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John T Daugirdas
BACKGROUND: Changes in plasma volume during hemodialysis are complex and have been shown to depend on the rate of fluid removal and the degree of fluid overload. We examined changes in total protein concentration during and shortly after a dialysis treatment in archived data from the HEMO study. METHODS: During follow-up months 4 and 36 of the HEMO study, additional blood samples were obtained during a typical dialysis session at 30 and 60 min after dialysis. In 315 studies from 282 patients where complete data were available, we calculated the concentration change in total protein and compared it to the modeled change in both total body water and extracellular fluid space as derived from 2-pool urea kinetic modeling...
August 15, 2018: American Journal of Nephrology
Jennifer R Vranish, Benjamin E Young, Brandi Y Stephens, Jasdeep Kaur, Jaume Padilla, Paul J Fadel
NEW FINDINGS: What is the central question of this study? We aimed to examine leg vascular responses to brief periods of inactivity. What is the main finding and its importance? We demonstrate that a mere 10 min of sitting is sufficient to impair leg microvascular function (reactive hyperaemia). However, conduit artery vasodilatation (flow-mediated dilatation) was unaffected, indicating maintained macrovascular function. Interestingly, immobile supine rest also resulted in a reduction in microvascular function alone that was prevented when calf muscle contractions were performed...
August 15, 2018: Experimental Physiology
Zachary E Cullingsworth, Brooks B Kelly, Nicholas A Deebel, Andrew F Colhoun, Anna S Nagle, Adam P Klausner, John E Speich
OBJECTIVES: Detrusor overactivity (DO) is characterized by non-voiding detrusor smooth muscle contractions during the bladder filling phase and often contributes to overactive bladder. In some patients DO is observed as isolated or sporadic contractions, while in others DO is manifested as low amplitude rhythmic contractions (LARC). The aim of this study was to develop an objective method to quantify LARC frequencies and amplitudes in urodynamic studies (UDS) and identify a subgroup DO of patients with LARC...
2018: PloS One
Kashif Tanveer, Seung-Joon Kim, Mark S Taylor
A new mode of catalysis of the semipinacol rearrangement of 2,3-epoxy alcohols is described. In combination with a halide salt additive, diarylborinic acids promote a Type II rearrangement that occurs with net retention of configuration. This unusual stereochemical outcome is consistent with a mechanism involving regioselective ring opening of the epoxy alcohol by halide, followed by rearrangement of the resulting halohydrin-derived borinic ester. The protocol is applicable to a range of substrates, enabling ring contractions and expansions as well as stereospecific syntheses of acyclic β-hydroxycarbonyl compounds...
August 15, 2018: Organic Letters
Joel Cameron Balmer, Christopher G Pretty, Shaun Davidson, Thomas Desaive, Shun Kamoi, Antoine Pironet, Philippe Morimont, Nathalie Janssen, Bernard Lambermont, Geoffrey M Shaw, J Geoffrey Chase

 Pulse wave velocity measurements are an indicator of arterial stiffness and possible cardiovascular dysfunction. It is usually calculated by measuring the pulse transit time (PTT) over a known distance through the arteries. In animal studies, reliable PTT measures can be obtained using two pressure catheters. However, such direct, invasive methods are undesirable in clinical settings. A less invasive alternative measure of PTT is pulse arrival time (PAT), the time between the Q-wave of an electrocardiogram (ECG) and the arrival of the foot of the beats pressure waveform at one pressure catheter...
August 15, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Mark A Ditmer, Ron A Moen, Steve K Windels, James D Forester, Thomas E Ness, Tara R Harris
Populations inhabiting the bioclimatic edges of a species' geographic range face an increasing amount of stress from alterations to their environment associated with climate change. Moose Alces alces are large-bodied ungulates that are sensitive to heat stress and have exhibited population declines and range contractions along their southern geographic extent. Using a hidden Markov model to analyze movement and accelerometer data, we assigned behaviors (rest, forage, or travel) to all locations of global positioning system-collared moose ( n =  13, moose-years = 19) living near the southern edge of the species' range in and around Voyageurs National Park, MN, USA...
August 2018: Current Zoology
Kefeng Wang, Qi Chen, Yingyan Hu, Wei Wei, Songzhu Wang, Qi Shen, Peng Qu
Nowadays, the state-of-the-art electrocatalysts for hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) are platinum group metals. Nonetheless, Pt-based catalysts show decreased HER activity in alkaline media compared with that in acidic media due to the sluggish dissociation process of H2 O on the surface of Pt. With a cost 1/25 that of Pt, Ru demonstrates a favorable dissociation kinetics of absorbed H2 O. Herein, crystalline Ru0.33 Se nanoparticles are decorated onto TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNAs) to fabricate Ru0.33 Se @ TNA hybrid for HER...
