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Keitaro Kubo
BACKGROUND: The study was designed to examine changes in tendon properties measured during ramp and ballistic contractions after static stretching and to elucidate the relationship between stretching-induced changes in tendon properties (particularly hysteresis) and collagen fiber orientation. METHODS: Thirteen males performed static stretching, in which the ankle was passively flexed to 36° dorsiflexion and remained stationary for 10 min. Before and after stretching, the stiffness and hysteresis of tendon structures in the medial gastrocnemius muscle were measured using ultrasonography during ramp and ballistic contractions...
October 16, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Louis Tsun Cheung Chow, Maria Bernadette Che Ying Chow
Myocardial damage in catecholamine cardiomyopathy, characterized by patchy myocyte necrosis commonly with contraction band appearances, interstitial fibrosis, and varying degrees of inflammatory infiltrates, has been well documented. However, coronary vascular pathology has not been recognized. Autopsy of a 43-year-old housewife who died of acute apical anteroseptal myocardial infarction revealed the incidental finding of a left adrenal pheochromocytoma. The epicardial and intramyocardial median- and small-sized coronary arteries exhibited myointimal dysplasia in the form of fibroblastic proliferation in the intima and media, resulting in thickened dysplastic vessels with marked luminal narrowing, occasionally leading to near-total occlusion...
October 11, 2018: Cardiovascular Pathology: the Official Journal of the Society for Cardiovascular Pathology
Stephen Hasak, L Michael Brunt, Dan Wang, C Prakash Gyawali
BACKGROUND: Dysphagia is a consequence of anti-reflux surgery (ARS) for gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD). We studied patient management and symptomatic outcomes. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of 157 consecutive adult patients with GERD (mean age, 65.1 ±1.0 years; 72% female) who underwent ARS at a tertiary care center from 2003 through 2014. We characterized post-fundoplication dysphagia using a self-reported Likert scale, which ranges from a low score of 0 (no dysphagia) to a high score of 4 (severe daily dysphagia); scores of 2 or more indicated clinically significant dysphagia...
October 17, 2018: Clinical Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Amanda Sánchez-Recillas, Laura Rivero-Medina, Rolffy Ortiz-Andrade, Jesus Alfredo Araujo-León, J Salvador Flores-Guido
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: The fight against chronic respiratory diseases needs the exploration of new active compounds with properties that contribute to diminish the symptoms or resolve the disease alongside current therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Eight extracts obtained from the bark and leaves of a Mayan medicinal plant used to treat asthma, Cordia dodecandra A. DC., were investigated for their relaxant effect on rat isolated tracheal rings pre-contracted with carbachol [1µM]...
October 17, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Amneet Sandhu, Joseph L Schuller, Wendy S Tzou, Alexis Z Tumolo, William H Sauer, Duy T Nguyen
A 62-year-old man was referred to our institution for high-density, symptomatic PVCs with resultant decrease in LV function having failed prior ablation attempts. Successful, durable ablation of the patient's mid-myocardial PVC arising from the LV summit region was achieved through the proximal great cardiac vein with ablation depth augmented by use of half-normal saline irrigant. Though standard ablation of ventricular arrhythmias using normal saline irrigation from the coronary venous system has been well-reported, this may be of limited value in addressing mid-myocardial sites of origin...
October 20, 2018: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
Tsehai A J Grell, Benjamin N Bell, Chi Nguyen, Daniel P Dowling, Nathan A Bruender, Vahe Bandarian, Catherine L Drennan
7-carboxy-7-deazaguanine synthase, QueE, catalyzes the radical mediated ring contraction of 6-carboxy-5,6,7,8-tetrahydropterin, forming the characteristic pyrrolopyrimidine core of all 7-deazaguanine natural products. QueE is a member of the S-adenosyl-L-methionine (AdoMet) radical enzyme superfamily, which harnesses the reactivity of radical intermediates to perform challenging chemical reactions. Members of the AdoMet radical enzyme superfamily utilize a canonical binding motif, a CX3 CXφC motif, to bind a [4Fe-4S] cluster and a partial (β/α)6 TIM barrel fold for the arrangement of AdoMet and substrates for catalysis...
