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Disability progression

Parissa Massahikhaleghi, Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi, Sayed Ataullah Saeedzai, Sayyed Musa Hossaini, Sayed Amin Hamedi, Maziar Moradi-Lakeh, Mohsen Naghavi, Christopher J L Murray, Ali H Mokdad
BACKGROUND: Afghanistan is one of the low-income countries in the Eastern Mediterranean Region with young population and myriad of healthcare needs. We aim to report the burden of diseases and injuries in Afghanistan between 1990 and 2016. METHODS: We used the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2016 study for estimates of deaths, disability-adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life lost, years of life lived with disability, maternal mortality ratio (MMR), neonatal mortality rates (NMRs) and under 5 mortality rates (U5MR) in Afghanistan...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Finn Sellebjerg, Lydia Royen, Per Soelberg Sørensen, Annette Bang Oturai, Poul Erik Hyldgaard Jensen
BACKGROUND: Neurofilament light chain (NFL) and chitinase-3-like-1 (CHI3L1) concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) may have prognostic value in clinically isolated syndromes (CIS) and relapsing-remitting multiple sclerosis (RRMS). OBJECTIVES: To compare the prognostic value of CSF concentrations of NFL and CHI3L1 in newly diagnosed CIS and RRMS patients. METHODS: NFL and CHI3L1 were measured in CSF in 177 newly diagnosed patients with CIS or RRMS who were followed clinically for a mean of 5...
August 16, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis: Clinical and Laboratory Research
Mercè Pineda, Mark Walterfang, Marc C Patterson
OBJECTIVE: Niemann-Pick disease type C (NP-C) is a rare, autosomal recessive, neurodegenerative disease associated with a wide variety of progressive neurological manifestations. Miglustat is indicated for the treatment of progressive neurological manifestations in both adults and children. Since approval in 2009 there has been a vast growth in clinical experience with miglustat. The effectiveness of miglustat has been assessed using a range of measures. METHODS: Comprehensive review of published data from studies of cellular neuropathological markers and structural neurological indices in the brain, clinical impairment/disability, specific clinical neurological manifestations, and patient survival...
August 15, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Chantal M den Bakker, Johannes R Anema, AnneClaire G N M Zaman, Henrika C W de Vet, Linda Sharp, Eva Angenete, Marco E Allaix, Rene H J Otten, Judith A F Huirne, Hendrik J Bonjer, Angela G E M de Boer, Frederieke G Schaafsma
BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer is diagnosed progressively in employed patients due to screening programs and increasing retirement age. The objective of this study was to identify prognostic factors for return to work and work disability in patients with colorectal cancer. METHODS: The research protocol was published at PROSPERO with registration number CRD42017049757. A systematic review of cohort and case-control studies in colorectal cancer patients above 18 years, who were employed when diagnosed, and who had a surgical resection with curative intent were included...
2018: PloS One
Angelo Antonini, Wolfgang H Jost
Development of motor fluctuations and dyskinesia characterizes the transition from the early to the advanced Parkinson stage. Current oral therapeutic strategies aim at increasing the number of levodopa administrations and extending its benefit by the association of enzyme blockers (MAO- and COMT-inhibitors) and dopamine agonists. However, as disease progresses, mobility becomes progressively dependent on levodopa absorption and plasma bioavailability, resulting in disabling motor complications. If patients continue to experience off time with functional impact on activities of daily living after best oral medication adjustments, implementation of infusion therapies with apomorphine or levodopa, and surgical techniques should be considered...
August 14, 2018: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
Wendy Damman, Rani Liu, Ad A Kaptein, Andrea W M Evers, Henriët van Middendorp, Frits R Rosendaal, Margreet Kloppenburg
Objective: To investigate the association between illness perceptions and disability both cross-sectionally and over 2 years in patients with hand OA. Methods: Illness perceptions and self-reported disability were assessed at baseline and after 2 years in 384 patients with primary hand OA (mean age 61 years, 84% women, n = 312 with follow-up) with the Illness Perception Questionnaire - Revised (IPQ-R), Functional Index for Hand OA, Australian/Canadian Hand OA Index and HAQ...
August 10, 2018: Rheumatology
S Mellinger, D Dias, N Flores, A Palavecino, G Vigo, D Burgos, F Tomas, I Rollan, G Herrera, J Floridia, C Furlan, F Frissia, A Aleman, J Perez Frías, J Casali, M Burgos
INTRODUCTION: Multiple Sclerosis (MS) is one of the leading causes of disability in young adults. Its prevalence varies according to different countries. In Argentina there is a wide heterogeneity regarding data published in different areas of the country. Prevalence established in most studies is 17 cases per 100,000 inhabitants; however, most of the available data comes from studies that took place in Buenos Aires. There is little or no information from other provinces, especially from Northwest of Argentina (NOA), where there are no studies of the disease prevalence...
