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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27911319/autotaxin-is-related-to-metabolic-dysfunction-and-predicts-alzheimer-s-disease-outcomes
#1
Kelsey E McLimans, Auriel A Willette
BACKGROUND: Obesity and insulin resistance are associated with neuropathology and cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). OBJECTIVE: Ecto-nucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2, also called autotaxin, is produced by beige adipose tissue, regulates metabolism, and is higher in AD prefrontal cortex (PFC). Autotaxin may be a novel biomarker of dysmetabolism and AD. METHODS: We studied Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants who were cognitively normal (CN; n = 86) or had mild cognitive impairment (MCI; n = 135) or AD (n = 66)...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905080/a-neural-model-of-normal-and-abnormal-learning-and-memory-consolidation-adaptively-timed-conditioning-hippocampus-amnesia-neurotrophins-and-consciousness
#2
Daniel J Franklin, Stephen Grossberg
How do the hippocampus and amygdala interact with thalamocortical systems to regulate cognitive and cognitive-emotional learning? Why do lesions of thalamus, amygdala, hippocampus, and cortex have differential effects depending on the phase of learning when they occur? In particular, why is the hippocampus typically needed for trace conditioning, but not delay conditioning, and what do the exceptions reveal? Why do amygdala lesions made before or immediately after training decelerate conditioning while those made later do not? Why do thalamic or sensory cortical lesions degrade trace conditioning more than delay conditioning? Why do hippocampal lesions during trace conditioning experiments degrade recent but not temporally remote learning? Why do orbitofrontal cortical lesions degrade temporally remote but not recent or post-lesion learning? How is temporally graded amnesia caused by ablation of prefrontal cortex after memory consolidation? How are attention and consciousness linked during conditioning? How do neurotrophins, notably brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), influence memory formation and consolidation? Is there a common output path for learned performance? A neural model proposes a unified answer to these questions that overcome problems of alternative memory models...
November 30, 2016: Cognitive, Affective & Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27903440/auditory-cortical-delta-entrainment-interacts-with-oscillatory-power-in-multiple-fronto-parietal-networks
#3
Anne Keitel, Robin A A Ince, Joachim Gross, Christoph Kayser
The timing of slow auditory cortical activity aligns to the rhythmic fluctuations in speech. This entrainment is considered to be a marker of the prosodic and syllabic encoding of speech, and has been shown to correlate with intelligibility. Yet, whether and how auditory cortical entrainment is influenced by the activity in other speech-relevant areas remains unknown. Using source-localized MEG data, we quantified the dependency of auditory entrainment on the state of oscillatory activity in fronto-parietal regions...
November 26, 2016: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877103/neural-underpinnings-of-decision-strategy-selection-a-review-and-a-theoretical-model
#4
Szymon Wichary, Tomasz Smolen
In multi-attribute choice, decision makers use decision strategies to arrive at the final choice. What are the neural mechanisms underlying decision strategy selection? The first goal of this paper is to provide a literature review on the neural underpinnings and cognitive models of decision strategy selection and thus set the stage for a neurocognitive model of this process. The second goal is to outline such a unifying, mechanistic model that can explain the impact of noncognitive factors (e.g., affect, stress) on strategy selection...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876668/activation-of-the-orbitofrontal-and-anterior-cingulate-cortices-during-the-expression-of-a-naturalistic-compulsive-like-behavior-in-the-rabbit
#5
Hugo Cano-Ramírez, Kurt L Hoffman
We propose that maternal nest building in the female laboratory rabbit is a useful model for compulsions in obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD). This repetitive behavior comprises collecting straw, depositing it into the nest box, and then returning to collect more straw. We reasoned that if "straw carrying" behavior is homologous to compulsive behavior, then it should be associated with activation of prefrontal regions associated with OCD, namely, the orbitofrontal and anterior cingulate cortices (OFC and ACC, respectively)...