October 19, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
Priscila R Armijo, Chun-Kai Huang, Robin High, Melissa Leon, Ka-Chun Siu, Dmitry Oleynikov
BACKGROUND: Our aim was to determine how objectively-measured and self-reported muscle effort and fatigue of the upper-limb differ between surgeons performing laparoscopic (LAP) and robotic-assisted (ROBOT) surgeries. METHODS: Surgeons performing LAP or ROBOT procedures at a single-institution were enrolled. Objective muscle activation and self-reported fatigue were evaluated, and comparisons were made between approaches. Muscle activation of the upper trapezius (UT), anterior deltoid (AD), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), and extensor digitorum (ED) were recorded during the surgical procedure using Trigno wireless surface electromyography (EMG)...
October 19, 2018: Surgical Endoscopy
Nils Flüthmann, Kouki Kato, Oliver Bloch, Kazyuki Kanosue, Tobias Vogt
Alpha inhibitory processes reflect motor stimuli by either increasing or decreasing amplitude (i.e., power). However, the functional role and interplay of event-related alpha oscillations remains a regulatory domain that has not been sufficiently addressed, particularly with respect to different muscle activation types and durations in consecutive movement (i.e., motor) tasks. The aim of this study was to investigate alpha-band activity (7-13 Hz) in longer vs. shorter timed isometric muscle activations at distinct torques (20% and 40% of maximum voluntary contraction, MVC) when combined in one motor task sequence...
October 19, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Yevgeniy Freyvert, Nicholas Au Yong, Erika Morikawa, Sharon Zdunowski, Melanie E Sarino, Yury Gerasimenko, V Reggie Edgerton, Daniel C Lu
The combined effects of cervical electrical stimulation alone or in combination with the monoaminergic agonist buspirone on upper limb motor function were determined in six subjects with motor complete (AIS B) injury at C5 or above and more than one year from time of injury. Voluntary upper limb function was evaluated through measures of controlled hand contraction, handgrip force production, dexterity measures, and validated clinical assessment batteries. Repeated measure analysis of variance was used to evaluate functional metrics, EMG amplitude, and changes in mean grip strength...
October 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Gareth Iacobucci
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 19, 2018: BMJ: British Medical Journal
Laurie Zawertailo, Tara Mansoursadeghi-Gilan, Helena Zhang, Sarwar Hussain, Bernard Le Foll, Peter Selby
BACKGROUND: Varenicline and bupropion are efficacious, prescription-only pharmacotherapies for smoking cessation; however, their real-world impact is limited by prescriber knowledge, affordability, and accessibility. OBJECTIVE: The primary objective of the MATCH (Medication Aids for Tobacco Cessation Health) study was to evaluate the real-world, long-term effectiveness of mailed bupropion and varenicline in a sample of interested smokers with the utilization of Web-based recruitment and follow-up...
October 18, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Jingwen Ding, Xuan Ma, Yue Xin, Dongmei Li
OBJECTIVE: Lower eyelid retraction is a common and challenging complication of the anophthalmic socket. The underlying pathophysiology includes contraction of the posterior lamellae of the eyelid, shortening of the inferior fornix, and lateral canthal tendon laxity. This study aimed to evaluate the surgical efficacy of hard palate mucosa as a posterior spacer graft in the lower eyelid retraction repair in the anophthalmic socket. METHODS: The surgical technique involved hard palate grafting combined with recession of inferior retractors and lateral tarsal strip suspension to lengthen the posterior lamellar and strengthen the support of the lower eyelid...
October 2018: Canadian Journal of Ophthalmology. Journal Canadien D'ophtalmologie
Sabrina S Falloon, Vasileios Asimakopoulos, Alan M Cottenden
Incontinence-associated dermatitis is common among wearers of absorbent incontinence products and friction between product materials and skin is thought to be a contributing factor, but the details of its role are unclear. In this study, friction was measured between the dry volar forearm of 19 women (20-95 years) and five nonwovens typical of those in commercial disposable products. Euler's model/Amontons' law held to high precision for all person-fabric pairs for both static and dynamic friction, despite substantial variations in forearm size, soft tissue compliance and skin smoothness between subjects, sometimes substantial lateral contraction in fabric strips, and skin rucking beneath them...