August 14, 2018: Small
Rui-Ming Zhao, Hua Zhang, Li-Zhe An
As alpine plants, cushion species are particularly susceptible to environment changes. Thus, understanding population structure and community diversity variation of cushion plants along elevational gradients is crucial for estimating their response to predicted climate changes. In this study, Thylacospermum caespitosum populations from three elevations (low, medium, and high) in three climate zones of China (the Kunlun, Qilian, and Tianshan Mountains) were selected to evaluate the effect of elevation on the structure of T...
August 14, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bruno Mendes, Telmo Firmino, Raúl Oliveira, Tiago Neto, Jorge Infante, João R Vaz, Sandro R Freitas
PURPOSE: To assess the stiffness of hamstring muscles during isometric contractions in healthy individuals, using ultrasound-based shear wave elastography to (1) determine the intra- and inter-day assessment repeatability, (2) characterize the stiffness of semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) along the contraction intensity, and (3) characterize stiffness distribution among the hamstring muscles and inter-limb symmetry. METHODS: Two experiments were conducted...
August 14, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
Lena Ohlsson, Erik Kronvall, Jennifer Stratton, Lars Edvinsson
BACKGROUND: Fremanezumab (TEV-48125) is a fully humanized anti-calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) monoclonal antibody (mAb) that has shown positive results in the prevention of episodic migraine and chronic migraine. Previous preclinical studies have revealed CGRP antagonistic effects on intracranial arteries (ICA). The aim of the study was to evaluate the in vitro antagonistic effects of fremanezumab on human arteries. METHODS: Arteries were removed in conjunction with neurosurgery (cerebral, CA, and middle meningeal artery, MMA, n = 7) or reconstructive abdominal surgery (abdominal artery, AA, n = 6)...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
Jason S Jones, David M Small, Nozomi Nishimura
Background: Understanding the microscopic dynamics of the beating heart has been challenging due to the technical nature of imaging with micrometer resolution while the heart moves. The development of multiphoton microscopy has made in vivo , cell-resolved measurements of calcium dynamics and vascular function possible in motionless organs such as the brain. In heart, however, studies of in vivo interactions between cells and the native microenvironment are behind other organ systems. Our goal was to develop methods for intravital imaging of cardiac structural and calcium dynamics with microscopic resolution...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Da Un Jeong, Ki Moo Lim
The KCNQ1 S140G mutation, which is involved in IKs current, affects atrial fibrillation. However, little is known about its effect on the mechanical behavior of the heart. Therefore, we assessed the influence of the KCNQ1 S140G mutation on ventricular electrophysiological stability and mechanical pumping performance using a multi-scale model of cardiac electromechanics. An image-based electromechanical model was used to assess the effect on electrical propagation and arrhythmogenesis of the KCNQ1 S140G mutation...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Hisato Toriyama, Junichi Ushiba, Junichi Ushiyama
In the field of psychology, it has been well established that there are two types of motor imagery such as kinesthetic motor imagery (KMI) and visual motor imagery (VMI), and the subjective evaluation for vividness of motor imagery each differs across individuals. This study aimed to examine how the motor imagery ability assessed by the psychological scores is associated with the physiological measure using electroencephalogram (EEG) sensorimotor rhythm during KMI task. First, 20 healthy young individuals evaluated subjectively how vividly they can perform each of KMI and VMI by using the Kinesthetic and Visual Imagery Questionnaire (KVIQ)...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
Fabio Henrique Silva, Kleber Yotsumoto Fertrin, Eduardo Costa Alexandre, Fabiano Beraldi Calmasini, Carla Fernanda Franco-Penteado, Fernando Ferreira Costa
Paroxysmal nocturnal hemoglobinuria (PNH) patients display exaggerated intravascular hemolysis and esophageal disorders. Since excess hemoglobin in the plasma causes reduced nitric oxide (NO) bioavailability and oxidative stress, we hypothesized that esopagheal contraction may be impaired by intravascular hemolysis. This study aimed to analyze the alterations of the esophagus contractile mechanisms in a murine model of exaggerated intravascular hemolysis induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ). For comparative purposes, sickle cell disease (SCD) mice were also studied, a less severe intravascular hemolysis model...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics
Mitsuru Sasaki-Honda, Tatsuya Jonouchi, Meni Arai, Akitsu Hotta, Satomi Mitsuhashi, Ichizo Nishino, Ryoichi Matsuda, Hidetoshi Sakurai
DUX4, the causative gene of facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD), is ectopically expressed in the skeletal muscle cells of FSHD patients because of chromatin relaxation at 4q35. The diminished heterochromatic state at 4q35 is caused by either large genome contractions (FSHD1) or mutations in genes encoding chromatin regulators, such as SMCHD1 (FSHD2). However, the mechanism by which DUX4 expression is regulated remains largely unknown. Here, using a myocyte model developed from patient-derived induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs), we determined that DUX4 expression was increased by oxidative stress (OS), a common environmental stress in skeletal muscle, in both FSHD1 and FSHD2 myocytes...
