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Martin Kaufmann, Corine Martineau, Alice Arabian, Mary Traynor, René St-Arnaud, Glenville Jones
Calcitroic acid, the excretory form of vitamin D, is the terminal product of a 5-step pathway catalyzed by CYP24A1, commencing with C24-hydroxylation of 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (1,25-(OH)2 D3 ). Catabolism of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 (25-OH-D3 ) proceeds via analogous steps culminating in calcioic acid; however this C23-truncated acid has not been reported in the circulation. It has recently been shown that 24,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (24,25-(OH)2 D3 ) is an important factor in optimal bone fracture healing acting via an effector molecule FAM57B2 to produce lactosylceramide...
December 13, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Joseph R Grajo, Russell S Terry, Justin Ruoss, Blake J Noennig, Jonathan G Pavlinec, Shahab Bozorgmehri, Paul L Crispen, Li-Ming Su
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the ability of Aorta-Lesion-Attenuation-Difference (ALAD) to differentiate malignant renal tumors from renal oncocytomas. METHODS: A retrospective review of preoperative CT scans and surgical pathology was performed on patients undergoing partial nephrectomy for small, solid renal masses. ALAD was calculated by measuring the difference in Hounsfield units (HU) between the aorta and the lesion of interest on the same image slice on preoperative CT scan...
December 12, 2018: Urology
Alexander Bollenbach, Dimitrios Tsikas
Asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and symmetric dimethylarginine (SDMA) are endogenous inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthase. SDMA is excreted in the urine without major metabolization. About 10% of daily produced ADMA are excreted unchanged in the urine. The major elimination route of ADMA (about 90%) involves its hydrolysis to dimethylamine (DMA) and L-citrulline by dimethylarginine dimethylaminohydrolase (DDAH) and excretion of DMA in the urine. High circulating and low excretory concentrations of ADMA are considered risk factors...
December 8, 2018: Amino Acids
Myung-Jin Moon
Among the triad spinning units for capture thread producing system in the orb-web spiders, aqueous gluey substances are produced from two pairs of aggregate silk glands (ASG). Although biochemical analysis of glue substance is produced by way of their passage through the ASG, its structural modifications in the nodular area have been nearly neglected till now. This paper focused on identifying the fine structural characteristics of the aggregate nodules in the golden orb-web spider Nephila clavata using both of light and transmission electron microscopes...
2018: Animal Cells and Systems
Nathan Egnew, Nilima Renukdas, Yathish Ramena, Amit K Yadav, Anita M Kelly, Rebecca T Lochmann, Amit Kumar Sinha
Waterborne ammonia is an environmental pollutant that is toxic to all aquatic animals. However, ammonia induced toxicity as well as compensatory mechanisms to defend against high environmental ammonia (HEA) are not well documented at present for largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), a high value fish for culture and sport fisheries in the United States. To provide primary information on the sensitivity of this species to ammonia toxicity, a 96 h-LC50 test was conducted. Thereafter, responses at physiological, ion-regulatory and transcript levels were determined to get insights into the underlying adaptive strategies to ammonia toxicity...
November 30, 2018: Aquatic Toxicology
Jing Wei, Jingrui Chen, Lingling Fu, Lifeng Han, Xiumei Gao, Michael Sarhene, Limin Hu, Youcai Zhang, Guanwei Fan
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Polygonum multiflorum Thunb( Heshouwu, HSW) is commonly used in clinical medicine, while the hepatotoxicities of HSW are reported increasingly in recent years. Currently, researchers have demonstrated an essential role of Bile Acids (BAs) in liver diseases. The occurrence of hepatotoxicity cases linked to HSW are characterized by jaundice and cholestasis, suggesting an interaction that between BAs and HSW AIM OF THE STUDY: This study was designed to investigate the HSW-induced liver functional and histological changes in mice and the role of HSW on bile acid synthesis, metabolism, clearance and intestinal absorption...
December 6, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Daniel L Jones, Suzanne W van Landingham, John-Paul J Yu, Mark J Lucarelli
A 59-year-old Caucasian woman with past medical history significant for Natural Killer (NK)/T-cell lymphoma of the right nasal septum in remission for nine months presented after surveillance PET-CT imaging revealed increased metabolic activity in the right nasolacrimal duct. She also reported ipsilateral epiphora starting around this time. The lacrimal sac and nasolacrimal ductal mucosa were biopsied via an external approach. Pathologic evaluation revealed a proliferation of lymphoid cells with necrotic tissue...