October 19, 2018: Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of Engineering in Medicine
Catarina Branco, Miguel Arenas
Selecting among alternative scenarios of human evolution is nowadays a common methodology to investigate the history of our species. This strategy is usually based on computer simulations of genetic data under different evolutionary scenarios, followed by a fitting of the simulated data with the real data. A recent trend in the investigation of ancestral evolutionary processes of modern humans is the application of genetic gradients as a measure of fitting, since evolutionary processes such as range expansions, range contractions, and population admixture (among others) can lead to different genetic gradients...
October 18, 2018: Genes
Mina Karami, Begoña Calvo, Hassan Zohoor, Keikhosrow Firoozbakhsh, Jorge Grasa
The Calcium ion Ca2+ plays a critical role as an initiator and preserving agent of the cross-bridge cycle in the force generation of skeletal muscle. A new multi-scale chemo-mechanical model is presented in order to analyze the role of Ca2+ in muscle fatigue and to predict fatigue behavior. To this end, a cross-bridge kinematic model was incorporated in a continuum based mechanical model, considering a thermodynamic compatible framework. The contractile velocity and the generated active force were directly related to the force-bearing states that were considered for the cross-bridge cycle...
October 16, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
Sawssen Hajji, Sameh Ben Khedir, Ibtissem Hamza-Mnif, Marwa Hamdi, Ines Jedidi, Rim Kallel, Sami Boufi, Moncef Nasri
The aim of the present study was to prepare chitosan-PVA‑silver nanoparticles (CS-AgNPs) through green method. Chitosan and PVA polymers acted as stabilizing agents. DLS and TEM analyses showed that CS-AgNPs were homogeneously dispersed in matrix with an average size of 190-200 nm. The CS-AgNPs were tested for their antioxidant and antibacterial properties and the results revealed that they exhibited higher antioxidant activity than CS powder. Moreover, CS-AgNPs were characterized by a low cytotoxicity effect at 5-200 μg/ml against Chinese Hamster Ovary (CHO-K1) cells...
October 16, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. General subjects
Yoshifumi Morikawa, Akinobu Shibata, Yasuhide Sasajima, Koichi Suenami, Kiyohito Sato, Yuji Takekoshi, Satoshi Endo, Akira Ikari, Toshiyuki Matsunaga
Sibutramine had been prescribed as an oral anorexiant that reduces dietary intake, but was withdrawn from the market due to frequent occurrence of severe cardiovascular events including hypertension. To elucidate the pathogenic mechanism of hypertension, we here investigated whether sibutramine facilitates damage and contraction of human aortic smooth muscle (HASM) cells or not. Treatment with sibutramine provoked HASM cell apoptosis, which was attributed to production of reactive oxygen species and mitochondria dysfunction...
October 16, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
James W McNamara, Sakthivel Sadayappan
The Myosin Binding Protein-C (MyBP-C) family is a group of sarcomeric proteins important for striated muscle structure and function. Comprising approximately 2% of the myofilament mass, MyBP-C has important roles in both contraction and relaxation. Three paralogs of MyBP-C are encoded by separate genes with distinct expression profiles in striated muscle. In mammals, cardiac MyBP-C is limited to the heart, and it is the most extensively studied owing to its involvement in cardiomyopathies. However, the roles of two skeletal paralogs, slow and fast, in muscle biology remain poorly characterized...
October 16, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Daniele Borzelli, Benedetta Cesqui, Denise J Berger, Etienne Burdet, Andrea d'Avella
Manipulative actions involving unstable interactions with the environment require controlling mechanical impedance through muscle co-contraction. While much research has focused on how the central nervous system (CNS) selects the muscle patterns underlying a desired movement or end-point force, the coordination strategies used to achieve a desired end-point impedance have received considerably less attention. We recorded isometric forces at the hand and electromyographic (EMG) signals in subjects performing a reaching task with an external disturbance...
2018: PloS One
Gulcan Harput, Hande Guney-Deniz, Hamza Ozer, Gul Baltaci, Carl Mattacola
OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) levels on quadriceps and hamstring strength and functional outcomes up to 6 months after anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) with hamstring tendon autograft (HTG). DESIGN: Prospective, controlled study. SETTING: University clinical laboratory. PATIENTS: Ninety-one participants who had undergone unilateral ACLR with HTG were divided into 2 groups according to their BMI...
October 18, 2018: Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine: Official Journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine
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