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Nathan C Twaddle, Michelle Vanlandingham, Frederick A Beland, Jeffrey W Fisher, Daniel R Doerge
Arsenic is a ubiquitous contaminant, with typical human dietary intake below 1 μg/kg bw/d and extreme drinking water exposures up to ∼50 μg/kg bw/d. The formation and binding of trivalent metabolites are central to arsenic toxicity and strong human evidence suggests special concern for early life exposures in the etiology of adult diseases, especially cancer. This study measured the metabolism and disposition of arsenite in neonatal mice to understand the role of maturation in metabolic activation and detoxification of arsenic...
October 17, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Waqar Ahmed, Saeed Tariq, Gulfaraz Khan
Epstein-Barr virus-encoded RNAs (EBER1 and EBER2) are two highly abundant, non-protein coding RNAs consistently expressed in all EBV infected cells, but their function remains poorly understood. Conventional in situ hybridization studies have indicated that these RNAs are present exclusively in the nucleus. We have recently demonstrated that EBERs can be excreted from infected cells via exosomes. However, the details of the steps involved in their excretion remain unknown. In this study, we aimed to directly track the journey of EBERs from the nucleus to the excretory exosomes of EBV immortalized B-lymphocytes...
October 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Qing Yu, Maria Munawar, Jianfeng Gu, Weimin Ye
Three populations of neotylenchid nematodes were isolated in Ningbo, P. R. China, from white pine lumber (Pinus monticola) imported from the USA. The nematodes were morphologically intermediate between Hexatylus and Deladenus. The nematodes were molecularly characterized based on sequences of the rDNA small subunit 18S, large subunit 28S D2/D3, and internal transcribed spacer sequences. The phylogenetic inferences placed the nematodes with other neotylenchid nematodes, i.e., Fergusobia and Rubzovinema. Based on the morphology and phylogenetic analysis, this nematode is described herein as Delatylus andersoni n...
May 31, 2018: Journal of Nematology
Majid Khanmohammadi, Reza Falak, Ahmad Reza Meamar, Elham Razmjou, Kobra Mokhtarian, Mehdi Arshadi, Nasrin Shayanfar, Lame Akhlaghi
Dirofilariasis is a zoonotic global vector-borne disease caused by Dirofilaria immitis. The present study focuses on the somatic and excretory/secretory (E/S) proteins released from adult D. immitis. We aimed to fractionate and identify adult D. immitis immunoreactive proteins. Somatic and E/S extracts were immunoblotted to identify the immunoreactive proteins. In the current study, we used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF/MS) to characterize the immunogenic proteins...
October 17, 2018: Parasite Immunology
Caixia Han, Jie Yu, Ziqun Zhang, Peng Zhai, Yan Zhang, Shi Meng, Yang Yu, Xiaoyun Li, Mingxin Song
Helminths and their products can suppress the host immune response and other immunopathologies which may benefit parasite survival. Parasitic nematode Trichinella spiralis (T. spiralis) exert immunomodulatory effect on the host immune response through excretory-secretory (ES) products. However, the immunomodulatory mechanism is not yet completely understood or defined. Macrophages play a key role in modulating the host immune response to helminth parasite infection. Here, we focus on the effect of T. spiralis ES antigens on the immune response by studying the effect of ES antigens on RAW264...
October 11, 2018: Experimental Parasitology
Terézia Mačák Kubašková, Dagmar Mudroňová, Samuel Velebný, Gabriela Hrčková
Metacestode (larval) stages of zoonotic cestodes of medical and veterinary importance cause chronic infections associated with immunosuppression. During mouse model of cestode infection induced by larvae of Mesocestoides (M.) vogae, we investigated the effects of dialyzable leukocyte extract (DLE) containing low-molecular weight substances (under 10 kDa) prepared from peripheral blood leukocytes of healthy human donors (available under commercial name IMMODIN). In the experiment, the effects of DLE as adjuvant to anthelmintic albendazole (ABZ) as well ABZ mono-therapy were also investigated...
October 10, 2018: International Immunopharmacology
Rogger P Carmen-Orozco, Danitza G Dávila-Villacorta, Yudith Cauna, Edson G Bernal-Teran, Leandra Bitterfeld, Graham L Sutherland, Nancy Chile, Rensson H Céliz, María C Ferrufino-Schmidt, Cesar M Gavídia, Charles R Sterling, Héctor H García, Robert H Gilman, Manuela Renee Verástegui
Neurocysticercosis (NCC) is a helminth infection affecting the central nervous system caused by the larval stage (cysticercus) of Taenia solium. Since vascular alteration and blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption contribute to NCC pathology, it is postulated that angiogenesis could contribute to the pathology of this disease. This study used a rat model for NCC and evaluated the expression of two angiogenic factors called vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF-A) and fibroblast growth factor (FGF2). Also, two markers for BBB disruption, the endothelial barrier antigen and immunoglobulin G, were evaluated using immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence techniques...