July 31, 2018: Multiple Sclerosis and related Disorders
Letizia Leocani, Simone Guerrieri, Giancarlo Comi
: ABSTRACT:: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is an inflammatory, degenerative disease of the central nervous system (CNS) characterized by progressive neurological decline over time. The need for better "biomarkers" to more precisely capture and track the effects of demyelination, remyelination, and associated neuroaxonal injury is a well-recognized challenge in the field of MS. To this end, visual evoked potentials (VEPs) have a role in assessing the extent of demyelination along the optic nerve, as a functionally eloquent CNS region...
September 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Zui Narita, Naoko Satake, Wakiro Sato, Harumasa Takano
INTRODUCTION: Patients with multiple sclerosis commonly show some degree of psychiatric symptoms. Primary progressive multiple sclerosis is a part of the spectrum of multiple sclerosis phenotypes with progressive accumulation of disability from disease onset and active course. Psychiatric symptoms are commonly shown in multiple sclerosis, and up to 10% of patients with multiple sclerosis have the primary progressive form. Thus, patients with primary progressive multiple sclerosis may also elicit psychiatric symptoms...
June 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology reports
Xin Wang, Xueping Wang, Jin Sun, Shiou Fu
Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is considered to be a systemic autoimmune disease that induces systemic complications and progressive disability. It affects a large number of people. RA fibroblast‑like synoviocytes (RA‑FLS) promote the progression of RA through the secretion of proinflammatory cytokines and increasing invasiveness into the extracellular matrix. Therefore, targeting RA‑FLS represents a potential approach for the treatment of RA. Ribonucleotide reductase M2 (RRM2), a critical protein for DNA synthesis and repair, may promote the proliferation of cells and inhibit cellular apoptosis...
August 8, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Medicine
Megan A Evans, Brad R S Broughton, Grant R Drummond, Henry Ma, Thanh G Phan, Euan M Wallace, Rebecca Lim, Christopher G Sobey
Stroke is a leading cause of death and disability and new therapies are desperately needed. Given the complex nature of ischemic brain injury, it has been postulated that cell-based therapies may be useful. However, cell resources, invasive extraction procedures, immunological rejection, tumorigenesis and ethical challenges make it unlikely that many stem cell types could serve as a practical source for therapy. By contrast, these issues do not pertain to human amnion epithelial cells (hAECs), which are placenta-derived stem cells...
August 2018: Neural Regeneration Research
Emma D Deeks
Cladribine is a deoxyadenosine analogue prodrug that preferentially depletes lymphocytes, key cells underlying multiple sclerosis (MS) pathogenesis. Cladribine tablets (Mavenclad® ) represent the first short-course oral disease-modifying drug (DMD) for use in MS. The tablets, administered in two short courses 1 year apart, are indicated for the treatment of adults with highly active relapsing MS on the basis of data from pivotal clinical trials, including the phase 3 study CLARITY and its extension. A cumulative cladribine tablets dose of 3...
August 14, 2018: CNS Drugs
Laura Otero-Ortega, Fernando Laso-García, MariCarmen Gómez-de Frutos, Blanca Fuentes, Luke Diekhorst, Exuperio Díez-Tejedor, María Gutiérrez-Fernández
Approximately, 16 million strokes occur worldwide each year, causing 6 million deaths and considerable disability, implying an enormous social, individual health, and economic burden. Due to this high incidence, strategies to promote stroke recovery are urgently needed. Research into new therapeutic approaches for stroke has determined that intravenous administration of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is a good strategy to improve recovery by amplifying mechanisms implicated in brain plasticity. Recent studies have demonstrated the efficacy of MSCs in stroke, with no need for them to reach the area of brain injury...
August 13, 2018: Translational Stroke Research
Gregory S Day, Alexander Rae-Grant, Melissa J Armstrong, Tamara Pringsheim, Stacey S Cofield, Ruth Ann Marrie
Background: Persons with multiple sclerosis (MS) may now choose from a broad array of approved disease-modifying treatments (DMTs). The priority that patients and practitioners assign to specific clinical outcomes is likely to influence the MS DMT selection process. Methods: We invited 9,126 participants in the North American Research Committee on Multiple Sclerosis (NARCOMS) Registry and 18 members of the American Academy of Neurology MS DMT guideline development panel to complete a brief survey prioritizing outcomes of importance to MS DMT selection...
