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Schizophrenia depression

Ole Köhler-Forsberg, Liselotte Petersen, Christiane Gasse, Preben B Mortensen, Soren Dalsgaard, Robert H Yolken, Ole Mors, Michael E Benros
Importance: Infections have been associated with increased risks for mental disorders, such as schizophrenia and depression. However, the association between all infections requiring treatment and the wide range of mental disorders is unknown to date. Objective: To investigate the association between all treated infections since birth and the subsequent risk of development of any treated mental disorder during childhood and adolescence. Design, Setting, and Participants: Population-based cohort study using Danish nationwide registers...
December 5, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Marta Pratelli, Massimo Pasqualetti
Serotonin (5-hydroxytriptamine; 5-HT) is a fascinating neurotransmitter that thanks to an extensive axonal network is released throughout the entire central nervous system (CNS) and exerts its action on the modulation of a countless number of physiological, behavioral and cognitive processes. In addition, cumulating evidences have linked alteration in 5-HT neurotransmission with the onset of psychiatric and neurodevelopmental disorders, such as depression, autisms and schizophrenia. Nevertheless only 5% of the total body content of serotonin exerts its action in the CNS, while the rest is synthetized and stored in peripheral tissues where it acts as an autacoid...
December 1, 2018: Biochimie
Caitlin M Vander Weele, Cody A Siciliano, Kay M Tye
Decades of research suggest that the mesocortical dopamine system exerts powerful control over mPFC physiology and function. Indeed, dopamine signaling in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) is implicated in a vast array of processes, including working memory, stimulus discrimination, stress responses, and emotional and behavioral control. Consequently, even slight perturbations within this delicate system result in profound disruptions of mPFC-mediated processes. Many neuropsychiatric disorders are associated with dysregulation of mesocortical dopamine, including schizophrenia, depression, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, among others...
December 1, 2018: Brain Research
Nawal Bent-Ennakhil, Marie Cécile Périer, Patrik Sobocki, Dan Gothefors, Gunnar Johansson, Dominique Milea, Jean-Philippe Empana
OBJECTIVE: To assess the incidence of cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and type-2-diabetes in patients with psychiatric disorders. METHODS: A population-based study was conducted using the Swedish national health registries. Patients were identified from the Electronic Medical Records (EMR) in 20 primary care centers and were categorized in four diagnosis cohorts according to their first psychiatric diagnosis: bipolar disorder, schizophrenia, major depressive disorder, or other mood disorder...
December 4, 2018: Nordic Journal of Psychiatry
Michael Belz, Nico Rehling, Ulrike Schmidt, Jens Wiltfang, Bernhard Kis, Claus Wolff-Menzler
The prevalence of infections is supposed to be higher in older patients and to extend the length of hospital stays. This study aimed, first, to test this supposition within a large psychiatric population which we divided into four clusters of psychiatric ICD-10 diagnoses: F00-F03 (dementias), F10 (substance disorders), F20-29 (schizophrenia, schizophreniform and other non-mood psychotic disorders), F32-F33 (major depressive disorders). Second, despite the increasing evidence for the role of infections in psychiatric disorders, it is, to the best of our knowledge, largely unknown whether the rates of infections with pathogens of the four most frequent germ families differ between psychiatric diseases...
2018: PloS One
Sílvia Oliveira, Ana Paula Ardais, Clarissa Ribeiro Bastos, Marta Gazal, Karen Jansen, Luciano de Mattos Souza, Ricardo Azevedo da Silva, Manuella Pinto Kaster, Diogo Rizzato Lara, Gabriele Ghisleni
Genetic variants involved in adenosine metabolism and its receptors were associated with increased risk for psychiatric disorders, including anxiety, depression, and schizophrenia. Here, we examined an association between a single nucleotide polymorphism in A2A receptor gene (ADORA2A, rs2298383 SNP) with current depressive episode and symptom profile. A total of 1253 individuals from a cross-sectional population-based study were analyzed by the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview 5.0. Our data showed that the TT genotype of ADORA2A rs2298383 SNP was associated with reduced risk for depression when compared to the CC/CT genotypes (p = 0...
December 3, 2018: Purinergic Signalling
Robert C Smith, Stefan Leucht, John M Davis
RATIONALE: There are many psychotropic drugs available for treatment of schizophrenia. The clinician's choice of the most effective first-line antipsychotic treatment for patients with schizophrenia should balance considerations of differential efficacy of antipsychotics against the relative risk of different side effects. METHOD: We reviewed recent studies using meta-analytic techniques and additional studies of new antipsychotics which quantitatively evaluate the efficacy of side effects of first- and second-generation antipsychotics and studies of the efficacy on add-on secondary medications...
