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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213812/the-neuroscience-of-human-decision-making-through-the-lens-of-learning-and-memory
#1
Lesley K Fellows
We are called upon to make decisions, large and small, many times a day. Whether in the voting booth, the stock exchange, or the cafeteria line, we identify potential options, estimate and compare their subjective values, and make a choice. Decision-making has only recently become a focus for cognitive neuroscience. The last two decades have seen rapid progress in our understanding of the brain basis of at least some aspects of this rather complex aspect of cognition. This work has provided fresh perspectives on poorly understood brain regions, such as orbitofrontal cortex and ventral striatum...
February 18, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213443/changes-in-appetitive-associative-strength-modulates-nucleus-accumbens-but-not-orbitofrontal-cortex-neuronal-ensemble-excitability
#2
Joseph Ziminski, Sabine Hessler, Gabriella Margetts-Smith, Meike C Sieburg, Hans S Crombag, Eisuke Koya
Cues that predict the availability of food rewards influence motivational states and elicit food-seeking behaviors. If a cue no longer predicts food availability, animals may adapt accordingly by inhibiting food seeking responses. Sparsely activated sets of neurons, coined neuronal ensembles, have been shown to encode the strength of reward-cue associations. While alterations in intrinsic excitability have been shown to underlie many learning and memory processes, little is known about these properties specifically on cue-activated neuronal ensembles...
February 17, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212944/acute-and-long-term-effects-of-adolescent-methylphenidate-on-decision-making-and-dopamine-receptor-mrna-expression-in-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#3
Leslie R Amodeo, Eliza Jacobs-Brichford, Matthew S McMurray, Jamie D Roitman
Though commonly used as a treatment for ADHD, the psychostimulant methylphenidate (MPH) is also misused and abused in adolescence in both clinical and general populations. Although MPH acts via pathways activated by other drugs of abuse, the short- and long-term effects of MPH on reward processing in learning and decision-making are not clearly understood. We examined the effect of adolescent MPH treatment on a battery of reward-directed behaviors both in adolescence during its administration and in adulthood after its discontinuation...
February 14, 2017: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210930/emotion-specific-nocebo-effects-an-fmri-study
#4
Anne Schienle, Carina Höfler, Sonja Übel, Albert Wabnegger
The neurobiological mechanisms of nocebos are still poorly understood. Thirty-eight women participated in a 'smell study' using functional magnetic resonance imaging. They were presented with an odorless stimulus (distilled water) together with the verbal suggestion that this fluid has an aversive odor which enhances disgust feelings. The nocebo was presented while the participants viewed disgusting, fear-inducing, and neutral images. Participants' affective and neuronal responses during nocebo administration were compared with those in a control condition without nocebo...
February 16, 2017: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205636/erratum-lucky-rhythms-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-bias-gambling-decisions-in-humans
#5
Pierre Sacré, Matthew S D Kerr, Kevin Kahn, Jorge Gonzalez-Martinez, Juan Bulacio, Hyun-Joo Park, Matthew A Johnson, Susan Thompson, Jaes Jones, Vikram S Chib, John T Gale, Sridevi V Sarma
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192860/amplitude-of-low-frequency-fluctuations-during-resting-state-differentially-predicts-authentic-and-hubristic-pride
#6
Feng Kong, Qiaolin He, Xiqin Liu, Xiayu Chen, Xu Wang, Jingjing Zhao
OBJECTIVE: Pride is an important self-conscious emotion and comprised of two distinct conceptual facets: arrogant, egotistic "hubristic pride", and pro-social, achievement-oriented "authentic pride". However, little is known about the neural basis of two facets of pride. Here we investigated the association between spontaneous brain activity and these two facets of pride in resting state. METHOD: We measured 276 participants on authentic and hubristic pride. The fractional amplitude of low frequency fluctuations (fALFF) was used to identify pride-related regions...
February 13, 2017: Journal of Personality
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28192177/neural-mechanisms-of-implicit-cognitive-reappraisal-preceding-descriptions-alter-emotional-response-to-unpleasant-images
#7
Hai-Yang Wang, Guo-Qing Xu, Ming-Fei Ni, Cui-Hong Zhang, Xiao-Pei Sun, Yi Chang, Bing-Wei Zhang
The importance of reappraising negative events to reduce negative emotional responses has been widely acknowledged. However, most neuroimaging studies have explored the neural mechanisms of deliberate and intentional reappraisal, while little is known about the neural correlates of reappraisal that occurs outside of one's awareness. Electrophysiological studies suggest that precedent neutral descriptions could implicitly reduce neural responses to unpleasant images. To investigate the neural mechanism underlying implicit reappraisal, functional magnetic resonance imaging was conducted on 25 participants while they passively viewed unpleasant images that were previously neutrally/positively or negatively described...
