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Milly Marston, Basia Zaba, Jeffrey W Eaton
OBJECTIVES: Projections of fertility of HIV positive women as ART scales up are needed to plan prevention of mother-to-child transmission (PMTCT) services. We describe differences in exposure to pregnancy between HIV positive and HIV negative women by age, region and national ART coverage to evaluate the extent to which behavioural differences explain lower fertility among HIV positive women and assess whether exposure to pregnancy has changed with antiretroviral treatment (ART) scale-up...
2018: PloS One
Isabell K Rumrich, Kirsi Vähäkangas, Matti Viluksela, Mika Gissler, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Antti Korhonen, Hanna De Ruyter, Otto Hänninen
AIMS: In Finland, smoking rates in the general population are decreasing due to increased awareness of the adverse effects and tightened tobacco legislation. However, previous studies have shown that smoking in pregnant Finnish women remained as high as in the general Finnish female population at around 15% in 2010. Our aim was to describe temporal and spatial trends in smoking behaviour, and determinants of changes in smoking behaviour between first and second pregnancy. METHODS: Self-reported smoking from the Finnish Medical Birth Register covered the years 1991-2015 ( N=1,435,009)...
October 17, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
Andrew G Herzog, Hannah B Mandle, Devon B MacEachern
Importance: If unintended pregnancy is common among women with epilepsy and is associated with increased risk of spontaneous fetal loss (SFL), it is important to develop guidelines for safe and effective contraception for this community. Objective: To assess whether planned pregnancy is a determinant of SFL in women with epilepsy. Design, Setting, and Participants: The Epilepsy Birth Control Registry conducted this web-based, retrospective survey between 2010 and 2014...
October 15, 2018: JAMA Neurology
Damien Subtil, Gilles Brabant, Emma Tilloy, Patrick Devos, Frédérique Canis, Annie Fruchart, Marie-Christine Bissinger, Jean-Charles Dugimont, Catherine Nolf, Christophe Hacot, Sophie Gautier, Jérôme Chantrel, Marielle Jousse, David Desseauve, Jean Louis Plennevaux, Christine Delaeter, Sylvie Deghilage, Anne Personne, Emmanuelle Joyez, Elisabeth Guinard, Eric Kipnis, Karine Faure, Bruno Grandbastien, Pierre-Yves Ancel, François Goffinet, Rodrigue Dessein
BACKGROUND: Preterm delivery during pregnancy (<37 weeks' gestation) is a leading cause of perinatal mortality and morbidity. Treating bacterial vaginosis during pregnancy can reduce poor outcomes, such as preterm birth. We aimed to investigate whether treatment of bacterial vaginosis decreases late miscarriages or spontaneous very preterm birth. METHODS: PREMEVA was a double-blind randomised controlled trial done in 40 French centres. Women aged 18 years or older with bacterial vaginosis and low-risk pregnancy were eligible for inclusion and were randomly assigned (2:1) to three parallel groups: single-course or triple-course 300 mg clindamycin twice-daily for 4 days, or placebo...
October 12, 2018: Lancet
Barbara Luke, Morton B Brown, Ethan Wantman, Valerie L Baker, Kevin J Doody, David B Seifer, Logan G Spector
BACKGROUND: Over the past two decades the characteristics of women giving birth in the United States and the nature of the births themselves have changed dramatically, with increases in older maternal age, plural births, cesarean deliveries, and conception from infertility treatment. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the risk of severe maternal morbidity by maternal fertility status, and for IVF pregnancies, by oocyte source and embryo state combinations. STUDY DESIGN: Women in eight States who underwent in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycles resulting in a live birth during 2004-13 were linked to their infant's birth certificates; a 10:1 sample of births from non-IVF deliveries were selected for comparison; those with an indication of infertility treatment on the birth certificate were categorized as subfertile, all others were categorized as fertile...
October 12, 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
Pranvera Zejnullahu Raçi, Lea Hošnjak, Mario Poljak, Snježana Židovec Lepej, Adriana Vince
OBJECTIVES: Kosovo's current health care system does not support organized nationwide cervical cancer screening and human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination programs. To date, no reliable data are available on cervical cancer incidence and mortality in Kosovo, or on high-risk HPV (HR-HPV) prevalence and HPV type distribution. Our aim is to determinate the pre-vaccination prevalence and distribution of HR-HPVs and to assesses the associations between sociodemographic characteristics and increased risk of HPV infection in women from Kosovo...