November 30, 2018: Psychopharmacology
Adam J Culbreth, Dan Foti, Deanna M Barch, Greg Hajcak, Roman Kotov
Emotion dysfunction has long been considered a cardinal feature across psychotic disorders, including schizophrenia and affective psychosis. However, few studies have used objective markers of emotional function to compare psychotic disorders to one another, and fewer studies have examined such markers within a longitudinal framework. Here, we examine one objective marker of emotional responsivity, the late positive potential (LPP), which is a centro-parietal event-related potential (ERP) that tracks the dynamic allocation of attention to emotional vs...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
H Luckhoff, L Phahladira, F Scheffler, L Asmal, S du Plessis, B Chiliza, S Kilian, R Emsley
BACKGROUND: Treatment-emergent weight gain is associated with antipsychotic efficacy in schizophrenia patients treated with clozapine and olanzapine. However, few studies have investigated this relationship in first-episode patients treated with other antipsychotics, in particular those with a lower obesogenic potential. Aim To investigate the relationships between weight gain and associated metabolic changes with psychopathology improvement in relation to age, sex, ethnicity, substance use, treatment duration and antipsychotic dose in first-episode schizophrenia spectrum disorder patients...
November 29, 2018: Schizophrenia Research
Takashi Hirata, Kazuyuki Yasuda, Takuji Uemura, Masataka Ohtsuki, Keita Kobayashi, Tetsuya Ueda, Yu Aruga, Toshio Tamaoki, Takefumi Suzuki
BACKGROUND: Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT) is indicated for critical psychiatric conditions, which themselves constitute a risk for deep venous thrombosis (DVT) owing to prolonged immobility, dehydration, and venous stasis. OBJECTIVE: We describe challenging instances of ECT implementation while taking direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs). METHOD: We report on 8 patients receiving DOACs for DVT who were successfully treated with ECT at the University of Yamanashi Hospital...
November 7, 2018: Psychosomatics
Miriam Leona Franke, Ulrike von Lersner, Osuanyi Quaicoo Essel, Kristina Adorjan, Georg Schomerus, Ana Gómez-Carrillo, Thi Minh Tam Ta, Kerem Böge, Mahan Mobashery, Michael Dettling, Albert Diefenbacher, Matthias C Angermeyer, Eric Hahn
This study examines attitudes of the young Ghanaian population regarding the relationship between causal beliefs and desire for social distance from people with symptoms of schizophrenia and depression. Respondents (n = 507) were presented with depression and schizophrenia symptoms using unlabeled case vignettes. A factor analysis examined three factors for causal beliefs, and multiple linear regression analysis on the desire for social distance was conducted. The desire for social distance was higher when symptoms in both case-vignettes were attributed to childhood adversities and overall lower when respondents lived in northern regions of Ghana...
November 15, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Anna Haduch, Władysława Anna Daniel
The current state of knowledge indicates that the cerebral cytochrome P450 (CYP) plays an important role in the endogenous metabolism in the brain. Different CYP isoenzymes mediate metabolism of many endogenous substrates, such as monoaminergic neurotransmitters, neurosteroids, cholesterol, vitamins and arachidonic acid. Therefore, these enzymes may affect brain development, susceptibility to mental and neurodegenerative diseases and may contribute to their pathophysiology. In addition, they can modify the therapeutic effects of psychoactive drugs at the place of their target action in the brain, where the drugs can act by affecting the metabolism of endogenous substrates...
December 2, 2018: Drug Metabolism Reviews
Pei-Chi Tu, Ya Mei Bai, Cheng-Ta Li, Mu-Hong Chen, Wei-Chen Lin, Wan-Chen Chang, Tung-Ping Su
Background: Recent genetic and imaging analyses of large datasets suggested that common biological substrates exist across psychiatric diagnoses. Functional connectivity (FC) abnormalities of thalamocortical circuits were consistently found in patients with schizophrenia but have been less studied in other major psychiatric disorders. This study aimed to examine thalamocortical FC in 4 major psychiatric disorders to identify the common connectivity abnormalities across major psychiatric disorders...
