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Orbitofrontal

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28549318/brain-neurodevelopmental-markers-related-to-the-deficit-subtype-of-schizophrenia
#1
Tsutomu Takahashi, Yoichiro Takayanagi, Yumiko Nishikawa, Mihoko Nakamura, Yuko Komori, Atsushi Furuichi, Mikio Kido, Daiki Sasabayashi, Kyo Noguchi, Michio Suzuki
Deficit schizophrenia is a homogeneous subtype characterized by a trait-like feature of primary and prominent negative symptoms, but the etiologic factors related to this specific subtype remain largely unknown. This magnetic resonance imaging study aimed to examine gross brain morphology that probably reflects early neurodevelopment in 38 patients with deficit schizophrenia, 37 patients with non-deficit schizophrenia, and 59 healthy controls. Potential brain neurodevelopmental markers investigated in this study were the adhesio interthalamica (AI), cavum septi pellucidi (CSP), and surface morphology (i...
May 20, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28545597/prefrontal-cortical-thinning-links-to-negative-symptoms-in-schizophrenia-via-the-enigma-consortium
#2
E Walton, D P Hibar, T G M van Erp, S G Potkin, R Roiz-Santiañez, B Crespo-Facorro, P Suarez-Pinilla, N E M van Haren, S M C de Zwarte, R S Kahn, W Cahn, N T Doan, K N Jørgensen, T P Gurholt, I Agartz, O A Andreassen, L T Westlye, I Melle, A O Berg, L Morch-Johnsen, A Færden, L Flyckt, H Fatouros-Bergman, E G Jönsson, R Hashimoto, H Yamamori, M Fukunaga, N Jahanshad, P De Rossi, F Piras, N Banaj, G Spalletta, R E Gur, R C Gur, D H Wolf, T D Satterthwaite, L M Beard, I E Sommer, S Koops, O Gruber, A Richter, B Krämer, S Kelly, G Donohoe, C McDonald, D M Cannon, A Corvin, M Gill, A Di Giorgio, A Bertolino, S Lawrie, T Nickson, H C Whalley, E Neilson, V D Calhoun, P M Thompson, J A Turner, S Ehrlich
BACKGROUND: Our understanding of the complex relationship between schizophrenia symptomatology and etiological factors can be improved by studying brain-based correlates of schizophrenia. Research showed that impairments in value processing and executive functioning, which have been associated with prefrontal brain areas [particularly the medial orbitofrontal cortex (MOFC)], are linked to negative symptoms. Here we tested the hypothesis that MOFC thickness is associated with negative symptom severity...
May 26, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28544994/12h-abstinence-induced-right-anterior-insula-network-pattern-changes-in-young-smokers
#3
Yanzhi Bi, Yajuan Zhang, Yangding Li, Dahua Yu, Kai Yuan, Jie Tian
BACKGROUND: The strong craving to smoke is a core factor of smoking abstinence that precipitates relapse. Insula plays critical roles in maintaining nicotine dependence, especially in the interoceptive awareness of craving. Despite evidence indicating a link between insula and abstinence-induced craving, less is known about the neural basis of abstinence-induced craving from the circuit level of insula. METHODS: The present study examined the effects of 12h of abstinence from smoking on the resting state functional connectivity (RSFC) of anterior (AI) and posterior insula in young smokers using a within-subject design...
May 15, 2017: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541428/dissociable-roles-of-cerebral-%C3%AE-opioid-and-type-2-dopamine-receptors-in-vicarious-pain-a-combined-pet-fmri-study
#4
Tomi Karjalainen, Henry K Karlsson, Juha M Lahnakoski, Enrico Glerean, Pirjo Nuutila, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Riitta Hari, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
Neuroimaging studies have shown that seeing others in pain activates brain regions that are involved in first-hand pain, suggesting that shared neuromolecular pathways support processing of first-hand and vicarious pain. We tested whether the dopamine and opioid neurotransmitter systems involved in nociceptive processing also contribute to vicarious pain experience. We used in vivo positron emission tomography to quantify type 2 dopamine and μ-opioid receptor (D2R and MOR, respectively) availabilities in brains of 35 subjects...
