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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29331877/cerebral-changes-and-disrupted-gray-matter-cortical-networks-in-asymptomatic-older-adults-at-risk-for-alzheimer-s-disease
#1
Jose L Cantero, Mercedes Atienza, Pascual Sanchez-Juan, Eloy Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Jose Luis Vazquez-Higuera, Ana Pozueta, Andrea Gonzalez-Suarez, Eduard Vilaplana, Jordi Pegueroles, Victor Montal, Rafael Blesa, Daniel Alcolea, Alberto Lleo, Juan Fortea
The diagnostic value of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers is well established in Alzheimer's disease, but our current knowledge about how abnormal CSF levels affect cerebral integrity, at local and network levels, is incomplete in asymptomatic older adults. Here, we have collected CSF samples and performed structural magnetic resonance imaging scans in cognitively normal elderly as part of a cross-sectional multicenter study (SIGNAL project). To identify group differences in cortical thickness, white matter volume, and properties of structural networks, participants were split into controls (N = 20), positive amyloid-β (Aβ1-42+) (N = 19), and positive phosphorylated tau (N = 18)...
December 20, 2017: Neurobiology of Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326434/memory-retention-involves-the-ventrolateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-comparison-with-the-basolateral-amygdala
#2
Kelsey S Zimmermann, Chen-Chen Li, Donald G Rainnie, Kerry J Ressler, Shanmon L Gourley
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/npp.2017.139.
February 2018: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323110/free-choice-shapes-normalized-value-signals-in-medial-orbitofrontal-cortex
#3
Hiroshi Yamada, Kenway Louie, Agnieszka Tymula, Paul W Glimcher
Normalization is a common cortical computation widely observed in sensory perception, but its importance in perception of reward value and decision making remains largely unknown. We examined (1) whether normalized value signals occur in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and (2) whether changes in behavioral task context influence the normalized representation of value. We record medial OFC (mOFC) single neuron activity in awake-behaving monkeys during a reward-guided lottery task. mOFC neurons signal the relative values of options via a divisive normalization function when animals freely choose between alternatives...
January 11, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322264/cerebral-gray-matter-volume-in-patients-with-chronic-migraine-correlations-with-clinical-features
#4
Gianluca Coppola, Barbara Petolicchio, Antonio Di Renzo, Emanuele Tinelli, Cherubino Di Lorenzo, Vincenzo Parisi, Mariano Serrao, Valentina Calistri, Stefano Tardioli, Gaia Cartocci, Anna Ambrosini, Francesca Caramia, Vittorio Di Piero, Francesco Pierelli
BACKGROUND: To date, few MRI studies have been performed in patients affected by chronic migraine (CM), especially in those without medication overuse. Here, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analyses to investigate the gray matter (GM) volume of the whole brain in patients affected by CM. Our aim was to investigate whether fluctuations in the GM volumes were related to the clinical features of CM. METHODS: Twenty untreated patients with CM without a past medical history of medication overuse underwent 3-Tesla MRI scans and were compared to a group of 20 healthy controls (HCs)...
December 8, 2017: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29318488/disrupted-topological-organization-of-the-frontal-mesolimbic-network-in-obese-patients
#5
Qianqian Meng, Yu Han, Gang Ji, Guanya Li, Yang Hu, Li Liu, Qingchao Jin, Karen M von Deneen, Jizheng Zhao, Guangbin Cui, Huaning Wang, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow, Jixin Liu, Yongzhan Nie, Yi Zhang, Gene-Jack Wang
Neuroimaging studies have revealed brain functional abnormalities in frontal-mesolimbic regions in obesity. However, the effects of obesity on brain network topology remains largely unknown. In the current study, we employed resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging and graph theory methods to investigate obesity-related changes in brain network topology in 26 obese patients and 28 normal weight subjects. Results revealed that the whole-brain networks of the two groups exhibited typical features of small-world topology...
