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Kamyar Keramatian, Taj Dhanoa, Alexander McGirr, Donna J Lang, William G Honer, Raymond W Lam, Lakshmi N Yatham
OBJECTIVES: The neurobiological underpinnings of bipolar I disorder are not yet understood. Previous structural neuroimaging studies of bipolar disorder have produced rather conflicting results. We hypothesize that clinical sub-phenotypes of bipolar I disorder defined by their psychotic symptoms, especially those with mood-incongruent psychotic features, may have more extensive structural brain abnormalities. METHODS: We investigated structural brain alterations in patients with first-episode mania (n = 55) with mood-congruent (n = 16) and mood-incongruent (n = 32) psychotic features, as well as those without psychotic symptoms (n = 7), relative to healthy subjects (n = 56)...
October 20, 2016: World Journal of Biological Psychiatry
Michitaka Funayama, Motoichiro Kato, Masaru Mimura
BACKGROUND: Although post-stroke depression is a well-characterized disorder, there is less understanding of how pre-existence of depression is affected by a stroke. CASE PRESENTATION: We describe a patient with treatment-resistant major depression, which had been ongoing for 14 years but disappeared shortly after onset of a subarachnoid hemorrhage. Her cognitive function and functional status were mostly unaffected by the stroke. However, she no longer excessively regretted past events...
October 19, 2016: BMC Neurology
Xuemei Lei, Chuansheng Chen, Chunhui Chen, Qinghua He, Robert K Moyzis, Gui Xue, Qi Dong
Cooperativeness is an essential behavioral trait evolved to facilitate group living. Social and cognitive mechanisms involved in cooperation (e.g., motivation, reward encoding, action evaluation, and executive functions) are sub-served by the striatal-projected circuits, whose physical existence has been confirmed by animal studies, human postmortem studies, and in vivo human brain studies. The current study investigated the associations between Cooperativeness and fiber connectivities from the striatum to nine subcortical and cortical regions, including the amygdala, hippocampus, medial orbitofrontal cortex, lateral orbitofrontal cortex, ventrolateral prefrontal cortex, dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, posterior cingulate cortex/retrosplenial cortex, dorsal cingulate cortex, and rostral cingulate cortex...
2016: PloS One
Eunsoo Won, Sunyoung Choi, June Kang, Min-Soo Lee, Byung-Joo Ham
BACKGROUND: Orbitofrontal cortex alterations have been suggested to underlie the impaired mood regulation in depression. MAOA-uVNTR (monoamine oxidase A-upstream variable number of tandem repeats) polymorphism has been reported to be associated with major depressive disorder by various studies. The influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on function and structure of the orbitofrontal cortex has previously been reported. In this study, we investigated the difference in orbitofrontal cortex thickness between medication-naïve female patients with major depressive disorder and healthy controls, and the influence of MAOA-uVNTR genotype on orbitofrontal cortex thickness in depression...
2016: Annals of General Psychiatry
Zewei Wang, Qing Yang, Li Min Chen
The goals of this study are to characterize the temporal dynamics of inter-regional connectivity of the brain in chronic headache (CH) patients versus their age/gender matched controls (CONCH, n=28 pairs), and to determine whether dynamic measures reveal additional features to static functional connectivity and correlate with psychometric scores. Cortical thickness and inter-regional resting state fMRI connectivity were quantified and compared between CH and CONCH groups. Six cortical regions of interest (ROI) pairs that exhibited correlated cortical thickness and static functional connectivity abnormalities were selected for temporal dynamic analysis...
October 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
M S Patton, D J Lodge, D A Morilak, M Girotti
Deficits in cognitive flexibility are prominent in stress-related psychiatric disorders, including depression. Ketamine has rapid antidepressant efficacy, but it is unknown if ketamine improves cognitive symptoms. In rats, 2 weeks chronic intermittent cold (CIC) stress impairs reversal learning, a form of cognitive flexibility mediated by the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) that we have used previously to model cognitive dysfunction in depression. We have shown that activating JAK2/STAT3 signaling in the OFC rescued the CIC stress-induced reversal learning deficit...
October 17, 2016: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
Andrew C Lynn, Aarthi Padmanabhan, Daniel Simmonds, William Foran, Michael N Hallquist, Beatriz Luna, Kirsten O'Hearn
Face recognition abilities improve between adolescence and adulthood over typical development (TD), but plateau in autism, leading to increasing face recognition deficits in autism later in life. Developmental differences between autism and TD may reflect changes between neural systems involved in the development of face encoding and recognition. Here, we focused on whole-brain connectivity with the fusiform face area (FFA), a well-established face-preferential brain region. Older children, adolescents, and adults with and without autism completed the Cambridge Face Memory Test, and a matched car memory test, during fMRI scanning...