February 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190729/a-functional-gradient-in-the-rodent-prefrontal-cortex-supports-behavioral-inhibition
#8
Stefanie Hardung, Robert Epple, Zoe Jäckel, David Eriksson, Cem Uran, Verena Senn, Lihi Gibor, Ofer Yizhar, Ilka Diester
The ability to plan and execute appropriately timed responses to external stimuli is based on a well-orchestrated balance between movement initiation and inhibition. In impulse control disorders involving the prefrontal cortex (PFC) [1], this balance is disturbed, emphasizing the critical role that PFC plays in appropriately timing actions [2-4]. Here, we employed optogenetic and electrophysiological techniques to systematically analyze the functional role of five key subareas of the rat medial PFC (mPFC) and orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) in action control [5-9]...
February 20, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183367/selective-functional-disconnection-of-the-orbitofrontal-subregions-in-schizophrenia
#9
Y Xu, W Qin, C Zhuo, L Xu, J Zhu, X Liu, C Yu
BACKGROUND: As a disconnection syndrome, schizophrenia has shown impaired resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) in the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC); however, the OFC is a rather heterogeneous region and the rsFC changes in the OFC subregions remain unknown. METHOD: A total of 98 schizophrenia patients and 102 healthy controls underwent resting-state functional MRI using a sensitivity-encoded spiral-in imaging sequence (SENSE-SPIRAL) to reduce susceptibility-induced signal loss and distortion...
February 10, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181466/microstructures-in-striato-thalamo-orbitofrontal-circuit-in-methamphetamine-users
#10
Yadi Li, Haibo Dong, Feng Li, Gaoyan Wang, Wenhua Zhou, Rongbin Yu, Lingjun Zhang
Background Striato-thalamo-orbitofrontal (STO) circuit plays a key role in the development of drug addiction. Few studies have investigated its microstructural abnormalities in methamphetamine (MA) users. Purpose To evaluate the microstructural changes and relevant clinical relevance of the STO circuit in MA users using diffusion tensor imaging (DTI). Material and Methods Twenty-eight MA users and 28 age-matched normal volunteers were enrolled. 3T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was employed to obtain structural T1-weighted (T1W) imaging and diffusion-tensor imaging (DTI) data...
January 1, 2017: Acta Radiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177158/neuronal-responses-support-a-role-for-orbitofrontal-cortex-in-cognitive-set-reconfiguration
#11
Brianna J Sleezer, Giuliana Loconte, Meghan D Castagno, Benjamin Y Hayden
We are often faced with the need to abandon no-longer beneficial rules and adopt new ones. This process, known as cognitive set reconfiguration, is a hallmark of executive control. Although cognitive functions like reconfiguration are most often associated with dorsal prefrontal structures, recent evidence suggests that the orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) may play an important role as well. We recorded activity of OFC neurons while rhesus macaques performed an analogue of the Wisconsin Card Sorting Task that involved a trial-and-error stage...
February 8, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28175570/368%C3%A2-anatomy-and-white-matter-connections-of-the-orbitofrontal-gyrus
#12
Joshua Dee Burks, Phillip A Bonney, Andrew K P Conner, Chad A Glenn, Robert G Briggs, Lillian B Boettcher, Daniel L O'Donoghue, Dee H Wu, Michael Edward Sughrue
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
August 1, 2016: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28174127/altered-functional-connectivity-in-default-mode-network-in-internet-gaming-disorder-influence-of-childhood-adhd
#13
Deokjong Lee, Junghan Lee, Jung Eun Lee, Young-Chul Jung
OBJECTIVE: Internet gaming disorder (IGD) is a type of behavioral addiction characterized by abnormal executive control, leading to loss of control over excessive gaming. Attention deficit and hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is one of the most common comorbid disorders in IGD, involving delayed development of the executive control system, which could predispose individuals to gaming addiction. We investigated the influence of childhood ADHD on neural network features of IGD. METHODS: Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging analysis was performed on 44 young, male IGD subjects with and without childhood ADHD and 19 age-matched, healthy male controls...
February 5, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28169088/mapping-structural-covariance-networks-of-facial-emotion-recognition-in-early-psychosis-a-pilot-study
#14
Lisa Buchy, Mariapaola Barbato, Carolina Makowski, Signe Bray, Frank P MacMaster, Stephanie Deighton, Jean Addington
People with psychosis show deficits recognizing facial emotions and disrupted activation in the underlying neural circuitry. We evaluated associations between facial emotion recognition and cortical thickness using a correlation-based approach to map structural covariance networks across the brain. Fifteen people with an early psychosis provided magnetic resonance scans and completed the Penn Emotion Recognition and Differentiation tasks. Fifteen historical controls provided magnetic resonance scans. Cortical thickness was computed using CIVET and analyzed with linear models...