2018: Ginekologia Polska
Ivo Brosens, Joanne Muter, Lauren Ewington, Patrick Puttemans, Felice Petraglia, Jan J Brosens, Giuseppe Benagiano
Preeclampsia is an important cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity, especially in first-time pregnant adolescent women. Although prevention of preeclampsia has been attempted for many decades, effective intervention can only be achieved upon the full elucidation of the risk factors and mechanisms of disease. As the pathogenesis of preeclampsia during adolescence may differ from that in older women, preventive interventions should be tailored accordingly. During adolescence, 4 putative drivers of preeclampsia can be identified...
October 15, 2018: Reproductive Sciences
Telmo Henrique Barbosa de Lima, Leila Katz, Samir Buainain Kassar, Melania Maria Amorim
BACKGROUND: To investigate the associations of maternal variables - sociodemographic, obstetrical and maternal near miss (MNM) variables - with neonatal near miss (NNM) using the new concept of NNM formulated by the Centro Latino-Americano de Perinatologia (CLAP) and the corresponding health indicators for NNM. METHODS: An analytical prospective cohort study was performed at maternity hospital for high-risk pregnancy in Northeastern Brazil. Puerperal women whose newborn infants met the selection criteria were subjected to interviews involving pretested questionnaires...
October 12, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Hege H Johannessen, Signe N Stafne, Ragnhild S Falk, Arvid Stordahl, Arne Wibe, Siv Mørkved
AIMS: The main aim of the present study, was to explore prevalence and predictors of anal incontinence (AI) experienced 6 years after first delivery. METHODS: In this longitudinal prospective cohort study, participants in a previous study answered questions about AI 6 years after first delivery using postal or digital questionnaires. Prevalence of AI was calculated, and multivariable logistic regression analyses were applied. RESULTS: A total of 731 (48%) of the original participants who gave birth to their first child between May 2009 and December 2010 responded 6 years after first delivery...
October 12, 2018: Neurourology and Urodynamics
Yajie Chang, Jingjie Li, Xiaolan Li, Hong'e Liu, Xiaoyan Liang
BACKGROUND This study investigated the quality and quantity of eggs and embryos as well as the clinical pregnancy outcome in young infertile women with diminished ovarian reserve (DOR) after in vitro fertilization/intracytoplasmic sperm injection (IVF/ICSI). MATERIAL AND METHODS We retrospectively reviewed records of 4285 infertile women and divided them into 3 groups according to age and ovarian reserve: young women with normal ovarian reserve (n=1695), young women with DOR (n=1121), and older women with DOR (n=1469)...
October 12, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Clara Southby, Alison Cooke, Tina Lavender
BACKGROUND: Delayed pregnancy is increasingly common in many countries including the UK. There has been international interest in providing maternity care which aims to improve outcomes for mothers and babies when pregnancy occurs after the age of 35. Despite this, there is a lack of understanding of the experience of pregnancy at advanced maternal age from the woman's perspective. OBJECTIVES: To explore the experience of uncomplicated pregnancy for nulliparous women aged 35 and over and determine key processes involved in their pregnancy journey...
September 11, 2018: Midwifery
Julie Barsalou, Nathalie Costedoat-Chalumeau, Adey Berhanu, Cesar Fors-Nieves, Ummara Shah, Patrick Brown, Carl A Laskin, Nathalie Morel, Kateri Levesque, Jill P Buyon, Earl D Silverman, Peter M Izmirly
OBJECTIVE: Cutaneous neonatal lupus (cNL) occurs in possibly 5%-16% of anti-Ro±anti-La antibody-exposed infants. Data suggest in utero exposure to hydroxychloroquine (HCQ) may prevent cardiac NL. The aim was to assess whether in utero exposure to HCQ decreases the risk of cNL and/or delays onset. METHODS: A multicentre case-control study was performed with 122 cNL cases and 434 controls born to women with a rheumatological disease who had documentation of maternal anti-Ro±anti-La antibodies at pregnancy and confirmation of medication use and the child's outcome...
October 8, 2018: Annals of the Rheumatic Diseases
Iwona Rościszewska-Żukowska, Monika Zając-Mnich, Piotr Janik
OBJECTIVE: White matter hyperintensities (WMHs) were often found in migraine patients. The aim of study was to characterize WMHs, assess their prevalence, determine relationship to clinical symptoms and homocysteine levels in migraine females. METHODS: 69 women 38 with migraine without aura (MO), 31 with migraine with aura (MA) who underwent brain MRI with 1.5T scanner were enrolled. The WMHs number, location and size in FLAIR sequence were evaluated. Migraine severity was measured by pain intensity, number of attacks per month and MIDAS scale...