October 16, 2016: Developmental Science
D P Devanand
Several recently developed biomarkers of Alzheimer disease (AD) are invasive, expensive, and difficult to obtain in most clinical settings. Olfactory identification test performance represents a noninvasive, inexpensive biomarker of AD that may have predictive accuracy comparable with neuroimaging measures and biomarkers assessed in cerebrospinal fluid. Neurofibrillary tangles in the olfactory bulb are among the earliest pathologic features of AD and are also seen in the projection pathways from the olfactory bulb to secondary olfactory brain regions, including the piriform and medial temporal cortex, orbitofrontal cortex, and other limbic regions...
August 17, 2016: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
Wei Cheng, Edmund T Rolls, Jiang Qiu, Wei Liu, Yanqing Tang, Chu-Chung Huang, XinFa Wang, Jie Zhang, Wei Lin, Lirong Zheng, JunCai Pu, Shih-Jen Tsai, Albert C Yang, Ching-Po Lin, Fei Wang, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
The first brain-wide voxel-level resting state functional connectivity neuroimaging analysis of depression is reported, with 421 patients with major depressive disorder and 488 control subjects. Resting state functional connectivity between different voxels reflects correlations of activity between those voxels and is a fundamental tool in helping to understand the brain regions with altered connectivity and function in depression. One major circuit with altered functional connectivity involved the medial orbitofrontal cortex Brodmann area 13, which is implicated in reward, and which had reduced functional connectivity in depression with memory systems in the parahippocampal gyrus and medial temporal lobe, especially involving the perirhinal cortex Brodmann area 36 and entorhinal cortex Brodmann area 28...
October 14, 2016: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
Xabier Urra, Carlos Laredo, Yashu Zhao, Sergio Amaro, Salvatore Rudilosso, Arturo Renú, Alberto Prats-Galino, Anna M Planas, Laura Oleaga, Ángel Chamorro
BACKGROUND: Infections represent the most frequent medical complications in stroke patients. Their main determinants are dysphagia and a transient state of immunodepression. We analyzed whether distinct anatomical brain regions were associated with the occurrence of stroke-associated infections or immunodepression. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 106 patients with acute ischemic stroke, we evaluated the incidence of pneumonia, urinary tract infection, or other infections together with the characterization of biomarkers of immunodepression...
October 11, 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
T Y Brumback, Matthew Worley, Tam T Nguyen-Louie, Lindsay M Squeglia, Joanna Jacobus, Susan F Tapert
Adolescence is a period marked by increases in risk taking, sensation seeking, and emotion dysregulation. Neurobiological models of adolescent development propose that lagging development in brain regions associated with affect and behavior control compared to regions associated with reward and emotion processing may underlie these behavioral manifestations. Cross-sectional studies have identified several functional brain networks that may contribute to risk for substance use and psychopathology in adolescents...
November 2016: Development and Psychopathology
Ying-Wei Qiu, Xiao-Fei Lv, Gui-Hua Jiang, Huan-Huan Su, Xiao-Fen Ma, Jun-Zhang Tian, Fu-Zhen Zhuo
Adolescence is a unique period in neurodevelopment. Dextromethorphan (DXM)-containing cough syrups are new addictive drugs used by adolescents and young adults. The effects of chronic DXM abuse on neurodevelopment in adolescents and young adults are still unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate the differences in cortical thickness and subcortical gray matter volumes between DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults and healthy controls, and to explore relationships between alternations in cortical thickness/subcortical volume and DXM duration, initial age of DXM use, as well as impulsive behavior in DXM-dependent adolescents and young adults...
October 13, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Leticia Ramírez-Lugo, Ana Peñas-Rincón, Sandybel Ángeles-Durán, Francisco Sotres-Bayon
: The ability to select an appropriate behavioral response guided by previous emotional experiences is critical for survival. Although much is known about brain mechanisms underlying emotional associations, little is known about how these associations guide behavior when several choices are available. To address this, we performed local pharmacological inactivations of several cortical regions before retrieval of an aversive memory in choice-based versus no-choice-based conditioned taste aversion (CTA) tasks in rats...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
Naomi Onisawa, Hiroyuki Manabe, Kensaku Mori
During slow-wave sleep, inter-areal communications via coordinated slow oscillatory activities occur in the large-scale networks of the mammalian neocortex. Because olfactory cortex (OC) areas, which belong to paleocortex, show characteristic sharp-wave activity during slow-wave sleep, we examined whether OC sharp-waves in freely behaving rats occur in temporal coordination with up- and down-states of the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) slow oscillation. Simultaneous recordings of local field potentials and spike activities in the OC and OFC showed that during the down-state in the OFC, the OC also exhibited down-state with greatly reduced neuronal activity and suppression of sharp-wave generation...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Andrew M Wright, Agustin Zapata, Michael H Baumann, Joshua S Elmore, Alexander F Hoffman, Carl R Lupica
Clinical descriptions of cocaine addiction include compulsive drug seeking and maladaptive decision-making despite substantial aversive consequences. Research suggests that this may result from altered orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function and its participation in outcome-based behavior. Clinical and animal studies also implicate serotonin in the regulation of OFC function in addiction and other neuropsychiatric disorders. Here we test the hypothesis that exposure to cocaine, through self-administration (CSA) or yoked-administration (CYA), alters the regulation of OFC function by 5-HT...