December 1, 2018: Schizophrenia Bulletin
Xinyu Fang, Yan Chen, Yewei Wang, Chen Zhang
Patients with schizophrenia have a high risk for suicide, and therefore, identification of risk factors for suicidal ideation (SI) may be helpful to reduce suicide rate. This study aimed to detect which clinical symptoms and biochemical parameters were most strongly associated with SI. A total of 174 patients and 35 healthy controls were enrolled in our study. Patients were evaluated by the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS), Scale of Assessment Negative Symptoms (SANS) and the Calgary Depression Scale for Schizophrenia (CDSS) for psychiatric and depressive symptoms, and the Repeatable Battery for the Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) for cognitive function...
November 22, 2018: Psychiatry Research
Hideaki Tani, Mitsuhiro Tada, Takaki Maeda, Mika Konishi, Satoshi Umeda, Yuri Terasawa, Masaru Mimura, Takuya Takahashi, Hiroyuki Uchida
AIM: While emotional processing is implicated in various psychiatric illnesses, its differences among diagnoses are unclear. We compared associative learning of social values in patients with depression and schizophrenia by measuring skin conductance response (SCR) to the interpersonal stimuli. METHODS: We included twenty female outpatients each with depression and schizophrenia. They underwent Pavlovian conditioning experiments in response to a classical aversive sound, and an interpersonal stimulus that was designed to cause aversive social conditioning with actors' faces coupled with negative verbal messages...
November 29, 2018: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
Koji Sakai, Kei Yamada
In the recent 5 years (2014-2018), there has been growing interest in the use of machine learning (ML) techniques to explore image diagnosis and prognosis of therapeutic lesion changes within the area of neuroradiology. However, to date, the majority of research trend and current status have not been clearly illuminated in the neuroradiology field. More than 1000 papers have been published during the past 5 years on subject classification and prediction focused on multiple brain disorders. We provide a survey of 209 papers in this field with a focus on top ten active areas of research; i...
November 29, 2018: Japanese Journal of Radiology
David R Goldsmith, Ebrahim Haroon, Andrew H Miller, Jean Addington, Carrie Bearden, Kristin Cadenhead, Tyrone Cannon, Barbara Cornblatt, Daniel Mathalon, Thomas McGlashan, Larry Seidman, Ming Tsuang, Scott W Woods, Elaine F Walker, Diana O Perkins
Negative symptoms are common in individuals at clinical high-risk (CHR) for psychosis and are associated with worse functional outcomes. Inflammation may be one mechanism underlying negative symptoms. Inflammatory markers are altered in individuals at CHR and are associated with negative symptoms in patients with schizophrenia. We thus hypothesized that baseline inflammatory markers would predict the development of negative symptoms in individuals at CHR for psychosis. Thirty seven individuals from the North American Prodromal Longitudinal Study who met CHR criteria were included in the study...
November 26, 2018: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Brent Luu, George W Rodway, Elizabeth Rice
The sleep architecture (or sleep kinetics) of schizophrenia is different from that of other mental illnesses, including major depressive disorder. However, clinicians rarely consider these parameters in clinical settings during treatment. This article discusses the use of polysomnography to characterize the sleeping patterns of patients diagnosed with schizophrenia and the positive influence of clozapine on sleep in patients with schizophrenia.
December 2018: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
Dominik Groos, Fang Zheng, Manfred Rauh, Benedikt Quinger, Johannes Kornhuber, Christian P Müller, Christian Alzheimer
BACKGROUND: Antipsychotic drugs (APDs) are the mainstay of the pharmacological treatment of psychotic disorders like schizophrenia. While the clinical efficacy of APDs has long since been established, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying their therapeutic benefits are still not well understood. METHODS: Here, we used an escalating amphetamine regimen to induce a psychosis-like state in mice. To achieve clinically relevant drug concentrations in amphetamine-pretreated mice, the typical APD haloperidol or the atypical APD olanzapine were chronically administered via subcutaneously implanted osmotic mini-pumps...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Psychopharmacology
Bin Gao, Yiquan Wang, Yihong Zhu, Qi Tian, Zhiyu Chen, Zachary Cohen, Yulia Landa, Kim T Mueser
The IPSAQ is a self-administered instrument designed to evaluate individuals' attributional style (AS). The purpose of this study is to examine the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Internal, Personal and Situational Attributions Questionnaire (C-IPSAQ). We also investigate if patients with depression and patients with delusions exhibit attributional biases. The English version of IPSAQ was translated into Chinese and back-translated into English for use in this study. 200 normal control individuals, 47 depressed patients, and 41 delusional patients diagnosed with schizophrenia were recruited for this study...
November 28, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
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