, Peter V Treit, Kirstine N Bojsen-Møller, Christoffer Martinussen, Nils B Jørgensen, Signe S Torekov, Florian Meier, Lili Niu, Alberto Santos, Eva C Keilhauer, Jens J Holst, Sten Madsbad, Matthias Mann
Obesity-related diseases affect half of the global population, and bariatric surgery is one of the few interventions with long-lasting weight loss and cardio-metabolic effects. Here, we investigated the effect of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass surgery on the plasma proteome, hypothesizing that specific proteins or protein patterns may serve as key mediators and markers of the metabolic response. We performed mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics on two longitudinal studies encompassing 47 morbidly obese patients, generating quantitative information on more than 1,700 proteins...
November 30, 2018: Cell Systems
A Tönjes, S Kralisch, A Hoffmann, D Schleinitz, J Kratzsch, M Blüher, M Stumvoll, P Kovacs, M Fasshauer, T Ebert
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Pro-Neurotensin (NT), a stable surrogate parameter of NT, has recently been introduced as a peptide predicting the development of obesity, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular diseases, and cardiovascular mortality. However, regulation of Pro-NT in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) remains uninvestigated. METHODS AND RESULTS: Pro-NT was quantified in 74 women with GDM, 74 healthy, gestational age-matched, pregnant controls, as well as in a second cohort comprising of 74 healthy, non-pregnant control women, using a chemiluminometric sandwich immunoassay...
October 20, 2018: Nutrition, Metabolism, and Cardiovascular Diseases: NMCD
Yi Wang, Ting Xie, Dan Zhang, Po Sing Leung
G-protein coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) has been shown to act as an omega-3 unsaturated fatty acid sensor and is involved in insulin secretion. However, the underlying mechanism in pancreatic beta cells remains unclear. To explore the potential link between GPR120 and beta-cell function, its agonist DHA and GSK137647AS were used in palmitic acid (PA)-induced pancreatic beats-cell dysfunction, coupled with GPR120 KD in MIN6 cells and GPR120 KO mice to identify the underlying signalling pathways. In vitro and ex vivo treatments of MIN6 cells and islets isolated from WT mice with DH and GSK restored pancreatic PDX1 expression levels and beta-cell function via PA-induced elevation of proinflammatory chemokine and activation of NF-kB, JNK and p38MAPK signalling pathways...
December 6, 2018: Clinical Science (1979-)
Yunkyoung Lee, Hyunhee Oh, Myoungsook Lee
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Gelidium amansii ( GA ) contains plenty of agars and various biological substances, which make them a popular functional food to control body weight in previous studies. Unlike previous studies focused on agar in GA, objectives of this study were to investigate the effects of agar-free GA extract ( AfGAE ) on preventive and treatment models by using diets-induced obese (DIO) C57BL/6J mice. MATERIALS/METHODS: Af GAE were used to test their effects on the prevention ( Exp-1 ) and treatment ( Exp-2 ) against obesity after pilot study in DIO mice...
December 2018: Nutrition Research and Practice
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