January 9, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317611/metabotropic-glutamate-receptor-5-binding-in-male-patients-with-alcohol-use-disorder
#6
Funda Akkus, Yoan Mihov, Valerie Treyer, Simon M Ametamey, Anass Johayem, Smeralda Senn, Susanne Rösner, Alfred Buck, Gregor Hasler
Glutamate signaling plays a major role in addiction. Preclinical research strongly suggests an implication of G-protein-coupled metabotropic glutamate receptor subtype 5 (mGluR5) in nicotine addiction and alcohol use disorder. In humans, smoking is related to a global reduction in mGluR5 availability. In the present study, we investigated mGluR5 in vivo in patients with alcohol use disorder without the confounding effects of smoking. A total of 14 male subjects with alcohol use disorder and at least a 25-day abstinence and 14 matched male non-smoking healthy controls were included in the study...
January 10, 2018: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317306/double-dissociation-of-structure-function-relationships-in-memory-and-fluid-intelligence-observed-with-magnetic-resonance-elastography
#7
Curtis L Johnson, Hillary Schwarb, Kevin M Horecka, Matthew D J McGarry, Charles H Hillman, Arthur F Kramer, Neal J Cohen, Aron K Barbey
Brain tissue mechanical properties, measured in vivo with magnetic resonance elastography (MRE), have proven to be sensitive metrics of neural tissue integrity. Recently, our group has reported on the positive relationship between viscoelasticity of the hippocampus and performance on a relational memory task in healthy young adults, which highlighted the potential of sensitive MRE measures for studying brain health and its relation to cognitive function; however, structure-function relationships outside of the hippocampus have not yet been explored...
January 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29314499/motivation-but-not-valence-modulates-neuroticism-dependent-cingulate-cortex-and-insula-activity
#8
Yaling Deng, Shijia Li, Renlai Zhou, Martin Walter
Neuroticism has been found to specifically modulate amygdala activations during differential processing of valence and motivation while other brain networks yet are unexplored for associated effects. The main purpose of this study was to investigate whether neural mechanisms processing valence or motivation are prone to neuroticism in the salience network (SN), a network that is anchored in the anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) and the anterior insula. This study used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) and an approach/avoid emotional pictures task to investigate brain activations modulated by pictures' valence or motivational status between high and low neurotic individuals...
January 4, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29309855/alterations-of-the-amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-in-anxiety-in-parkinson-s-disease
#9
Xixi Wang, Junyi Li, Min Wang, Yongsheng Yuan, Lin Zhu, Yuting Shen, Hui Zhang, Kezhong Zhang
OBJECT: Anxiety disorders are very common in Parkinson's disease (PD), but neural mechanisms underlying these symptoms still remain elusive. In the present study, we aim to investigate the neural substrates in anxiety disorders in PD. METHODS: The present study comprised 48 PD patients and 19 healthy subjects. According to a Hamilton Anxiety Rating Scale cutoff score of 12, we divided PD patients into PD with anxiety groups (n = 15) and PD without anxiety groups (n = 33)...
January 5, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29307561/reward-processing-dysfunction-in-ventral-striatum-and-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-parkinson-s-disease
#10
Stéfan du Plessis, Meija Bossert, Matthijs Vink, Leigh van den Heuvel, Soraya Bardien, Robin Emsley, Chanelle Buckle, Soraya Seedat, Jonathan Carr
BACKGROUND: Parkinson's disease is a growing concern as the longevity of the world's population steadily increases. Both ageing and Parkinson's disease have an impact on dopamine neurotransmission. It is therefore important to investigate their relative impact on the fronto-striatal reward system. There has been little investigation of reward processing in terms of anticipation and reward outcome in Parkinson's disease. Abnormal responses during reward processing have previously been demonstrated in whole-brain analysis of Parkinson's patients with mild lateralized disease, but the exact impact in regions specific to reward processing is still unknown...
