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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28109831/common-and-specific-abnormalities-in-cortical-thickness-in-patients-with-major-depressive-and-bipolar-disorders
#1
Meiqi Niu, Ying Wang, Yanbin Jia, Junjing Wang, Shuming Zhong, Jiabao Lin, Yao Sun, Ling Zhao, Xiaojin Liu, Li Huang, Ruiwang Huang
Major depressive disorder (MDD) and bipolar disorder (BD) are severe psychiatric diseases with overlapping symptomatology. Although previous studies reported abnormal brain structures in MDD or BD patients, the disorder-specific underlying neural mechanisms remain poorly understood. The purpose of this study was to investigate the whole-brain gray matter morphological patterns in unmedicated patients with MDD or BD and to identify the shared and disease-specific brain morphological alterations in these two disorders...
January 11, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104637/cortical-thickness-of-native-tibetans-in-the-qinghai-tibetan-plateau
#2
W Wei, X Wang, Q Gong, M Fan, J Zhang
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: High-altitude environmental factors and genetic variants together could have exerted their effects on the human brain. The present study was designed to investigate the cerebral morphology in high-altitude native Tibetans. MATERIALS AND METHODS: T1-weighted brain images were obtained from 77 Tibetan adolescents on the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau (altitude, 2300-5300 m) and 80 matched Han controls living at sea level. Cortical thickness, curvature, and sulcus were analyzed by using FreeSurfer...
January 19, 2017: AJNR. American Journal of Neuroradiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104309/heightened-cortical-excitability-in-aged-rodents-with-memory-impairment
#3
Rebecca P Haberman, Ming Teng Koh, Michela Gallagher
Elevated excitability in the hippocampus has emerged as a key contributor to reduced memory function in aging and in cognitive impairment prodromal to Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigated the relationship between neural activity and memory in the hippocampus and a connectional cortical network using an aged rat model of individual differences for memory impairment. The expression of cFos was used as a measure of pharmacologically induced neural activity. Aged memory-impaired rats exhibited elevated cFos relative to young adult and aged unimpaired rats in the CA3 subfield of the hippocampus and in several cortical regions including the retrosplenial, parietal, and orbitofrontal cortices...
January 3, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28104285/resisting-the-urge-to-act-dreadds-modifying-habits
#4
Mark A G Eldridge, Barry J Richmond
Recently, Meyer and Bucci used chemogenetic technology - artificial excitatory and inhibitory receptors - to modulate neuronal activity in two connected brain regions in opposite directions simultaneously. This innovative manipulation revealed that the two regions studied, orbitofrontal cortex and nucleus accumbens, are not sequentially dependent during contextual decision-making.
January 16, 2017: Trends in Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103527/distinct-cortico-striatal-connections-with-subthalamic-nucleus-underlie-facets-of-compulsivity
#5
Laurel S Morris, Kwangyeol Baek, Valerie Voon
The capacity to flexibly respond to contextual changes is crucial to adapting to a dynamic environment. Compulsivity, or behavioural inflexibility, consists of heterogeneous subtypes with overlapping yet discrete neural substrates. The subthalamic nucleus (STN) mediates the switch from automatic to controlled processing to slow, break or stop behaviour when necessary. Rodent STN lesions or inactivation are linked with perseveration or repetitive, compulsive responding. However, there are few studies examining the role of latent STN-centric neural networks and compulsive behaviour in healthy individuals...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101703/differences-in-cortical-sources-of-the-event-related-p3-potential-between-young-and-old-participants-indicate-frontal-compensation
#6
R van Dinteren, R J Huster, M L A Jongsma, R P C Kessels, M Arns
The event-related P3 potential, as elicited in auditory signal detection tasks, originates from neural activity of multiple cortical structures and presumably reflects an overlap of several cognitive processes. The fact that the P3 is affected by aging makes it a potential metric for age-related cognitive change. The P3 in older participants is thought to encompass frontal compensatory activity in addition to task-related processes. The current study investigates this by decomposing the P3 using group independent component analysis (ICA)...
