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Adina S Fischer, M Catalina Camacho, Tiffany C Ho, Susan Whitfield-Gabrieli, Ian H Gotlib
Importance: Adolescence is a neurodevelopmental period during which experience-dependent plasticity in brain circuitry may confer vulnerability to depression as well as resilience to disorder. Little is known, however, about the neural mechanisms that underlie resilience during this critical period of brain development. Objective: To examine neural functional connectivity correlates of resilience in adolescent females at high and low familial risk for depression who did and did not develop the disorder...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Seng Bum Michael Yoo, Brianna J Sleezer, Benjamin Y Hayden
Knowing whether core reward regions carry information about the positions of relevant objects is crucial for adjudicating between choice models. One limitation of previous studies, including our own, is that spatial positions can be consistently differentially associated with rewards, and thus, position can be confounded with attention, motor plans, or target identity. We circumvented these problems by using a task in which value-and thus choices-was determined solely by a frequently changing rule, which was randomized relative to spatial position on each trial...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience
Chris Baeken, Romain Duprat, Guo-Rong Wu, Rudi De Raedt, Kees van Heeringen
BACKGROUND: Accelerated repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation paradigms have been shown to result in fast decreases in depressive symptoms and suicidal ideation. Although the subgenual anterior cingulate cortex (sgACC) region has been put forward as a possible biological marker, so far, no studies evaluated the clinical effects of accelerated intermittent theta burst stimulation (aiTBS) on sgACC functional connectivity (FC). METHODS: Fifty patients with treatment-resistant depression were enrolled in this registered randomized double-blind sham-controlled crossover aiTBS treatment study...
October 2017: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Jing-Li Yue, Peng Li, Le Shi, Xiao Lin, Hong-Qiang Sun, Lin Lu
Background: The "dysconnectivity hypothesis" was proposed 20 years ago. It characterized schizophrenia as a disorder with dysfunctional connectivity across a large range of distributed brain areas. Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rsfMRI) data have supported this theory. Previous studies revealed that the amygdala might be responsible for the emotion regulation-related symptoms of schizophrenia. However, conventional methods oversimplified brain activities by assuming that it remained static throughout the entire scan duration, which may explain why inconsistent results have been reported for the same brain region...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Joan L Luby, Arpana Agrawal, Andy Belden, Diana Whalen, Rebecca Tillman, Deanna M Barch
OBJECTIVE: Deficits in reward processing are established in mood and substance use disorders and are known risk factors for these disorders. Volume reductions of the orbitofrontal cortex and the striatum, regions that subserve neural response to reward, have been shown to be related to anhedonia in depressive and substance use disorders. The authors sought to investigate how structural maturation of these regions in childhood varies with level of anhedonia and predicts later substance use...
March 21, 2018: American Journal of Psychiatry
Max M Owens, Bryant Duda, Lawrence H Sweet, James MacKillop
Working memory (WM), the short-term abstraction and manipulation of information, is an essential neurocognitive process in daily functioning. Few studies have concurrently examined the functional and structural neural correlates of WM and the current study did so to characterize both overlapping and unique associations. Participants were a large sample of adults from the Human Connectome Project (N = 1064; 54% female) who completed an in-scanner visual N-back WM task. The results indicate a clear dissociation between BOLD activation during the WM task and brain structure in relation to performance...
March 15, 2018: NeuroImage
Anders Lillevik Thorsen, Pernille Hagland, Joaquim Radua, David Mataix-Cols, Gerd Kvale, Bjarne Hansen, Odile A van den Heuvel
BACKGROUND: Patients with obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) experience aversive emotions in response to obsessions, motivating avoidance and compulsive behaviors. However, there is considerable ambiguity regarding the brain circuitry involved in emotional processing in OCD, especially whether activation is altered in the amygdala. METHODS: We conducted a systematic literature review and performed a meta-analysis-seed-based d mapping-of 25 whole-brain neuroimaging studies (including 571 patients and 564 healthy control subjects) using functional magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography, comparing brain activation of patients with OCD and healthy control subjects during presentation of emotionally valenced versus neutral stimuli...
