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Sophie Schapman-Segalie, Pierre Lombrail
INTRODUCTION: Local health contracts are a promising tool to reduce social and geographical inequalities in health. They are optimally effective when they are designed to mobilize the resources of various sectors to target the essential, upstream determinants of inequalities. METHODS: We propose a checklist of their capacities to achieve this goal, comprising two parts. RESULTS: the targets and objectives of each action (what needs to be changed to achieve what long-term results?); and the strategies and modalities of intervention to address the issue of how to act...
September 6, 2018: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
Othman A Al-Shboul, Ayman G Mustafa, Amal Abu Omar, Ahmed N Al-Dwairi, Mohammad A Alqudah, Mona S Nazzal, Mahmoud A Alfaqih, Rami A Al-Hader
Previous studies have shown that progesterone could inhibit muscle contraction in various sites of the gastrointestinal tract. The underlying mechanisms responsible for these inhibitory effects of progesterone are not fully known. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of progesterone on the nitric oxide (NO)/cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) pathway and muscle contraction in the stomach. Single gastric smooth muscle cells from female Sprague-Dawley rats were used. The expression of progesterone receptor (PR) mRNA was analyzed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction...
December 2018: Biomedical Reports
Raffaella Cascella, Claudia Strafella, Valerio Caputo, Rosaria Maria Galota, Valeria Errichiello, Marianna Scutifero, Roberta Petillo, Gian Luca Marella, Mauro Arcangeli, Luca Colantoni, Stefania Zampatti, Enzo Ricci, Giancarlo Deidda, Luisa Politano, Emiliano Giardina
Facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD) is a neuromuscular disorder which is typically transmitted by an autosomal dominant pattern, although reduced penetrance and sporadic cases caused by de novo mutations, are often observed. FSHD may be caused by a contraction of a repetitive element, located on chromosome 4 (4q35). This locus is named D4Z4 and consists of 11 to more than 100 repeated units (RU). The D4Z4 is normally hypermethylated and the genes located on this locus are silenced. In case of FSHD, the D4Z4 region is characterized by 1-10 repeats and results in the region being hypomethylated...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Gennaro Boccia, Paolo Riccardo Brustio, Giampiero Buttacchio, Marzia Calabrese, Marco Bruzzone, Roberto Casale, Alberto Rainoldi
Evaluating the rate of torque development (RTD) in isometric ballistic contraction targeting submaximal torques is usually overlooked in the literature. In a series of isometric ballistic contractions targeting a range of submaximal torque values, there is a linear relationship between the peak torque and the peak RTD obtained in each contraction. RTD scaling factor (RTD-SF) represents the slope of this relationship. In this study, we investigated the prevalence of interlimb asymmetry in the RTD-SF and in the RTD calculated across submaximal torques...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Tao-Fang Xi, Dan-Ni Li, Yu-Yian Li, Ying Qin, Hai-Hong Wang, Ning-Ning Song, Qiong Zhang, Yu-Qiang Ding, Xuan-Zheng Shi, Dong-Ping Xie
Gut-derived 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) is well known for its role in mediating colonic motility function. However, it is not very clear whether brain-derived 5-HT is involved in the regulation of colonic motility. In this study, we used central 5-HT knockout (KO) mice to investigate whether brain-derived 5-HT mediates colonic motility, and if so, whether it involves oxytocin (OT) production in the hypothalamus and OT receptor in the colon. Colon transit time was prolonged in KO mice. The OT levels in the hypothalamus and serum were decreased significantly in the KO mice compared to wild-type (WT) controls...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Alexander M Matyushenko, Daniil V Shchepkin, Denis S Susorov, Victoria V Nefedova, Galina V Kopylova, Valentina Y Berg, Sergey Y Kleymenov, Dmitrii I Levitsky
Tropomyosin (Tpm) is an α-helical coiled-coil actin-binding protein that plays a key role in the Ca2+ -regulated contraction of striated muscles. Two Tpm isoforms, α (Tpm 1.1) and β (Tpm 2.2), are expressed in fast skeletal muscles. These Tpm isoforms can form either αα and ββ homodimers, or αβ heterodimers. However, only αα-Tpm and αβ-Tpm dimers are usually present in most of fast skeletal muscles, because ββ-homodimers are relatively unstable and cannot exist under physiologic conditions. Nevertheless, the most of previous studies of myopathy-causing mutations in the Tpm β-chains were performed on the ββ-homodimers...