November 19, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876444/the-functional-neuroanatomy-of-verbal-memory-in-alzheimer-s-disease-18-f-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose-positron-emission-tomography-fdg-pet-correlates-of-recency-and-recognition-memory
#6
Adam M Staffaroni, Rebecca J Melrose, Lorraine P Leskin, Hannah Riskin-Jones, Dylan Harwood, Mark Mandelkern, David L Sultzer
INTRODUCTION: The objective of this study was to distinguish the functional neuroanatomy of verbal learning and recognition in Alzheimer's disease (AD) using the Consortium to Establish a Registry for Alzheimer's Disease (CERAD) Word Learning task. METHOD: In 81 Veterans diagnosed with dementia due to AD, we conducted a cluster-based correlation analysis to assess the relationships between recency and recognition memory scores from the CERAD Word Learning Task and cortical metabolic activity measured using [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-D-glucose positron emission tomography (FDG-PET)...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873466/cortical-folding-in-post-traumatic-stress-disorder-after-motor-vehicle-accidents-regional-differences-in-gyrification
#7
Chun Chu, Mingguo Qiu, Kaijun Liu, Liwen Tan, Yi Wu, Bing Xie, Wei Chen, Shaoxiang Zhang
AIM: Structural and functional magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies have revealed evidence of brain abnormalities in post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) patients. Cortical complexity and local gyrification index (lGI) reflects potential biological processes associated with normal or abnormal cognitive functioning. In the current study, lGI is used to explore cortical folding in PTSD patients involved in motor vehicle accidents (MVCs). METHODS: MRI brain scans were acquired from 18PTSD patients who suffered MVCs at least 6 months previously and 18 healthy control subjects...
November 21, 2016: Psychiatry and Clinical Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872027/how-the-emotional-motor-system-controls-the-pelvic-organs
#8
REVIEW
Gert Holstege
INTRODUCTION: The brain has two goals: survival of the individual and survival of the species. It ensures that the body resides in safe circumstances and can obtain sufficient drink and food. It also has to produce and protect offspring. Its most important tool is its motor system, which consists of the voluntary and emotional motor systems. AIM: To explain how the brain uses its emotional motor system to control the pelvic organs. METHODS: Anatomic and physiologic data in cats and humans are used to find out how this motor system works and what parts of the brain and brainstem are involved...
October 2016: Sexual Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871669/induction-and-blockade-of-adolescent-cocaine-induced-habits
#9
Lauren M DePoy, Kelsey S Zimmermann, Paul J Marvar, Shannon L Gourley
BACKGROUND: Cocaine use during adolescence increases vulnerability to drug dependence and decreases the likelihood that individuals will seek treatment as adults. Understanding how early-life cocaine exposure influences decision-making processes in adulthood is thus critically important. METHODS: Adolescent or adult mice were exposed to subchronic cocaine, then behavioral sensitivity to changes in the predictive relationship between actions and their consequences was tested...
October 6, 2016: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871020/altered-functional-connectivity-of-interoception-in-illness-anxiety-disorder
#10
Dario Grossi, Mariachiara Longarzo, Mario Quarantelli, Elena Salvatore, Carlo Cavaliere, Paolofabrizio De Luca, Luigi Trojano, Marco Aiello
Interoception collects all information coming from the body and is sustained by several brain areas such as insula and cingulate cortex. Here, we used resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging to investigate functional connectivity (FC) of networks implied in interoception in patients with Illness anxiety disorders (IADs). We observed significantly reduced FC between the left extrastriate body area (EBA) and the paracentral lobule compared to healthy controls. Moreover, the correlation analysis between behavioural questionnaires and ROI to ROI FC showed that higher levels of illness anxiety were related to hyper-connectivity between EBA and amygdala and hippocampus...