February 3, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28165888/voxel-based-morphometry-of-disgust-sensitivity
#15
Albert Wabnegger, Sonja Übel, Anne Schienle
BACKGROUND: Difficulties with the regulation of negative affect have been extensively studied in neuroimaging research. However, dysregulation of a specific emotion, disgust, has hardly been investigated. In the present study, we used voxel-based morphometry to identify whether gray matter volume (GMV) of frontal regions is correlated with personality traits associated with general and disgust-specific emotion regulation difficulties. METHOD: We analyzed T1-weighted images of 49 females (mean age = 22...
February 6, 2017: Social Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161772/do-alcohol-dependent-patients-show-different-neural-activation-during-response-inhibition-than-healthy-controls-in-an-alcohol-related-fmri-go-no-go-task
#16
Marta Czapla, Christian Baeuchl, Joe J Simon, Barbara Richter, Matthias Kluge, Hans-Christoph Friederich, Karl Mann, Sabine C Herpertz, Sabine Loeber
RATIONALE: Alcohol dependence is associated with impaired response inhibition and heightened cue reactivity towards alcohol-related stimuli. Several brain areas, but mainly prefrontal structures, have been linked to response inhibition in addiction. This study aimed at combining both aspects: salience of drug-associated cues and response inhibition using a go/no-go task with alcohol-associated stimuli during functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). OBJECTIVES: Nineteen abstinent alcohol-dependent patients (ADP) and 21 healthy control subjects (HC) were compared on blood oxygen level-dependent (BOLD) responses during successful inhibition of no-go stimuli and successful reactions to go stimuli...
February 4, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159909/the-organization-of-the-anterior-limb-of-the-internal-capsule-in-the-rat
#17
V Coizet, S R Heilbronner, C Carcenac, P Mailly, J Lehman, M Savasta, O David, J-M Deniau, H J Groenewegen, N Haber S
: Dysfunction of the orbitofrontal (OFC) and anterior cingulate (ACC) cortices has been linked with several psychiatric disorders, including obsessive-compulsive disorder, major depressive disorder, post-traumatic stress disorder, and addiction. These conditions are also associated with abnormalities in the anterior limb of the internal capsule, the white matter bundle carrying ascending and descending fibers from the OFC and ACC. Fruthermore, deep brain stimulation (DBS) for psychiatric disorders targets these fibers...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28159906/identity-specific-reward-representations-in-orbitofrontal-cortex-are-modulated-by-selective-devaluation
#18
James D Howard, Thorsten Kahnt
: Goal-directed behavior is sensitive to the current value of expected outcomes. This requires independent representations of specific rewards, which have been linked to orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) function. However, the mechanisms by which the human brain updates specific goals on the fly, and translates those updates into choices, have remained unknown. Here we implemented selective devaluation of appetizing food odors in combination with pattern-based neuroimaging and a decision-making task...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156216/use-of-an-intraventricular-strip-electrode-for-mesial-temporal-monitoring-in-children-with-medically-intractable-epilepsy
#19
Hyunmi Kim, Ahyuda Oh, Larry Olson, Joshua J Chern
OBJECTIVE The objective of this study was to evaluate mesial temporal electroencephalographic (EEG) monitoring, using an intraventricular strip electrode (IVSE) along the ventricular surface of the hippocampus, in children with medically intractable epilepsy. METHODS The authors reviewed 10 consecutive cases in which subdural electrode placements and mesial temporal monitoring were recommended. The median age of the patients was 12.7 years (range 4.5-19.3 years). Both grids and IVSE were placed in all patients...
February 3, 2017: Journal of Neurosurgery. Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28150320/association-between-neural-reactivity-and-startle-reactivity-to-uncertain-threat-in-two-independent-samples
#20
Stephanie M Gorka, Lynne Lieberman, Stewart A Shankman, K Luan Phan
Prior studies indicate that anxiety disorders are associated with heightened sensitivity to uncertain threat (U threat). Individual differences in reactivity to U threat have been measured in the laboratory with two methodologies-startle eyeblink potentiation and fMRI. While startle and fMRI are purported to relate to each other, very little research exists on whether individual differences in one measure are associated with individual differences in another and, thus, whether startle and fMRI capture shared mechanisms...
February 2, 2017: Psychophysiology
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