December 24, 2017: Parkinsonism & related Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29304217/elevated-markers-of-inflammation-are-associated-with-longitudinal-changes-in-brain-function-in-older-adults
#11
Kristen N Warren, Lori L Beason-Held, Olga Carlson, Josephine M Egan, Yang An, Jimit Doshi, Christos Davatzikos, Luigi Ferrucci, Susan M Resnick
Background: Chronic inflammation has been linked to memory and other cognitive impairments, as well as Alzheimer's disease. Here, we investigate the association between inflammatory markers and changes in brain activity measured by regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) to assess the relationship between inflammation and brain function in older individuals. Methods: Annual 15O water resting-state positron emission tomography (PET) scans collected over a 5-year period were assessed in 138 cognitively normal older participants (77 males; mean age at baseline = 71...
January 3, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series A, Biological Sciences and Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29300746/a-neural-network-model-for-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-and-task-space-acquisition-during-reinforcement-learning
#12
Zhewei Zhang, Zhenbo Cheng, Zhongqiao Lin, Chechang Nie, Tianming Yang
Reinforcement learning has been widely used in explaining animal behavior. In reinforcement learning, the agent learns the value of the states in the task, collectively constituting the task state space, and uses the knowledge to choose actions and acquire desired outcomes. It has been proposed that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) encodes the task state space during reinforcement learning. However, it is not well understood how the OFC acquires and stores task state information. Here, we propose a neural network model based on reservoir computing...
January 4, 2018: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297712/comparison-of-olfactory-function-between-neuromyelitis-optica-and-multiple-sclerosis
#13
Li-Min Li, Hui-Yue Guo, Ning Zhao, Lin-Jie Zhang, Ningnannan Zhang, Jingchun Liu, Li Yang
OBJECTIVES: Olfactory dysfunction (ODF) has been reported in patients with neuromyelitis optica (NMO) and multiple sclerosis (MS). However, the comparison of olfactory function and olfactory-related gray matter (GM) between patients with NMO and MS needed to be further elucidated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-seven patients with NMO and 37 with MS were enrolled. Olfactory function was evaluated with a Japanese T&T olfactometer test kit, and the neuroanatomical features of olfactory-related GM were assessed using voxel-based morphometry...
January 3, 2018: International Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289531/epileptic-seizures-are-reduced-by-autonomic-biofeedback-therapy-through-enhancement-of-fronto-limbic-connectivity-a-controlled-trial-and-neuroimaging-study
#14
Yoko Nagai, Julia Aram, Matthias Koepp, Louis Lemieux, Marco Mula, Hugo Critchley, Sanjay Sisodiya, Mara Cercignani
BACKGROUND: Thirty-percent of patients with epilepsy are drug-resistant, and might benefit from effective noninvasive therapeutic interventions. Evidence is accumulating on the efficacy of autonomic biofeedback therapy using galvanic skin response (GSR; an index of sympathetic arousal) in treating epileptic seizures. This study aimed to extend previous controlled clinical trials of autonomic biofeedback therapy with a larger homogeneous sample of patients with temporal lobe epilepsy. In addition, we used neuroimaging to characterize neural mechanisms of change in seizure frequency following the therapy...
December 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282709/neurodevelopmental-origins-of-abnormal-cortical-morphology-in-dissociative-identity-disorder
#15
A A T S Reinders, S Chalavi, Y R Schlumpf, E M Vissia, E R S Nijenhuis, L Jäncke, D J Veltman, C Ecker
OBJECTIVE: To examine the two constitutes of cortical volume (CV), that is, cortical thickness (CT) and surface area (SA), in individuals with dissociative identity disorder (DID) with the view of gaining important novel insights into the underlying neurobiological mechanisms mediating DID. METHODS: This study included 32 female patients with DID and 43 matched healthy controls. Between-group differences in CV, thickness, and SA, the degree of spatial overlap between differences in CT and SA, and their relative contribution to differences in regional CV were assessed using a novel spatially unbiased vertex-wise approach...