February 3, 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Noa Tsujii, Wakako Mikawa, Toru Adachi, Tomoyuki Hirose, Osamu Shirakawa
Schizophrenia (SZ) and bipolar I disorder (BD-I) share genetic risk factors and cognitive impairments, but these conditions may exhibit differences in cortical functioning associated with inhibitory control. We measured hemodynamic responses during a stop-signal task using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) in 20 patients with SZ, 21 patients with BD-I and 18 healthy controls (HCs). We used stop-signal reaction time (SSRT) to estimate behavioural inhibition. Compared with HCs, patients with either SZ or BD-I exhibited significantly reduced activation in the bilateral inferior, middle and superior frontal gyri...
March 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Elizabeth G Pitts, Dan C Li, Shannon L Gourley
Specific corticostriatal structures and circuits are important for flexibly shifting between goal-oriented versus habitual behaviors. For example, the orbitofrontal cortex and dorsomedial striatum are critical for goal-directed action, while the dorsolateral striatum supports habits. To determine the role of neurotrophin signaling, we overexpressed a truncated, inactive form of tropomyosin receptor kinase B [also called tyrosine receptor kinase B (TrkB)], the high-affinity receptor for Brain-derived Neurotrophic Factor, in the orbitofrontal cortex, dorsomedial striatum and dorsolateral striatum...
March 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Bei-Bei Wu, Ye Ma, Lei Xie, Jin-Zhuang Huang, Zong-Bo Sun, Zhi-Duo Hou, Rui-Wei Guo, Zhi-Rong Lin, Shou-Xing Duan, Shan-Shan Zhao, Yao-Xie, Dan-Miao Sun, Chun-Min Zhu, Shu-Hua Ma
BACKGROUND: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is associated with cognitive deficit but the exact neural mechanisms remain unclear. PURPOSE: To explore sequential brain activities using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) during the performance of a decision-making task, and to determine whether serum or clinical markers can reflect the involvement of the brain in SLE. SUBJECTS: Sixteen female SLE patients without overt clinical neuropsychiatric symptoms and 16 healthy controls were included...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
Linqiong Sang, Lin Chen, Li Wang, Jingna Zhang, Ye Zhang, Pengyue Li, Chuanming Li, Mingguo Qiu
Cognitive impairment caused by subcortical ischemic vascular disease (SIVD) has been elucidated by many neuroimaging studies. However, little is known regarding the changes in brain functional connectivity networks in relation to the severity of cognitive impairment in SIVD. In the present study, 20 subcortical ischemic vascular cognitive impairment no dementia patients (SIVCIND) and 20 dementia patients (SIVaD) were enrolled; additionally, 19 normal controls were recruited. Each participant underwent a resting-state functional MRI scan...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Yang Xie, Chechang Nie, Tianming Yang
During value-based decision making, we often evaluate the value of each option sequentially by shifting our attention, even when the options are presented simultaneously. The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has been suggested to encode value during value-based decision making. Yet it is not known how its activity is modulated by attention shifts. We investigated this question by employing a passive viewing task that allowed us to disentangle effects of attention, value, choice and eye movement. We found that the attention modulated OFC activity through a winner-take-all mechanism...
March 13, 2018: ELife
Deokjong Lee, Jinsick Park, Kee Namkoong, In Young Kim, Young-Chul Jung
Background and aims Altered risk/reward decision-making is suggested to predispose individuals with Internet gaming disorder (IGD) to pursue short-term pleasure, despite long-term negative consequences. The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play important roles in risk/reward decision-making. This study investigated gray matter differences in the ACC and OFC of young adults with and without IGD using surface-based morphometry (SBM). Methods We examined 45 young male adults with IGD and 35 age-matched male controls...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Behavioral Addictions
Edmund T Rolls, Wei Cheng, Matthieu Gilson, Jiang Qiu, Zicheng Hu, Hongtao Ruan, Yu Li, Chu-Chung Huang, Albert C Yang, Shih-Jen Tsai, Xiaodong Zhang, Kaixiang Zhuang, Ching-Po Lin, Gustavo Deco, Peng Xie, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Resting-state functional connectivity reflects correlations in the activity between brain areas, whereas effective connectivity between different brain areas measures directed influences of brain regions on each other. Using the latter approach, we compare effective connectivity results in patients with major depressive disorder (MDD) and control subjects. METHODS: We used a new approach to the measurement of effective connectivity, in which each brain area has a simple dynamical model, and known anatomical connectivity is used to provide constraints...