January 18, 2017: Brain Topography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100688/the-use-of-oxytocin-to-improve-feeding-and-social-skills-in-infants-with-prader-willi-syndrome
#7
Maïthé Tauber, Kader Boulanouar, Gwenaelle Diene, Sophie Çabal-Berthoumieu, Virginie Ehlinger, Pascale Fichaux-Bourin, Catherine Molinas, Sandy Faye, Marion Valette, Jeanne Pourrinet, Catie Cessans, Sylvie Viaux-Sauvelon, Céline Bascoul, Antoine Guedeney, Patric Delhanty, Vincent Geenen, Henri Martens, Françoise Muscatelli, David Cohen, Angèle Consoli, Pierre Payoux, Catherine Arnaud, Jean-Pierre Salles
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Patients with Prader-Willi syndrome (PWS) display poor feeding and social skills as infants and fewer hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT)-producing neurons were documented in adults. Animal data demonstrated that early treatment with OXT restores sucking after birth. Our aim is to reproduce these data in infants with PWS. METHODS: We conducted a phase 2 escalating dose study of a short course (7 days) of intranasal OXT administration. We enrolled 18 infants with PWS under 6 months old (6 infants in each step) who received 4 IU of OXT either every other day, daily, or twice daily...
January 18, 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097738/enhanced-predictive-signalling-in-schizophrenia
#8
Katharina Schmack, Marcus Rothkirch, Josef Priller, Philipp Sterzer
Positive symptoms of schizophrenia such as delusions and hallucinations are thought to arise from an alteration in predictive mechanisms of the brain. Here, we empirically tested the hypothesis that schizophrenia is associated with an enhanced signalling of higher-level predictions that shape perception into conformity with acquired beliefs. Twenty-one patients with schizophrenia and twenty-eight healthy controls matched for age and gender took part in a functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) experiment that assessed the effect of an experimental manipulation of cognitive beliefs on the perception of an ambiguous visual motion stimulus...
January 18, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096672/a-biopsychological-review-of-gambling-disorder
#9
REVIEW
Gabriel C Quintero
The present review is an overview of previous experimental work on biopsychological aspects of gambling disorder. It includes the topics 1) gambling disorder from the neuroimaging and electroencephalography (EEG) perspective, 2) cognitive, executive functioning, and neuropsychological aspects of gambling disorder, and 3) rodent models of gambling disorder. Penalties and losses in gambling can differ in terms of brain activity. Also, specific patterns of brain activity, brain anatomical traits, EEG responses, and cognitive and executive performance can discriminate pathological gamblers from nonpathological gamblers...
2017: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28096495/memory-disrupting-effects-of-nonmuscle-myosin-ii-inhibition-depend-on-the-class-of-abused-drug-and-brain-region
#10
Sherri B Briggs, Ashley M Blouin, Erica J Young, Gavin Rumbaugh, Courtney A Miller
Depolymerizing actin in the amygdala through nonmuscle myosin II inhibition (NMIIi) produces a selective, lasting, and retrieval-independent disruption of the storage of methamphetamine-associated memories. Here we report a similar disruption of memories associated with amphetamine, but not cocaine or morphine, by NMIIi. Reconsolidation appeared to be disrupted with cocaine. Unlike in the amygdala, methamphetamine-associated memory storage was not disrupted by NMIIi in the hippocampus, nucleus accumbens, or orbitofrontal cortex...
February 2017: Learning & Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089025/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-and-the-orbitofrontal-regulation-of-behavior
#11
Trevor W Robbins
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 15, 2017: Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088652/convergence-of-interoception-emotion-and-social-cognition-a-twofold-fmri-meta-analysis-and-lesion-approach
#12
Federico Adolfi, Blas Couto, Fabian Richter, Jean Decety, Jessica Lopez, Mariano Sigman, Facundo Manes, Agustín Ibáñez
Guided by indirect evidence, recent approaches propose a tripartite crosstalk among interoceptive signaling, emotional regulation, and low-level social cognition. Here we examined the neurocognitive convergence of such domains. First, we performed three meta-analyses of functional magnetic resonance imaging studies to identify which areas are consistently coactivated by these three systems. Multi-level Kernel Density Analysis (MKDA) revealed major overlaps in the right anterior insular and frontotemporal regions (viz...
December 29, 2016: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087822/amygdala-and-hippocampus-are-symptomatogenic-zones-for-central-apneic-seizures
#13
Nuria Lacuey, Bilal Zonjy, Luisa Londono, Samden D Lhatoo
OBJECTIVE: To identify limbic sites of respiratory control in the human brain, and by extension, the symptomatogenic zone for central apnea. METHODS: We used direct stimulation of anatomically, precisely placed stereotactic EEG electrodes to analyze breathing responses. We prospectively studied 3 patients who were explored with stereotactically implanted depth electrodes. The amygdala and hippocampus, as well as extralimbic sites (orbitofrontal, temporal tip, and temporal neocortex), were investigated...