November 5, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27870392/brain-circuitry-associated-with-the-development-of-substance-use-in-bipolar-disorder-and-preliminary-evidence-for-sexual-dimorphism-in-adolescents
#11
Elizabeth T C Lippard, Carolyn M Mazure, Jennifer A Y Johnston, Linda Spencer, Judah Weathers, Brian Pittman, Fei Wang, Hilary P Blumberg
Substance use disorders and mood disorders are highly comorbid and confer a high risk for adverse outcomes. However, data are limited on the neurodevelopmental basis of this comorbidity. Substance use initiation typically occurs during adolescence, and sex-specific developmental mechanisms are implicated. In this preliminary study, we review the literature and investigate regional gray matter volume (GMV) associated with subsequent substance use problems in adolescents with bipolar disorder (BD) and explore these associations for females and males...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869301/cerebral-amyloid-deposition-is-associated-with-gait-parameters-in-the-mayo-clinic-study-of-aging
#12
Alexandra M V Wennberg, Rodolfo Savica, Clinton E Hagen, Rosebud O Roberts, David S Knopman, John H Hollman, Prashanthi Vemuri, Clifford R Jack, Ronald C Petersen, Michelle M Mielke
OBJECTIVES: To determine the cross-sectional association between cerebral amyloid-beta (Aβ) deposition and gait. DESIGN: Cross-sectional. SETTING: Population-based cohort study in Olmsted County, MN. PARTICIPANTS: Cognitively normal individuals (n = 611), aged 50 to 69 years, enrolled in the Mayo Clinic Study of Aging with concurrent PiB-PET imaging and gait assessment. Participants with a history of stroke, alcoholism, Parkinson's disease, subdural hematoma, traumatic brain injury, or normal pressure hydrocephalus were excluded...
November 21, 2016: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866999/the-5-ht1a-1b-receptor-agonist-eltoprazine-increases-both-catecholamine-release-in-the-prefrontal-cortex-and-dopamine-release-in-the-nucleus-accumbens-and-decreases-motivation-for-reward-and-waiting-impulsivity-but-increases-stopping-impulsivity
#13
S Mechiel Korte, Jolanda Prins, Filip S Van den Bergh, Ronald S Oosting, Rudy Dupree, Gerdien A H Korte-Bouws, Koen G C Westphal, Berend Olivier, Damiaan A Denys, Alexis Garland, Onur Güntürkün
The 5-HT1A/1B-receptor agonist eltoprazine has a behavioral drug signature that resembles that of a variety of psychostimulant drugs, despite the differences in receptor binding profile. These psychostimulants are effective in treating impulsivity disorders, most likely because they increase norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels in the prefrontal cortex. Both amphetamine and methylphenidate, however, also increase dopamine levels in the nucleus accumbens (NAc), which has a significant role in motivation, pleasure, and reward...
November 17, 2016: European Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866120/evidence-based-guidelines-on-the-therapeutic-use-of-transcranial-direct-current-stimulation-tdcs
#14
REVIEW
Jean-Pascal Lefaucheur, Andrea Antal, Samar S Ayache, David H Benninger, Jérôme Brunelin, Filippo Cogiamanian, Maria Cotelli, Dirk De Ridder, Roberta Ferrucci, Berthold Langguth, Paola Marangolo, Veit Mylius, Michael A Nitsche, Frank Padberg, Ulrich Palm, Emmanuel Poulet, Alberto Priori, Simone Rossi, Martin Schecklmann, Sven Vanneste, Ulf Ziemann, Luis Garcia-Larrea, Walter Paulus
A group of European experts was commissioned by the European Chapter of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology to gather knowledge about the state of the art of the therapeutic use of transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) from studies published up until September 2016, regarding pain, Parkinson's disease, other movement disorders, motor stroke, poststroke aphasia, multiple sclerosis, epilepsy, consciousness disorders, Alzheimer's disease, tinnitus, depression, schizophrenia, and craving/addiction...
October 29, 2016: Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865039/alcohol-consumption-during-adolescence-is-associated-with-reduced-grey-matter-volumes
#15
Noora Heikkinen, Eini Niskanen, Mervi Könönen, Tommi Tolmunen, Virve Kekkonen, Petri Kivimäki, Heikki Tanila, Eila Laukkanen, Ritva Vanninen
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cognitive impairment has been associated with excessive alcohol use but its neural basis is poorly understood. Chronic excessive alcohol use in adolescence may lead to neuronal loss and volumetric changes in the brain. Our objective was to compare the grey matter volumes of heavy-drinking and light-drinking adolescents. DESIGN: Longitudinal study: heavy-drinking adolescents without an alcohol use disorder and their light-drinking controls were followed up using questionnaires at three time points over ten years...