October 12, 2016: Cerebral Cortex
Amir M Arain, Nabil J Azar, Andre H Lagrange, Michael McLean, Pradumna Singh, Hasan Sonmezturk, Peter Konrad, Joseph Neimat, Bassel Abou-Khalil
RATIONALE: Hypermotor seizures are most often reported from the frontal lobe but may also have temporal, parietal, or insular origin. We noted a higher proportion of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy in our surgical cohort who had hypermotor seizures. We evaluated the anatomic localization and surgical outcome in patient with refractory hypermotor seizures who had epilepsy surgery in our center. METHODS: We identified twenty three patients with refractory hypermotor seizures from our epilepsy surgery database...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Saul Martinez-Horta, Frederic Sampedro, Javier Pagonabarraga, Ramón Fernandez-Bobadilla, Juan Marin-Lahoz, Jordi Riba, Jaime Kulisevsky
Apathy is a common but poorly understood neuropsychiatric disturbance in Parkinson's disease (PD). In a recent study using event-related brain potentials we demonstrated impaired reward processing and compromised mesocortico-limbic pathways in PD patients with clinical symptoms of apathy. Here we aimed to further investigate the involvement of reward circuits in apathetic PD patients by assessing potential differences in brain structure. Using structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and voxel-based morphometry (VBM) we quantified grey matter volume (GMV) in a sample of 18 non-demented and non-depressed PD patients with apathy, and 18 matched non-apathetic patients...
October 11, 2016: Brain Imaging and Behavior
Xu Ling-Zhi, Xu De-Feng, Han Ying, Liu Li-Jing, Sun Cheng-Yu, Deng Jia-Hui, Zhang Ruo-Xi, Yuan Ming, Zhang Su-Zhen, Li Zhi-Meng, Xu Yi, Li Jin-Sheng, Xie Su-Hua, Li Su-Xia, Zhang Hong-Yan, Lu Lin
BACKGROUND: Morinda officinalis oligosaccharides (MOs) have been reported to exert neuroprotective and antidepressant-like effects in the forced swim test (FST) in mice. However, the mechanisms that underlie the antidepressant-like effects of MOs are unclear. METHODS: Chronic unpredictable stress (CUS) and FST were used to explore the antidepressant-like effects of MOs and resilience to stress in rats. The PI3K inhibitor LY294002 was microinjected in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) to explore the role of GSK-3β in the antidepressant-like effects of MOs...
October 11, 2016: International Journal of Neuropsychopharmacology
Erin A Brosey, Neil D Woodward
BACKGROUND: Aberrations in body perception are common in psychotic disorders. The insula and temporoparietal junction (TPJ) are involved in body ownership and spatial perception suggesting that abnormal structure of these regions might be related to the expression of perceptual aberrations in psychosis. METHODS: 58 individuals with a primary psychotic disorder and 40 healthy subjects completed the Chapman Perceptual Aberration Scale (PAS) and underwent structural magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)...
October 8, 2016: Schizophrenia Research
Alexander Frizell Santillo, Karl Lundblad, Markus Nilsson, Maria Landqvist Waldö, Danielle van Westen, Jimmy Lätt, Erik Blennow Nordström, Susanna Vestberg, Olof Lindberg, Christer Nilsson
Disinhibition is an important symptom in neurodegenerative diseases. However, the clinico-anatomical underpinnings remain controversial. We explored the anatomical correlates of disinhibition in neurodegenerative disease using the perspective of grey and white matter imaging. Disinhibition was assessed with a neuropsychological test and a caregiver information-based clinical rating scale in 21 patients with prefrontal syndromes due to behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (n = 12) or progressive supranuclear palsy (n = 9), and healthy controls (n = 25)...
2016: PloS One
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