February 2018: Biological Psychiatry: Cognitive Neuroscience and Neuroimaging
Nerisa Banaj, Federica Piras, Fabrizio Piras, Valentina Ciullo, Mariangela Iorio, Claudia Battaglia, Donatella Pantoli, Giuseppe Ducci, Gianfranco Spalletta
The brain structural correlates of cognitive and psychopathological symptoms within the active phase in severely psychotic schizophrenic inpatients have been rarely investigated. Twenty-eight inpatients with a DSM-5 diagnosis of Schizophrenia (SZ), admitted for acute psychotic decompensation, were assessed through a comprehensive neuropsychological and psychopathological battery. All patients underwent a high-resolution T1-weighted magnetic resonance imaging investigation. Increased psychotic severity was related to reduced grey matter volumes in the medial portion of the right superior frontal cortex, the superior orbitofrontal cortex bilaterally and to white matter volume reduction in the medial portion of the left superior frontal area...
June 2018: Schizophrenia Research. Cognition
Marisa A Patti, Vanessa Troiani
Atypical sulcogyral patterns in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) are associated with increased risk for schizophrenia, as well as with quantitative traits associated with schizophrenia, such as anhedonia. Here we conduct a cross-diagnostic comparison to assess whether atypical OFC sulcogyral patterns confer risk for multiple brain disorders. We examined structural images from 4 groups of adult participants (N = 189), including those diagnosed with schizophrenia (SZ; N = 49), bipolar disorder (BP; N = 46), attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD; N = 41), and controls (N = 53)...
2018: NeuroImage: Clinical
Maike A Hege, Ralf Veit, Jan Krumsiek, Stephanie Kullmann, Martin Heni, Peter J Rogers, Jeffrey M Brunstrom, Andreas Fritsche, Hubert Preissl
Obesity develops due to an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure. Besides the decision about what to eat, daily energy intake might be even more dependent on the decision about the portion size to be consumed. For decisions between different foods, attentional focus is considered to play a key role in the choice selection. In the current study, we investigated the attentional modulation of portion size selection during pre-meal planning. We designed a functional magnetic resonance task in which healthy participants were directed to adopt different mindsets while selecting their portion size for lunch...
March 7, 2018: Appetite
Monika J M Murphy, Ariel Y Deutch
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) is usually defined as the frontal cortical area receiving a mediodorsal thalamic innervation. Certain areas in the medial wall of the rat frontal area receive an MD innervation. A second frontal area that is the target of MD projections is located dorsal to the rhinal sulcus and often referred to as the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC). Both the mPFC and OFC are comprised of a large number of cytoarchitectonic regions. We assessed the afferent innervation of the different areas of the OFC, with a focus on projections arising from the mediodorsal thalamic nucleus, the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala, and the midbrain dopamine neurons...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Comparative Neurology
Kevin T Chen, Stephanie Salcedo, Daniel B Chonde, David Izquierdo-Garcia, Michael A Levine, Julie C Price, Bradford C Dickerson, Ciprian Catana
BACKGROUND: Subject motion in positron emission tomography (PET) studies leads to image blurring and artifacts; simultaneously acquired magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) data provides a means for motion correction (MC) in integrated PET/MRI scanners. PURPOSE: To assess the effect of realistic head motion and MR-based MC on static [18 F]-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET images in dementia patients. STUDY TYPE: Observational study. POPULATION: Thirty dementia subjects were recruited...
March 8, 2018: Journal of Magnetic Resonance Imaging: JMRI
William I A Haynes, Anne-Hélène Clair, Sara Fernandez-Vidal, Bahar Gholipour, Margot Morgiève, Luc Mallet
BACKGROUND: Current neurocognitive models suppose dysfunctions of associative and limbic cortico-basal ganglia circuits to be at the core of obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). As little is known about the state of underlying anatomical connections, we investigated whether these connections were reduced and/or not properly organised in OCD patients compared to control. METHODS: Diffusion magnetic resonance images were obtained in 37 OCD patients with predominant checking symptoms and 37 matched healthy controls...
March 4, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
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