November 19, 2016: Addiction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27864087/setting-the-occasion-for-adolescent-inhibitory-control
#16
Heidi C Meyer, David J Bucci
During adolescence, individuals experience a broad range of dynamic environments as they strive to establish independence. Learning to respond appropriately in both new and previously encountered environments requires that an individual identify and learn the meaning of cues indicating that a behavior is appropriate, or alternatively, that it should be altered or inhibited. Although the ability to regulate goal-directed behavior continues to develop across adolescence, the specific circumstances under which adolescents experience difficulty with inhibitory control remain unclear...
November 15, 2016: Neurobiology of Learning and Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862593/serotonergic-modulation-of-orbitofrontal-activity-and-its-relevance-for-decision-making-and-impulsivity
#17
Paraskevi Mavrogiorgou, Björn Enzi, Ann-Kristin Klimm, Elke Köhler, Patrik Roser, Christine Norra, Georg Juckel
BACKGROUND: The orbitofrontal cortex seems to play a crucial role in reward-guided learning and decision making, especially for impulsive choice procedures including delayed reward discounting. The central serotonergic system is closely involved in the regulation of impulsivity, but how the serotonergic firing rate and release, best investigated by the loudness dependence of auditory evoked potentials (LDAEP), interact with orbitofrontal activity is still unknown. METHODS: Twenty healthy volunteers (11 males, 9 females, 31...
November 11, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27859920/emotion-and-personal-space-neural-correlates-of-approach-avoidance-tendencies-to-different-facial-expressions-as-a-function-of-coldhearted-psychopathic-traits
#18
Joana B Vieira, Tamara P Tavares, Abigail A Marsh, Derek G V Mitchell
In social interactions, humans are expected to regulate interpersonal distance in response to the emotion displayed by others. Yet, the neural mechanisms implicated in approach-avoidance tendencies to distinct emotional expressions have not been fully described. Here, we investigated the neural systems implicated in regulating the distance to different emotions, and how they vary as a function of empathy. Twenty-three healthy participants assessed for psychopathic traits underwent fMRI scanning while they viewed approaching and withdrawing angry, fearful, happy, sad and neutral faces...
November 16, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27857686/novelty-seeking-harm-avoidance-and-cerebral-responses-to-conflict-anticipation-an-exploratory-study
#19
Jianping Hu, Sien Hu, Julianna R Maisano, Herta H Chao, Sheng Zhang, Chiang-Shan R Li
Proactive control allows us to maneuver a changing environment and individuals are distinct in how they anticipate and approach such changes. Here, we examined how individual differences in personality traits influence cerebral responses to conflict anticipation, a critical process of proactive control. We explored this issue in an fMRI study of the stop signal task, in which the probability of stop signal - p(Stop) - was computed trial by trial with a Bayesian model. Higher p(Stop) is associated with prolonged go trial reaction time, indicating conflict anticipation and proactive control of motor response...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27853425/interaction-effects-of-bdnf-and-comt-genes-on-resting-state-brain-activity-and-working-memory
#20
Wen Chen, Chunhui Chen, Mingrui Xia, Karen Wu, Chuansheng Chen, Qinghua He, Gui Xue, Wenjing Wang, Yong He, Qi Dong
Catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) genes have been found to interactively influence working memory (WM) as well as brain activation during WM tasks. However, whether the two genes have interactive effects on resting-state activities of the brain and whether these spontaneous activations correlate with WM are still unknown. This study included behavioral data from WM tasks and genetic data (COMT rs4680 and BDNF Val66Met) from 417 healthy Chinese adults and resting-state fMRI data from 298 of them...
2016: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
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