December 10, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Junfang Li, Changhong Lu, Wugang Wang, Kun Gong, Liang Zhao, Zhibin Wang
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to assess the changes of RA function in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS) using velocity vector imaging (VVI) and to evaluate the application of VVI technology. METHODS: According to the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI), 71 patients with OSAS were divided into three groups: mild, moderate, and severe. A total of 30 cases of healthy subjects were enrolled as the control group. Digital images of apex four-chamber views were acquired to measure the right atrium (RA) linear dimensions and volume parameters including RA longitudinal diameter (RAL), transverse diameter (RAT), RA maximum volume (Vmax), RA minimum volume (Vmin), right atrial volume before contraction (Vpre)...
December 13, 2018: Cardiovascular Ultrasound
Amélie Juanchich, Christelle Hennequet-Antier, Cédric Cabau, Elisabeth Le Bihan-Duval, Michel J Duclos, Sandrine Mignon-Grasteau, Agnès Narcy
BACKGROUND: The sustainability of poultry farming relies on the development of more efficient and autonomous production systems in terms of feed supply. This implies a better integration of adaptive traits in breeding programs, including digestive efficiency, in order to favor the use of a wider variety of feedstuffs. The aim of the project was to improve the understanding of genes involved in digestive functions by characterizing the transcriptome of different sections of the digestive tract: the junction between the proventriculus and the gizzard, the gizzard, the gastroduodenal junction, and the jejunum...
December 13, 2018: BMC Genomics
Mumuni Abu, Samuel Nii Ardey Codjoe
Diarrheal disease is a critical health condition in urban areas of developing countries due to increasing urbanization and its associated problems of sanitation and poor access to good drinking water. Increasing floods in cities have been linked to the risk of diarrheal disease. There are few studies that specifically link flooding with diarrhea diseases. This may be due to the fact that secondary data mainly hospital recorded cases, and not individual cases at the household level are used. Furthermore, of the few papers that consider the flood-diarrheal diseases nexus, none have considered risk perceptions in general, and more specifically, whether households that have experienced floods which resulted in a reported case of diarrhea, have higher perceived risks of future occurrences of the two phenomena compared to households that had different experiences...
December 12, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Dongxiang Pan, Mei Lin, Rushu Lan, Edward A Graviss, Dingwen Lin, Dabin Liang, Xi Long, Huifang Qin, Liwen Huang, Minying Huang, Virasakdi Chongsuvivatwong
The aim of this paper is to evaluate the link between the history of exposure to tuberculosis (TB) in the household and diagnosed TB cases at school, and to compare the detection rate of active TB among household contacts and classroom contacts of adolescent TB cases with the rates among contacts of healthy controls. From November 2016 to December 2017, a prospective matched case-control study was conducted using passively identified index adolescent student cases from the TB surveillance system and healthy controls (matched by county, school type, sex, age and ethnicity)...
December 10, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Ali Mahdi, Tong Jiao, Yahor Tratsiakovich, Jiangning Yang, Claes-Göran Östenson, John Pernow, Zhichao Zhou
Purinergic signaling may be altered in diabetes accounting for endothelial dysfunction. Uridine adenosine tetraphosphate (Up₄A), a novel dinucleotide substance, regulates vascular function via both purinergic P1 and P2 receptors (PR). Up₄A enhances vascular contraction in isolated arteries of diabetic rats likely through P2R. However, the precise involvement of PRs in endothelial dysfunction and the vasoconstrictor response to Up₄A in diabetes has not been fully elucidated. We tested whether inhibition of PRs improved endothelial function and attenuated Up₄A-mediated vascular contraction using both aortas and mesenteric arteries of type 2 diabetic (T2D) Goto Kakizaki (GK) rats vs...
December 7, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Gabriela Topa, José F Jurado-Del Pozo
Occupations focused on helping others, guaranteeing people's security, and defending societal values can be stressful and risky for the workers involved. Emotional exhaustion and health complaints usually emerge as indicators of the stress suffered by these workers in undertaking their roles. This research aims to explore the effects of psychological contract breach on both emotional exhaustion and health complaints among three kinds of Spanish workers, namely firefighters ( n = 80), professional soldiers ( n = 77), and prison officers ( n = 107)...
December 7, 2018: Journal of Clinical Medicine
Mihaela Ratiu, Monica Chitu, Imre Benedek, Theodora Benedek, Istvan Kovacs, Nora Rat, Ciprian Rezus
INTRODUCTION: Coronary computed tomography angiography (CCTA) has emerged as a valuable noninvasive imaging tool for assessing atheromatous plaque morphology and composition, and several CCTA features have been validated as reliable indicators of the plaque-associated risk. However, the role of lesion geometry as a CCTA feature of plaque vulnerability has not been investigated so far. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Here we present the study protocol of the GEOMETRY trial, a prospective, single center, cohort study in which we aim to investigate the relationship between plaque geometry (as expressed by cross-sectional and longitudinal plaque eccentricity) and the risk for major adverse cardiac events (MACE) during 2 years of follow-up, in order to validate plaque eccentricity as a new CCTA marker of coronary plaque vulnerability...