May 24, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541407/insular-and-ventrolateral-orbitofrontal-cortices-differentially-contribute-to-goal-directed-behavior-in-rodents
#5
Shauna L Parkes, Pascal M Ravassard, Juan-Carlos Cerpa, Mathieu Wolff, Guillaume Ferreira, Etienne Coutureau
The medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) has long been considered a critical site in action control. However, recent evidence indicates that the contribution of cortical areas to goal-directed behavior likely extends beyond mPFC. Here, we examine the function of both insular (IC) and ventrolateral orbitofrontal (vlOFC) cortices in action-dependent learning. We used chemogenetics to study the consequences of IC or vlOFC inhibition on acquisition and performance of instrumental actions using the outcome devaluation task...
May 25, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541079/child-gender-influences-paternal-behavior-language-and-brain-function
#6
Jennifer S Mascaro, Kelly E Rentscher, Patrick D Hackett, Matthias R Mehl, James K Rilling
Multiple lines of research indicate that fathers often treat boys and girls differently in ways that impact child outcomes. The complex picture that has emerged, however, is obscured by methodological challenges inherent to the study of parental caregiving, and no studies to date have examined the possibility that gender differences in observed real-world paternal behavior are related to differential paternal brain responses to male and female children. Here we compare fathers of daughters and fathers of sons in terms of naturalistically observed everyday caregiving behavior and neural responses to child picture stimuli...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28541078/ensembles-in-medial-and-lateral-orbitofrontal-cortex-construct-cognitive-maps-emphasizing-different-features-of-the-behavioral-landscape
#7
Nina Lopatina, Brian F Sadacca, Michael A McDannald, Clay V Styer, Jacob F Peterson, Joseph F Cheer, Geoffrey Schoenbaum
The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) has long been implicated in the ability to use the current value of expected outcomes to guide behavior. More recently, this specific role has been conceptualized as a special case of a more general function that OFC plays in constructing a "cognitive map" of the behavioral task space by labeling the current task state and learning relationships among task states. Here, we have used single unit recording data from 2 prior studies to examine whether and how information relating different states within and across trials is represented in medial versus lateral OFC in rats...
June 2017: Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28540995/cortical-thickness-and-white-matter-integrity-are-associated-with-ctg-expansion-size-in-myotonic-dystrophy-type-i
#8
Woo Kyoung Yoo, Yoon Ghil Park, Young Chul Choi, Sun Mi Kim
PURPOSE: Myotonic dystrophy type 1 (DM1) is characterized by progressive muscular weakness with symptoms caused by involvement of the brain. The aim of this study was to delineate global changes in cortical thickness and white matter integrity in patients with DM1, compared to age-matched healthy controls, and in brain areas highly correlated with CTG repeat size. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Cortical thickness and white matter integrity were compared in nine adult DM1 patients and age matched healthy controls using T1-weighted and diffusion tensor imaging...
July 2017: Yonsei Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28538088/effects-of-the-insulin-sensitizer-metformin-in-alzheimer-disease-pilot-data-from-a-randomized-placebo-controlled-crossover-study
#9
Aaron M Koenig, Dawn Mechanic-Hamilton, Sharon X Xie, Martha F Combs, Anne R Cappola, Long Xie, John A Detre, David A Wolk, Steven E Arnold
Epidemiological studies have identified a robust association between type II diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer disease (AD), and neurobiological studies have suggested the presence of central nervous system insulin resistance in individuals with AD. Given this association, we hypothesized that the central nervous system-penetrant insulin-sensitizing medication metformin would be beneficial as a disease-modifying and/or symptomatic therapy for AD, and conducted a placebo-controlled crossover study of its effects on cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), neuroimaging, and cognitive biomarkers...