December 5, 2018: Orbit
Pavel Roudnický, Jiří Vorel, Jana Ilgová, Michal Benovics, Adam Norek, Lucie Jedličková, Libor Mikeš, David Potěšil, Zbyněk Zdráhal, Jan Dvořák, Milan Gelnar, Martin Kašný
BACKGROUND: Serpins are a superfamily of serine peptidase inhibitors that participate in the regulation of many physiological and cell peptidase-mediated processes in all organisms (e.g. in blood clotting, complement activation, fibrinolysis, inflammation, and programmed cell death). It was postulated that in the blood-feeding members of the monogenean family Diplozoidae, serpins could play an important role in the prevention of thrombus formation, activation of complement, inflammation in the host, and/or in the endogenous regulation of protein degradation...
2018: Parasite: Journal de la Société Française de Parasitologie
Svetlana Filimonova
Silk spinning is widely-spread in trombidiform mites, yet scarse information is available on the morphology of their silk glands. Thus this study describes the fine structure of the prosomal silk glands in a small parasitic mite, Ornithocheyletia sp. (Cheyletidae). These are paired acinous glands incorporated into the podocephalic system, as typical of the order. Combined secretion of the coxal and silk glands is released at the tip of the gnathosoma. Data obtained show Ornithocheyletia silk gland belonging to the class 3 arthropod exocrine gland...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Morphology
Kathryn M Huson, Russell M Morphew, Nathan R Allen, Matthew J Hegarty, Hillary J Worgan, Susan E Girdwood, Eleanor L Jones, Helen C Phillips, Martin Vickers, Martin Swain, Daniel Smith, Alison H Kingston-Smith, Peter M Brophy
BACKGROUND: Diseases caused by parasitic flatworms of rumen tissues (paramphistomosis) are a significant threat to global food security as a cause of morbidity and mortality in ruminant livestock in subtropical and tropical climates. Calicophoron daubneyi is currently the only paramphistome species commonly infecting ruminant livestock in temperate European climates. However, recorded incidences of C. daubneyi infection in European livestock have been increasing over the last decade. Whilst clinical paramphistomosis caused by adult worms has not been confirmed in Europe, fatalities have been attributed to severe haemorrhagic enteritis of the small intestine resulting from the migration of immature paramphistomes...
December 4, 2018: Parasites & Vectors
Hajar Owji, Shiva Hemmati
Anabaena variabilis double mutant (C503S/C565S) phenylalanine ammonia-lyase (PAL) is an appealing enzyme in the enzyme-replacement therapy of phenylketonuria. Yet abundant production of this enzyme has been of concern for industrial production. In this study, we have characterized 1175 bacterial signal peptides (SPs) and identified the most efficient ones for the excretory production of mutant AvPAL. Analysis by SignalP 4.1 revealed that more than 61% of SPs had a D -score greater than 0.7, denoting to be highly efficient...
December 2018: 3 Biotech
Sylwia A Stopka, Rikkita Khattar, Beverly J Agtuca, Christopher R Anderton, Ljiljana Paša-Tolić, Gary Stacey, Akos Vertes
Phenotypic variations and stochastic expression of transcripts, proteins, and metabolites in biological tissues lead to cellular heterogeneity. As a result, distinct cellular subpopulations emerge. They are characterized by different metabolite expression levels and by associated metabolic noise distributions. To capture these biological variations unperturbed, highly sensitive in situ analytical techniques are needed that can sample tissue embedded single cells with minimum sample preparation. Optical fiber-based laser ablation electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (f-LAESI-MS) is a promising tool for metabolic profiling of single cells under ambient conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Plant Science
Natthaphat Siri-Angkul, Lai-Hua Xie, Siriporn C Chattipakorn, Nipon Chattipakorn
Iron, the most abundant transition metal element in the human body, plays an essential role in many physiological processes. However, without a physiologically active excretory pathway, iron is subject to strict homeostatic processes acting upon its absorption, storage, mobilization, and utilization. These intricate controls are perturbed in primary and secondary hemochromatoses, leading to a deposition of excess iron in multiple vital organs including the heart. Iron overload cardiomyopathy is the leading cause of mortality in patients with iron overload conditions...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Andrey B Shatrov, Elena V Soldatenko, Vitaliy A Stolbov, Petr A Smirnov, Olga A Petukhova
This study is the first attempt to describe the ultrastructure and functional morphology of the dermal glands in Limnochares aquatica (L., 1758). The dermal glands were studied using light-optical, SEM and TEM microscopy methods during different stages of their activity. In contrast to the vast majority of other fresh water mites, dermal glands of the studied species are originally multiplied and scattered freely at the mite body surface. The opening of the glands is saddle-like, formed of several tight cuticular folds and oriented freely to the long axis of the mite body...