December 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Chu Shan Tan, Yean Chun Loh, Yung Sing Ch'ng, Chiew Hoong Ng, Zhao Qin Yeap, Mariam Ahmad, Mohd Zaini Asmawi, Mun Fei Yam
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Citrus reticulatae Pericarpium (Chen pi) was widely used as an important ingredient in the prescription of TCM to treat phlegm fluid retention type hypertension. Since Chen pi is involved in treatment as antihypertensive TCM formula, we have reasonable expectation in believing that it might possess vasorelaxant activity. AIM OF THE STUDY: This study is designed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of Chen pi and to study its pharmacology effects...
December 10, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Bernhard E Flucher, Marta Campiglio
Excitation-contraction coupling is the signaling process by which action potentials control calcium release and consequently the force of muscle contraction. Until recently, three triad proteins were known to be essential for skeletal muscle EC coupling: the voltage-gated calcium channel CaV 1.1 acting as voltage sensor, the SR calcium release channel RyR1 representing the only relevant calcium source, and the auxiliary CaV β1a subunit. Whether CaV 1.1 and RyR1 are directly coupled or whether their interaction is mediated by another triad protein is still unknown...
December 10, 2018: Biochimica et biophysica acta. Molecular cell research
Matthew Klos, Sherry Morgenstern, Kayla Hicks, Shreyas Suresh, Eric J Devaney
β-hydroxybutyrate is the primary ketone body produced by the body during ketosis and is used to meet its metabolic demands. The healthy adult heart derives most of its energy from fatty acid oxidation. However, in certain diseases, the heart alters its substrate preference and increases its ketone body metabolism. Little is known about the effects of βOHB on ventricular myocyte excitation-contraction coupling. Therefore, we examined the effects of ketone body metabolism on single cell excitation-contraction coupling during normoxic and hypoxic conditions...
December 10, 2018: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
Ole Emil Andersen, Ole Baekgaard Nielsen, Kristian Overgaard
Muscle damaging eccentric exercise impairs muscle glucose uptake several hours to days after exercise. Little, however, is known about the acute effects of eccentric exercise on contraction- and insulin-induced glucose uptake. This study compares glucose uptake rates in the first hours following eccentric, concentric, and isometric contractions with and without insulin present. Isolated rat extensor digitorum longus muscles were exposed to either an eccentric, concentric, or isometric contraction protocol, and muscle contractions were induced by electric stimulation that were identical between contraction protocols...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Applied Physiology
Aurelio Mauro, Farhan Quader, Salvatore Tolone, Edoardo Savarino, Nicola De Bortoli, Marianna Franchina, C Prakash Gyawali, Roberto Penagini
BACKGROUND: Jackhammer esophagus (JE) is a hypercontractile disorder, the pathogenesis of which is incompletely understood. Multiple rapid swallows (MRS) and rapid drink challenge (RDC) are complementary tests used during high resolution manometry (HRM) that evaluate inhibitory and excitatory neuromuscular function and latent obstruction respectively. Methods&aim. Our aim was to evaluate esophageal pathophysiology using MRS and RDC in 83 JE patients (28 males; 63; 54-70 years). Twenty one healthy subjects (11 males; 28; 26-30 years) were used as a control group...
December 13, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Gastrointestinal and Liver Physiology
Ramonica Scott, Hyung Suk Yang, C Roger James, Steven F Sawyer, Phillip S Sizer
CONTEXT: The abdominal-bracing maneuver, a volitional preemptive abdominal contraction (VPAC) strategy, is commonly used during resisted shoulder exercises. How VPAC affects shoulder-muscle function during resisted shoulder exercise is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To identify the effects of VPAC on selected parascapular and glenohumeral muscles during specific shoulder exercises with or without resistance. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. SETTING: Clinical biomechanics research laboratory...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Athletic Training
Saranya Pullanchery, Tinglu Yang, Paul S Cremer
The interfacial water structure and phosphate group hydration of 1,2-dioleoyl- sn-glycero-3-phosphatidylcholine monolayers were investigated at air/water interfaces. Both vibrational sum frequency spectroscopy (VSFS) and Langmuir monolayer compression measurements were made. The PC lipids oriented water molecules predominantly through their phosphate-choline (P-N) dipoles and carbonyl moieties. Upon the introduction of low concentrations of 1,2-dioleoyl-3-trimethylammonium propane (DOTAP), a positively charged double chain surfactant, the TAP headgroups were attracted to the phosphate moieties on adjacent PC lipids...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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