April 2017: Alzheimer Disease and Associated Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28536272/social-laughter-triggers-endogenous-opioid-release-in-humans
#10
Sandra Manninen, Lauri Tuominen, Robin Dunbar, Tomi Karjalainen, Jussi Hirvonen, Eveliina Arponen, Riitta Hari, Iiro P Jääskeläinen, Mikko Sams, Lauri Nummenmaa
The size of human social networks significantly exceeds the network that can be maintained by social grooming or touching in other primates. It has been proposed that endogenous opioid release following social laughter would provide a neurochemical pathway supporting long-term relationships in humans (Dunbar, 2012) yet this hypothesis currently lacks direct neurophysiological support. We used positron emission tomography (PET) and μ-opioid-receptor (MOR) specific ligand [11C]carfentanil to quantify laughter-induced endogenous opioid release in 12 healthy males...
May 23, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533402/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-to-multisensory-detection-of-sick-humans
#11
Christina Regenbogen, John Axelsson, Julie Lasselin, Danja K Porada, Tina Sundelin, Moa G Peter, Mats Lekander, Johan N Lundström, Mats J Olsson
Throughout human evolution, infectious diseases have been a primary cause of death. Detection of subtle cues indicating sickness and avoidance of sick conspecifics would therefore be an adaptive way of coping with an environment fraught with pathogens. This study determines how humans perceive and integrate early cues of sickness in conspecifics sampled just hours after the induction of immune system activation, and the underlying neural mechanisms for this detection. In a double-blind placebo-controlled crossover design, the immune system in 22 sample donors was transiently activated with an endotoxin injection [lipopolysaccharide (LPS)]...
May 22, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28520631/operculo-insular-epilepsy-scalp-and-intracranial-electroencephalographic-findings
#12
Ariel Levy, Thi Phuoc Yen Tran, Olivier Boucher, Alain Bouthillier, Dang Khoa Nguyen
PURPOSE: Operculo-insular seizures are heterogeneous and may resemble seizures originating from the temporal, frontal, or parietal lobe. Although surface and invasive EEG recordings are often necessary to detect operculo-insular seizures, electrophysiological features of operculo-insular epilepsies remain poorly characterized. This study describes the EEG findings of patients with operculo-insular epilepsy. METHODS: We reviewed electrophysiological data of all patients (n = 9) with operculo-insular seizures revealed by intracranial EEG and for whom operculo-insular epilepsy was confirmed by good seizure outcome after resective or radiosurgery at our center between 2005 and 2013...
May 16, 2017: Journal of Clinical Neurophysiology: Official Publication of the American Electroencephalographic Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496402/cortico-striatal-thalamic-loop-circuits-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-promising-therapeutic-targets-in-psychiatric-illness
#13
REVIEW
Peter Fettes, Laura Schulze, Jonathan Downar
Corticostriatal circuits through the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) play key roles in complex human behaviors such as evaluation, affect regulation and reward-based decision-making. Importantly, the medial and lateral OFC (mOFC and lOFC) circuits have functionally and anatomically distinct connectivity profiles which differentially contribute to the various aspects of goal-directed behavior. OFC corticostriatal circuits have been consistently implicated across a wide range of psychiatric disorders, including major depressive disorder (MDD), obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and substance use disorders (SUDs)...
2017: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28496095/duration-of-motherhood-has-incremental-effects-on-mothers-neural-processing-of-infant-vocal-cues-a-neuroimaging-study-of-women
#14
Christine E Parsons, Katherine S Young, Mikkel V Petersen, Else-Marie Jegindoe Elmholdt, Peter Vuust, Alan Stein, Morten L Kringelbach
The transition to motherhood, and the resultant experience of caregiving, may change the way women respond to affective, infant signals in their environments. Nonhuman animal studies have robustly demonstrated that mothers process both infant and other salient signals differently from nonmothers. Here, we investigated how women with and without young infants respond to vocalisations from infants and adults (both crying and neutral). We examined mothers with infants ranging in age (1-14 months) to examine the effects of duration of maternal experience...