January 13, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28072384/impact-of-cerebellar-atrophy-on-cortical-gray-matter-and-cerebellar-peduncles-as-assessed-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-high-angular-resolution-diffusion-imaging
#14
Michael Dayan, G Olivito, M Molinari, Mara Cercignani, Marco Bozzali, M Leggio
In recent years the cerebellum has been attributed amore important role in higher-level functions than previously believed. We examined a cohort of patients suffering from cerebellar atrophy resulting in ataxia, with two main objectives: first to investigate which regions of the cerebrum were affected by the cerebellar degeneration, and second to assess whether diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) metrics within the medial (MCP) and superior cerebellar peduncle (SCP) - namely fractional anisotropy (FA) and radial diffusivity (RD) - could be used as a biomarker in patients with this condition...
October 2016: Functional Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069917/dopamine-modulates-the-functional-organization-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#15
Thorsten Kahnt, Philippe N Tobler
: Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons, and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain, and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069762/orbitofrontal-cortex-neurons-respond-to-sound-and-activate-primary-auditory-cortex-neurons
#16
Daniel E Winkowski, Daniel A Nagode, Kevin J Donaldson, Pingbo Yin, Shihab A Shamma, Jonathan B Fritz, Patrick O Kanold
Sensory environments change over a wide dynamic range and sensory processing can change rapidly to facilitate stable perception. While rapid changes may occur throughout the sensory processing pathway, cortical changes are believed to profoundly influence perception. Prior stimulation studies showed that orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) can modify receptive fields and sensory coding in A1, but the engagement of OFC during listening and the pathways mediating OFC influences on A1 are unknown. We show in mice that OFC neurons respond to sounds consistent with a role of OFC in audition...
January 8, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057724/preference-for-cocaine-is-represented-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-by-an-increased-proportion-of-cocaine-use-coding-neurons
#17
Karine Guillem, Serge H Ahmed
Cocaine addiction is a harmful preference for drug use over and at the expense of other nondrug-related activities. Here we identify in the rat orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) a mechanism that explains individual preferences between cocaine use and an alternative, nondrug action. OFC neuronal activity was recorded while rats performed each of these 2 actions separately or while they chose between them. First, we found that these actions are encoded by 2 nonoverlapping neuronal populations and that the relative size of the cocaine population represented individual preferences...
January 4, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051103/maladaptive-sex-behavior-following-concurrent-methamphetamine-and-sexual-experience-in-male-rats-is-associated-with-altered-neural-activity-in-frontal-cortex
#18
Lindsey B Kuiper, Karla S Frohmader, Lique M Coolen
The use of psychostimulants is often associated with hypersexuality, and psychostimulant users have identified the effects of drug on sexual behavior as a reason for further use. It was previously demonstrated that methamphetamine (Meth), when administered concurrently with sexual behavior show impairment of inhibition of sexual behavior in a conditioned sex aversion (CSA) paradigm where mating is paired with illness. This is indicative of maladaptive sex behavior following Meth and sex experience. The present study examined the neural pathways activated during inhibition of sexual behavior and the effects of concurrent Meth and sexual behavior on neural activity in these pathways, using ERK phosphorylation (pERK) as neural activity marker...
January 4, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049076/olfactory-identification-in-patients-with-schizophrenia%C3%A2-%C3%A2-the-influence-of-%C3%AE-endorphin-and-calcitonin-gene-related-peptide-concentrations
#19
M Urban-Kowalczyk, J Śmigielski, D Strzelecki
BACKGROUND: The relationship between the olfactory system and emotional processing is an area of growing interest in schizophrenia research. Both the orbitofrontal cortex and amygdala are involved in the processing of olfactory information, and olfactory deficits may be also influenced by endogenous opioids and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), which is probably involved in dopaminergic transmission. However, the relationship between endorphins and dopaminergic transmission has not been fully explored...
December 29, 2016: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046822/su-f-i-17-white-matter-track-based-analysis-at-limbic-abnormalities-in-cognitive-impairment
#20
R Juh, T Suh, J Han, C Kim, C Oh
PURPOSE: Mild cognitive impairment with depression (MCID) is common and associated with disability and cognitive impairment, with high probability of relapse. Hypothesize that a sign of WM disintegration would be observed in MCID than MCI nondepression (MCIND), especially in frontal and limbic regions and patients with depression would show reduced GM density in the hippocampus, amygdala, anterior gyrus cingulate, and dorsolateral prefrontal cortex (DLPFC) and dorsomedial prefrontal cortex (DMPFC) the abnormalities of long association fiber tracts integrity are correlated with geriatric depression...
June 2016: Medical Physics
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