December 27, 2017: Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29260367/larger-volume-and-different-functional-connectivity-of-the-amygdala-in-women-with-premenstrual-syndrome
#16
Demao Deng, Yong Pang, Gaoxiong Duan, Huimei Liu, Hai Liao, Peng Liu, Yanfei Liu, Shasha Li, Wenfu Chen, Danhong Wen, Chunmei Xuan, Min Li
OBJECTIVES: To assess structural and functional changes of the amygdala due to premenstrual syndrome (PMS) using magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). METHODS: Twenty PMS patients and 21 healthy control (HC) subjects underwent a 6-min resting-state fMRI scan during the luteal phase as well as scanning high-resolution T1-weighted images. Subcortical amygdala-related volume and functional connectivity (FC) were estimated between the two groups. Each subject completed a daily record of severity of problems (DRSP) to measure the severity of clinical symptoms...
December 19, 2017: European Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249948/psychopathy-moderates-the-relationship-between-orbitofrontal-and-striatal-alterations-and-violence-the-investigation-of-individuals-accused-of-homicide
#17
Bess Y H Lam, Yaling Yang, Robert A Schug, Chenbo Han, Jianghong Liu, Tatia M C Lee
Brain structural abnormalities in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) and striatum (caudate and putamen) have been observed in violent individuals. However, a uni-modal neuroimaging perspective has been used and prior findings have been mixed. The present study takes the multimodal structural brain imaging approaches to investigate the differential gray matter volumes (GMV) and cortical thickness (CTh) in the OFC and striatum between violent (accused of homicide) and non-violent (not accused of any violent crimes) individuals with different levels of psychopathic traits (interpersonal and unemotional qualities, factor 1 psychopathy and the expressions of antisocial disposition and impulsivity, factor 2 psychopathy)...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249364/resting-state-fmri-studies-in-spg4-linked-hereditary-spastic-paraplegia
#18
Xinxin Liao, Mufang Huang, Wu Xing, Xinwei Wu, Weihua Liao, Xiaoyi Wang, Beisha Tang, Lu Shen
OBJECTIVE: The study aimed to investigate the functional alterations of spontaneous brain activity in patients with spastic paraplegia type 4 (SPG4), and the relationship with the severity of spasticity. METHODS: Twelve patients with SPG4 and ten healthy controls underwent resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI). Amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) and regional homogeneity (ReHo) were used to characterize regional neural function, and functional connectivity (FC) was used to evaluate the functional integration of the brain network...
January 15, 2018: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29247760/common-variation-in-znf804a-rs1344706-is-not-associated-with-brain-morphometry-in-schizophrenia-or-healthy-participants
#19
Yann Quidé, Natalie Matosin, Joshua R Atkins, Chantel Fitzsimmons, Murray J Cairns, Vaughan J Carr, Melissa J Green
BACKGROUND: The single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) rs1344706 [A>C] within intron 2 of the zinc finger protein 804A gene (ZNF804A) is associated with schizophrenia at the genome-wide level, but its function in relation to the development of psychotic disorders, including its influence on brain morphology remains unclear. METHODS: Using both univariate (voxel-based morphometry, VBM; cortical thickness) and multivariate (source-based morphometry, SBM) approaches, we examined the effects of variation of the rs1344706 polymorphism on grey matter integrity in 214 Caucasian schizophrenia cases and 94 Caucasian healthy individuals selected from the Australian Schizophrenia Research Bank...
December 13, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243529/avolition-apathy-and-white-matter-connectivity-in-schizophrenia-reduced-fractional-anisotropy-between-amygdala-and-insular-cortex
#20
Antonella Amodio, Mario Quarantelli, Armida Mucci, Anna Prinster, Andrea Soricelli, Annarita Vignapiano, Giulia Maria Giordano, Eleonora Merlotti, Alessia Nicita, Silvana Galderisi
The avolition/apathy domain of negative symptoms includes motivation- and pleasure-related impairments. In people with schizophrenia, structural and functional abnormalities were reported in key regions within the motivational reward system, including ventral-tegmental area (VTA), striatum (especially at the level of the nucleus accumbens, NAcc), orbitofrontal cortex (OFC), as well as amygdala (Amy) and insular cortex (IC). However, the association of the reported abnormalities with avoliton-apathy is still controversial...
January 2018: Clinical EEG and Neuroscience: Official Journal of the EEG and Clinical Neuroscience Society (ENCS)
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