August 9, 2018: Human Molecular Genetics
Janesh Gupta, Rohan Chodankar, Oleg Baev, Franz Bahlmann, Eugen Brega, Anisha Gala, Lars Hellmeyer, Lukas Hruban, Josefine Maier, Priyanka Mehta, Amitasrigowri Murthy, Melanie Ritter, Antonio Saad, Roman Shmakov, Amita Suneja, Jozef Zahumensky, Daniela Gdovinova
INTRODUCTION: To evaluate the effects of synthetic osmotic dilators (Dilapan-S/ Dilasoft) in women who required induction of labour in a large prospective multicentre international observational study. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Primary outcomes were duration of Dilapan-S/Dilasoft insertion (hours), total induction - delivery interval (hours) and the rate of vaginal deliveries within 24 h (%). Secondary outcomes were the number of dilators inserted, Bishop score increase after extraction of Dilapan-S/Dilasoft, complications during induction (uterine contractions, uterine tachysystole and hyperstimulation, effect on the fetus) and post induction (infections and neonatal outcomes), agents / procedures used for subsequent induction of labour, immediate rate of spontaneous labours following cervical ripening period, rate of spontaneous vaginal deliveries, rate of instrumental vaginal deliveries and caesarean sections...
August 3, 2018: European Journal of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Biology
Chuangjia Hu, Bin Liu, Hui Li, Xiangzhong Wu, Tingting Guo, Wenhong Luo, Yingbi Zhou
Prostaglandin (PG) D2 , a prostanoid known to have hypotensive effect, can evoke increased in vitro prepartum myometrial contraction resulting from up-regulation of the F prostanoid (FP) receptor. The present study further determined postpartum rat uterine responses to PGD2 to evaluate the possibility of the prostanoid becoming a therapeutic for postpartum uterine atony, a major cause of postpartum hemorrhage that can lead to maternal morbidity. In vitro and in vivo postpartum uterine responses to PGD2 were determined and compared to those of prepartum rats...
August 11, 2018: European Journal of Pharmacology
Xiao Tang, Xu Zhang, Xiaoping Gao, Xiang Chen, Ping Zhou
The objective of this study was to develop sample entropy (SampEn) as a novel surface electromyogram (EMG) biomarker to quantitatively examine post-stroke neuromuscular alternations. The SampEn method was performed on surface EMG interference patterns recorded from biceps brachii muscles of nine healthy control subjects, fourteen subjects with subacute stroke, and eleven subjects with chronic stroke, respectively. Measurements were collected during isometric contractions of elbow flexion at different constant force levels...
August 8, 2018: IEEE Transactions on Neural Systems and Rehabilitation Engineering
Theodore E Wiley, Nicholas A Miller, William R Miller, Danielle L Sofferman, Piotr Lodowski, Megan J Toda, Maria Jaworska, Pawel M Kozlowski, Roseanne J Sension
Ultrafast time-resolved spectroscopy was used to study the photochemistry of hydroxocobalamin (HOCbl) and aquocobalamin (H2 OCbl+ ) in solution. Spectroscopic measurements and TD-DFT simulations provide a consistent picture of the spectroscopy and photochemistry. Excitation of H2 OCbl+ results in formation of an excited state followed by rapid internal conversion to the ground state (0.35 ± 0.15 ps) through an S1 /S0 seam at a slightly elongated Co-O bond length and a significantly elongated Co-NIm bond length...
August 14, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
Gregory C Addicks, Phillip Marshall, Bernard J Jasmin, Jean-Marc Renaud, Hongbo Zhang, Keir J Menzies
Muscle function and health progressively deteriorate during the progression of muscle dystrophies. The ability to objectively characterize muscle function and muscle damage is useful not only when comparing variants of dystrophy models, but also for characterizing the effects of interventions aiming to improve or halt the progressive decline of muscle function and muscle health. The protocols in this chapter describe the use of ex vivo eccentric contraction of the diaphragm muscle as a measure of muscle susceptibility to damage...
August 14, 2018: Current Protocols in Mouse Biology
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