June 2018: Neurology. Clinical Practice
Fiona Costello, Jodie M Burton
Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a progressive neurological disorder characterized by both inflammatory and degenerative components that affect genetically susceptible individuals. Currently, the cause of MS remains unclear, and there is no known cure. Commonly used therapies tend to target inflammatory aspects of MS, but may not halt disease progression, which may be governed by the slow, subclinical accumulation of injury to neuroaxonal structures in the central nervous system (CNS). A recognized challenge in the field of MS relates to the need for better methods of detecting, quantifying, and ameliorating the effects of subclinical disease...
2018: Eye and Brain
Ilya Kister, Tim Spelman, Francesco Patti, Pierre Duquette, Maria Trojano, Guillermo Izquierdo, Alessandra Lugaresi, Pierre Grammond, Patrizia Sola, Diana Ferraro, Francois Grand'Maison, Raed Alroughani, Murat Terzi, Cavit Boz, Raymond Hupperts, Jeannette Lechner-Scott, Ludwig Kappos, Eugenio Pucci, Suzanne Hodgkinson, Claudio Solaro, Helmut Butzkueven
BACKGROUND: Discontinuation of disease-modifying therapies (DMTs) for MS is common. MSBase, a large global observational registry, affords a unique opportunity to investigate predictors of 'post-DMT' relapses and confirmed disability progression (CDP) in a diverse group of patients exposed to different DMTs. MATERIALS/METHODS: Main inclusion criteria: clinician-confirmed MS diagnosis (2010 McDonald criteria); age ≥ 18 at index DMT start; ≥12 months on index DMT prior to discontinuation; ≥24 months of follow-up post-discontinuation; did not restart DMT for ≥6 months...
August 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
Gillian Quinn, Laura Comber, Chris McGuigan, Rose Galvin, Susan Coote
OBJECTIVE: To investigate discriminative ability and clinical utility of the Timed Up and Go under single- and dual-task conditions between fallers and non-fallers in multiple sclerosis (MS). DESIGN: Prospective cohort study. SETTING: Neurology service in a tertiary hospital. SUBJECTS: Participants were 101 people with MS and Expanded Disability Status Scale score of 3-6.5. One participant withdrew after the baseline assessment, and hence the data were analysed for 100 participants...
August 14, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Courtney Casserly, Estelle E Seyman, Paula Alcaide-Leon, Melanie Guenette, Carrie Lyons, Stephanie Sankar, Anton Svendrovski, Stefan Baral, Jiwon Oh
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Spinal cord atrophy (SCA) is an important emerging outcome measure in multiple sclerosis (MS); however, there is limited consensus on the magnitude and rate of atrophy. The objective of this study was to synthesize the available data on measures of SCA in MS. METHODS: Using published guidelines, relevant literature databases were searched between 1977 and 2017 for case-control or cohort studies reporting a quantitative measure of SCA in MS patients...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroimaging: Official Journal of the American Society of Neuroimaging
Sara Merlo, Simona Federica Spampinato, Maria Angela Sortino
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by extensive neurodegeneration and inflammation in selective brain areas, linked to severely disabling cognitive deficits. Before full manifestation, different stages appear with progressively increased brain pathology and cognitive impairment. This significantly extends the time lag between initial molecular triggers and appearance of detectable symptoms. Notably, a number of studies in the last decade have revealed that in the early stage of mild cognitive impairment, events that appear in contrast with neuronal distress may occur...
August 12, 2018: CNS Neuroscience & Therapeutics
Manuel Montero-Odasso, Quincy J Almeida, Louis Bherer, Amer M Burhan, Richard Camicioli, Julien Doyon, Sarah Fraser, Susan Muir-Hunter, Karen Z H Li, Teresa Liu-Ambrose, William McIlroy, Laura Middleton, José A Morais, Ryota Sakurai, Mark Speechley, Akshya Vasudev, Olivier Beauchet, Jeffrey M Hausdorff, Caterina Rosano, Stephanie Studenski, Joe Verghese
Background: A new paradigm is emerging in which mobility and cognitive impairments, previously studied, diagnosed, and managed separately in older adults, are in fact regulated by shared brain resources. Deterioration in these shared brain mechanisms by normal aging and neurodegeneration increases the risk of developing dementia, falls, and fractures. This new paradigm requires an integrated approach to measuring both domains. We aim to identify a complementary battery of existing tests of mobility and cognition in community-dwelling older adults that enable assessment of motor-cognitive interactions...
June 21, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
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