November 26, 2018: Arthropod Structure & Development
M L Blagonravov, E V Medvedeva, A A Bryk, V A Goryachev, A E Rabinovich, A S Letoshneva, E A Demurov
We presented the results of our study of chronostructure of BP, HR, electrolyte excretion, and locomotor activity under conditions of "free-run rhythm" (light deprivation). In adult male Wistar-Kyoto (normotensive) and SHR (spontaneously hypertensive) rats, BP, biopotentials of the heart (ECG), and locomotor activity were recorded over 24 h by telemetric monitoring and the rate of excretion of electrolytes (Na+ , K+ , Ca2+ , and Mg2+ ) during the nighttime and daytime hours was measured. It was found that under free-run rhythm, 24-h profiles of BP, HR, excretory function of the kidneys, and locomotor activity underwent more considerable changes in normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats in comparison with hypertensive SHR rats...
December 2018: Bulletin of Experimental Biology and Medicine
M Esmaeili, B Golhasan, W Ye, R Heydari
A new species of Paurodontoides, P. siddiqii n. sp., is described and illustrated based on its morphological, morphometric, and molecular characters. The new species is characterized by a female 550-729 μm long, lip region continuous with body contour, stylet length 7.0-8.0 μm long or c. 1.0-1.2 times the lip region diameter, lateral fields with four smooth incisures, excretory pore at 85-125 μm from anterior end located at the base of the pharyngeal bulb or posterior to it, basal pharyngeal bulb with a short posterior extension projecting into the intestine, monodelphic-prodelphic reproductive system with prominent 19-22 μm long post-uterine sac, and elongate conoid tail with a filiform terminus...
November 29, 2018: Journal of Helminthology
Lucas Novaes Teixeira, Évelin Caroline Janner, Thaís Teixeira, Fabrício Passador-Santos, Elizabeth Ferreira Martinez, Ana Paula Dias Demasi, Ney Soares de Araújo, Vera Cavalcanti de Araújo
The present study aimed to compare the expression of p63/p40 with smooth muscle actin (SMA) and vimentin (VIM) by myoepithelial cells in minor salivary gland tumors. Fifty-two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples of minor salivary gland tumors derived from intercalated duct (pleomorphic adenoma [PA], adenoid cystic carcinoma [ACC], epithelial-myoepithelial carcinoma [EMC], polymorphous adenocarcinoma [PAC], and secretory carcinoma [SC]) and 3 samples of minor salivary gland tumors derived from excretory duct (mucoepidermoid carcinoma [MEC]) were evaluated by means of immunohistochemistry...
November 27, 2018: International Journal of Surgical Pathology
Ana Maria Abreu-Velez, Michael S Howard, Héctor Jose Lambraño Padilla, Sergio Tobon-Arroyave
Background: We have described a variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (EPF) in El Bagre area known as pemphigus Abreu-Manu. Our previous study suggested that Colombian EPF seemed to react with various plakin family proteins, such as desmoplakins, envoplakin, periplakin BP230, MYZAP, ARVCF, p0071 as well as desmoglein 1. Objectives: To explore whether patients affected by a new variant of endemic pemphigus foliaceus (El Bagre-EPF) demonstrated oral involvement. Materials and Methods: A case-control study was done by searching for oral changes in 45 patients affected by El Bagre-EPF, as well as 45 epidemiologically matched controls from the endemic area matched by demographics, oral hygiene habits, comorbidities, smoking habits, place of residence, age, sex, and work activity...
October 2018: Dermatology Practical & Conceptual
Zhen Zhao, Xu Gu, Junguo Li, Jun Li, Moyong Xue, Xiaowei Yang, Yunfeng Gao, Yuchang Qin
The objectives of the present study was to investigated the ractopamine (RAC) distribution and depletion process in various tissues of goat including liver, kidney, spleen, lung, heart, fat, bile, brain and the eyes. The experiment was carried out on 21 goats (18 treated and 3 controls). Treated goats were orally administered RAC in a dose of 1 mg/kg body mass per day for last 28 days and randomly sacrificed on withdrawal days of 0.25, 1, 3, 7, 14 and 21. RAC in all matrices were determined by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-quadrupole orbitrap high resolution mass spectrometry...
November 22, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Sorena Keihani, Ross E Anderson, James M Hotaling, Jeremy B Myers
Renal trauma research has historically focused on parenchymal injuries and the risk of bleeding. However, much less is known about the diagnosis and optimal management of urinary extravasation, which complicates ~30% of high-grade renal injuries. Immediate or delayed ureteral stenting is the most common procedure used to treat collecting system injuries when intervention is needed. However, the lack of evidence-based guidelines leaves the diagnosis and management of urinary extravasation largely dependent upon physicians' experience, initial and follow-up imaging protocols, and the definitions used for grading the injuries...
November 23, 2018: Nature Reviews. Urology
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