May 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495332/the-neural-correlates-of-theory-of-mind-and-their-role-during-empathy-and-the-game-of-chess-a-functional-magnetic-resonance-imaging-study
#15
Joanne L Powell, Davide Grossi, Rhiannon Corcoran, Fernand Gobet, Marta García-Fiñana
Chess involves the capacity to reason iteratively about potential intentional choices of an opponent and therefore involves high levels of explicit theory of mind [ToM] (i.e. ability to infer mental states of others) alongside clear, strategic rule-based decision-making. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was used on 12 healthy male novice chess players to identify cortical regions associated with chess, ToM and empathizing. The blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) response for chess and empathizing tasks was extracted from each ToM region...
May 8, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494347/structural-brain-abnormalities-in-patients-with-type-i-bipolar-disorder-and-suicidal-behavior
#16
Dante G G Duarte, Maila de Castro L Neves, Maicon R Albuquerque, Gustavo Turecki, Yang Ding, Fabio Luis de Souza-Duran, Geraldo Busatto, Humberto Correa
Some studies have identified brain morphological changes in the frontolimbic network (FLN) in bipolar subjects who attempt suicide (SA). The present study investigated neuroanatomical abnormalities in the FLN to find a possible neural signature for suicidal behavior in patients with bipolar disorder type I (BD-I). We used voxel-based morphometry to compare euthymic patients with BD-I who had attempted suicide (n=20), who had not attempted suicide (n=19) and healthy controls (HCs) (n=20). We also assessed the highest medical lethality of their previous SA...
May 2, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28493519/neurotransmitters-behind-pain-relief-with-transcranial-magnetic-stimulation-positron-emission-tomography-evidence-for-release-of-endogenous-opioids
#17
S Lamusuo, J Hirvonen, P Lindholm, I K Martikainen, N Hagelberg, R Parkkola, T Taiminen, J Hietala, S Helin, A Virtanen, A Pertovaara, S K Jääskeläinen
BACKGROUND: Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) at M1/S1 cortex has been shown to alleviate neuropathic pain. OBJECTIVES: To investigate the possible neurobiological correlates of cortical neurostimulation for the pain relief. METHODS: We studied the effects of M1/S1 rTMS on nociception, brain dopamine D2 and μ-opioid receptors using a randomized, sham-controlled, double-blinded crossover study design and 3D-positron emission tomography (PET)...
May 11, 2017: European Journal of Pain: EJP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492478/the-role-of-the-orbitofrontal-and-dorsolateral-prefrontal-cortices-in-aesthetic-preference-for-art
#18
Luca F Ticini
The search for the underlying neural activation that occurs during subjective aesthetic experiences of artwork has been enhanced through neuroimaging techniques. Recently, the dorsolateral prefrontal cortex, alongside the orbitofrontal cortex, have been implicated in aesthetic appreciation, and this is the focus of the present paper. Here, the validity of this conclusion is examined through the discussion of its neuroanatomical connections and functional properties. It is proposed that the experimental evidence challenges the view that this area could hold a privileged position in a brain network involved in aesthetic preference...
May 11, 2017: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491026/-neural-efficiency-of-athletes-brain-during-visuo-spatial-task-an-fmri-study-on-table-tennis-players
#19
Zhiping Guo, Anmin Li, Lin Yu
Long-term training leads experts to develop a focused and efficient organization of task-related neural networks. "Neural efficiency" hypothesis posits that neural activity is reduced in experts. Here we tested the following working hypotheses: compared to non-athletes, athletes showed lower cortical activation in task-sensitive brain areas during the processing of sports related and sports unrelated visuo-spatial tasks. To address this issue, cortical activation was examined with fMRI in 14 table tennis athletes and 14 non-athletes while performing the visuo-spatial tasks...
2017: Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28491018/transcranial-stimulation-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex-affects-decisions-about-magnocellular-optimized-stimuli
#20
Anna Bognár, Gergő Csete, Margit Németh, Péter Csibri, Tamás Z Kincses, Gyula Sáry
Visual categorization plays an important role in fast and efficient information processing; still the neuronal basis of fast categorization has not been established yet. There are two main hypotheses known; both agree that primary, global impressions are based on the information acquired through the magnocellular pathway (MC). It is unclear whether this information is available through the MC that provides information (also) for the ventral pathway or through top-down mechanisms by connections between the dorsal pathway and the ventral pathway via the frontal cortex...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
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