October 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Research
Yusuke Yagihashi, Shuichi Shimabukuro, Tomotune Toyosato, Yoshitaka Arakaki
PURPOSE: Acute pyelonephritis (AP), a complication of urolithiasis, can be fatal if it progresses to septic shock. We aimed to evaluate the performance of excretory phase computed tomography (CT) in predicting bacteremia among AP patients with upper urinary tract calculi. METHODS: We reviewed medical records of 250 patients diagnosed with AP and upper urinary tract calculi and who were admitted to our institute. We analyzed 132 patients who underwent excretory phase CT...
October 13, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Norbert HÖser
The objective of this paper is to relate species occurrences of the earthworm genus Proctodrilus to soil properties, in particular the horizons and layers in the soil profile. Data on the occurrence in the soil profile of the earthworm species Proctodrilus antipai (Michaelsen, 1891), P. opisthoductus Zicsi, 1985, P. thaleri Höser Zicsi 2009, and P. tuberculatus (Černosvitov, 1935) were collected in central Germany, northern Bohemia, Hungary, and Romania. Species of Proctodrilus were collected from 138 sites in total, P...
October 4, 2018: Zootaxa
Munawar Maria, Ruihang Cai, Nan Qu, Pablo Castillo, Jingwu Zheng
Sheath nematodes of the genus Hemicycliophora are migratory root-ectoparasites of many crops, but the damage is documented for only a few species. Hemicycliophora subbotini n. sp., isolated in Hangzhou, Zhejiang, China, from the rhizosphere of camphor tree (Cinnamomum camphora (L.) Presl), is described and characterized morphologically and molecularly with important morphological details elucidated by SEM studies. The new species can be characterized by the conoid lip region, with bulging oral disc protruding beyond the first annulus in some specimens...
June 11, 2018: Zootaxa
Molly Hope Broome Amador, M Danielle McDonald
In mammals, circulating serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT) is sequestered by platelets via the 5-HT transporter (SERT) to prevent unintended signaling by this potent signaling molecule. Teleost fish appear to lack a similar circulating storage pool, although the diverse effects of 5-HT in teleosts likely necessitate an alternative method of tight regulation, such as uptake by peripheral tissues. Here, a 5-HT radiotracer was used to explore the 5-HT uptake capacity of peripheral tissues in the Gulf toadfish, Opsanus beta, and to elucidate the primary excretion routes of 5-HT and its metabolites...
October 10, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Martin Giera, Maria M M Kaisar, Rico J E Derks, Evelyne Steenvoorden, Yvonne C M Kruize, Cornelis H Hokke, Maria Yazdanbakhsh, Bart Everts
Schistosoma mansoni is a parasitic helminth that infects millions of people mostly in tropical parts of the world. Different life cycle stages of S.mansoni, that infect or develop in the human host, promote distinct immune responses and are known for their ability to modulate host immune responses. However, the molecular mechanisms through which the parasites interact with, and modulate the host immune system remain incompletely understood. Despite the well-known ability of various lipids to modulate immune responses, a comprehensive analysis of the lipidome of the different life cycle stages has not been performed...
December 11, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Yaghob Azadi, Ehsan Ahmadpour, Hamed Hamishehkar, Ahmad Daryani, Adel Spotin, Mahmoud Mahami-Oskouei, Aleksandra Barac, Saba Rajabi, Paria Alizadeh, Mahbobeh Montazeri
BACKGROUND: Toxoplasmosis is an infectious disease caused by the intracellular parasite Toxoplasma gondii. Although almost 1/3 of the world's population are seropositive, there is no effective vaccine against toxoplasmosis. Therefore, the development of an effective vaccine for control of toxoplasmosis is one of major concerns in parasitology. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of nano-liposomal excretory-secretory antigens (NLESA) in BALB/c mice. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Excretory-secretory antigens (ESA) was obtained from tachyzoites, encapsulated in the liposome and studied by scanning electron microscope...