September 27, 2018: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
Thokozile Rosemary Malaba, Marie-Louise Newell, Hlengiwe Madlala, Alexander Perez, Clive Gray, Landon Myer
PURPOSE: Heterogeneous findings exist on antiretroviral therapy (ART) use in pregnancy and preterm delivery (PTD) or infants born small-for-gestational age (SGA). Whether reported differences may be explained by methods used to ascertain gestational age (GA) has not been explored. METHODS: We enrolled consecutive pregnant women attending a large primary care antenatal clinic in South Africa. Public-sector midwives assessed GA by last menstrual period (LMP) and symphysis-fundal height (SFH)...
August 29, 2018: Annals of Epidemiology
Felix Boria, Maria de la Calle, Marcos Cuerva, Angela Sainz, Jose Luis Bartha
AIM: To evaluate obstetric and perinatal outcomes of twin pregnancies obtained after in vitro fertilization with donated oocytes. METHODS: This is a case-control study comparing 50 women with twin pregnancies after oocyte donation and 50 women after in vitro fertilization with autologous oocytes. Clinical records were reviewed and obstetric and perinatal outcome variables including rates of preeclampsia, gestational diabetes, pregnancy induced hypertension, preterm delivery, premature rupture of membranes, cesarean delivery, birth weight, Apgar score, pH test were compared...
October 8, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Zuha Jeddy, Katarzyna Kordas, Kristen Allen, Ethel V Taylor, Kate Northstone, W Dana Flanders, Gonza Namulanda, Andreas Sjodin, Terryl J Hartman
BACKGROUND: The developing brain is susceptible to exposure to neurodevelopmental toxicants such as pesticides. AIMS: We explored associations of prenatal serum concentrations of hexachlorobenzene (HCB), beta-Hexachlorocyclohexane (β-HCH), 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl)-1,1-dichloroethene (p,p'-DDE) and 2,2-Bis(4-chlorophenyl-1,1,1-trichloroethane (p,p'-DDT) with maternal-reported measures of verbal and non-verbal communication in young girls. STUDY DESIGN AND METHODS: We studied a sample of 400 singleton girls and their mothers participating in the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC) using multivariable linear regression models adjusting for parity, Home Observation Measurement of the Environment (HOME) score, maternal age and education status, and maternal tobacco use during the first trimester of pregnancy...
October 5, 2018: Neurotoxicology
Tianhua Huang, Shelley Dougan, Mark Walker, Christine M Armour, Nan Okun
BACKGROUND: In 2014, Ontario augmented its publicly funded multiple-marker screening program for prenatal aneuploidy by incorporating cell-free fetal DNA (cffDNA) analysis for high-risk pregnancies. We assessed trends in the use of multiple-marker screening, cffDNA screening and prenatal diagnostic testing before and after implementation of public funding. METHODS: We conducted a descriptive study based on data from the Better Outcomes Registry & Network (BORN) Ontario...
October 2018: CMAJ Open
Moon Kyoung Cho
While perimenopausal women have low fecundity, they are still capable of becoming pregnant and the majority of pregnancies occurring during perimenopause are unintended pregnancies. Therefore, even during perimenopause, contraception must be used if unintended pregnancies are to be avoided. However, many perimenopausal women and healthcare providers believe that older people should not take combined oral contraceptives (COC) because doing so may be dangerous. However, to date, there is no evidence that taking COC presents an increased risk of cardiovascular events or breast cancer for middle-aged women as compared to other age groups, and in their recommendations, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) also do not list age itself as a contraindication for COC...
September 2018: Chonnam Medical Journal
Siobhan Enright, Sonia Varadkar, Alison Demaio, Catherine Flynn, Fionnuala Ni Áinle, Mark P Hehir
Background Hemorrhage is a critical contributor to maternal morbidity but estimation of blood loss at delivery is frequently inaccurate. Due to this inaccuracy we sought to examine blood transfusion as a surrogate marker for morbidity in a large non-population based consecutive cohort. Methods A retrospective analysis of prospectively gathered data was carried out at two university institutions serving a heterogeneous urban obstetric population from January to December 2016. Data were analyzed to determine whether individual characteristics were associated with perinatal transfusion...
October 4, 2018: Journal of Perinatal Medicine
Becca Feldman, Sharon Orbach-Zinger, Maya Leventer-Roberts, Moshe Hoshen, Noa Dagan, Ran Balicer, Leonid A Eidelman
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether a woman's age at first birth is associated with cardiovascular risk and metabolic health outcomes (cardiometabolic outcomes) by age 45. METHODS: This is a retrospective, population-based cohort study that uses electronic health record data from the largest health fund in Israel. Women aged 34-39 at baseline (2004-2006) free of chronic diseases were identified as nulliparous at baseline and were followed up to 10 years (through 2016)...
October 2, 2018: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
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