August 2018: Comparative Immunology, Microbiology and Infectious Diseases
Mike Jones, Charles Tomson
The introduction of the term 'acute kidney injury' (AKI) along with an international classification scheme,1 caused some initial confusion, but most clinicians and many patients now understand that the term 'injury' denotes damage to the internal workings of the kidney, rather than physical trauma. However, of greater concern is the use of the term 'nephrotoxic' to include drugs that are, in most settings, nephroprotective. We argue that this imprecise terminology, unfortunately adopted by the National Institute for Health and Care Excellence (NICE) among others, is potentially harmful, and that the terms 'nephrotoxin' and 'nephrotoxic' should not be used to describe haemodynamically mediated and fully reversible effects of some drugs on excretory function...
October 2018: Clinical Medicine: Journal of the Royal College of Physicians of London
Scott C Cutmore, Matthew J Nolan, Thomas H Cribb
Eight species of the trematode family Bucephalidae Poche, 1907 are reported from teleost fishes in Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia. Heterobucephalopsis yongi n. sp. is described from Gymnothorax eurostus (Muraenidae); the new form is distinguished from its congeners in the possession of a tiny cirrus-sac relative to body length, the length of the caecum, the position of the mouth and pharynx, and the position of the testes and ovary. Two known species of Dollfustrema Eckmann, 1934, D. durum Nolan, Curran, Miller, Cutmore, Cantacessi & Cribb, 2015 and D...
October 3, 2018: Systematic Parasitology
Abolfazl Mirzadeh, Asiyeh Yoosefy, Elham Kazemirad, Zahra Barati, Majid Golkar, Jalal Babaie, Farid Jafarihaghighi, Zarrintaj Valadkhani
Diagnosis of fascioliasis with high sensitivity and specificity antigens play a vital role in the management of the disease. Majority of commercial serological tests use F. hepatica native antigens and indicate wide diversities in test accuracy. Nowadays, recombinant antigens have been introduced as diagnostic reagents offer better test standardization. A combination of highly pure recombinant antigens associated with correct folding will leads to improve specificity and sensitivity of ELISA for diagnosis of Fascioliasis...
2018: PloS One
Shusaku Maeda, Hisashi Motomura, Takaharu Hatano, Ayaka Deguchi
The resection of malignant tumors in medial canthal region may lead to full-thickness defects including medial canthal ligament and lacrimal duct. There had been reports on various reconstructive methods, but none of those methods succeeded in lacrimal reconstruction with functional lacrimal excretory system. We experienced a case of conjunctival malignant melanoma at the lacrimal caruncle and performed new method of the reconstruction for full-thickness defects of the medial canthal region with the maintenance of the lacrimal drainage function...
June 2018: Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery. Global Open
Frantisek Staud, Rona Karahoda
The placenta is the first organ to be created during mammalian development. As the main link between the mother and the fetus it has more diverse functions than any other organ, serving as a digestive, excretory, respiratory, endocrine, and immune system. The outer layer of the placenta, the trophoblast, plays a key role in fetal development by orchestrating all these functions. Recent research has associated perturbations of maternal conditions (such as malnutrition, stress or inflammation) with alterations of the trophoblasts' endocrine, transport and metabolic processes...
September 25, 2018: International Journal of Biochemistry & Cell Biology
Neal R Rasmussen, Daniel J Dickinson, David J Reiner
The notoriety of the small GTPase Ras as the most mutated oncoprotein has led to a well-characterized signaling network largely conserved across metazoans. Yet the role of its close relative Rap1 (Ras Proximal), which shares 100% identity between their core effector binding sequences, remains unclear. A long-standing controversy in the field is whether Rap1 also functions to activate the canonical Ras effector, the S/T kinase Raf. We used the developmentally simpler Caenorhabditis elegans , which lacks the extensive paralog redundancy of vertebrates, to examine the role of RAP-1 in two distinct LET-60/Ras-dependent cell fate patterning events: induction of 1° vulval precursor cell (VPC) fate and of the excretory duct cell...
September 26, 2018: Genetics
Sassan Noazin, Jessica A Lee, Edith S Malaga, Edward Valencia Ayala, Beth J Condori, Cristian Roca, Andres G Lescano, Caryn Bern, Walter Castillo, Holger Mayta, Maria Carmen Menduiña, Manuela R Verastegui, Freddy Tinajeros, Robert H Gilman
Background: Congenital Trypanosoma cruzi accounts for an estimated 22% of new cases in Latin America. However, neonatal diagnosis is challenging, as 9-month follow-up for IgG testing is poor, qPCR is not routinely performed, and micromethod misses more than 40% of congenital infections. Methods: Biorepository samples from new mothers and their infants from Piura, Peru (non-endemic area), and Santa Cruz, Bolivia (endemic) were accessed. Infant specimens were assessed using micromethod, qPCR and TESA blot for IgM SAPA bands, using qPCR as the gold standard...
September 25, 2018: Journal of Infectious Diseases
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