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Lysogenic bacteriophage

Yuanchao Zhan, Sijun Huang, Feng Chen
We report the complete genome sequences of five bacteriophages infecting Ruegeria pomeroyi DSS-3, a member of the marine Roseobacter lineage. The genomic sequences of these five bacteriophages are almost identical and are closely related to members of the Chivirus genus. The genes associated with the lysogenic cycle were also found.
September 2018: Microbiology resource announcements
Muhsin Jamal, Sayed M A U S Bukhari, Saadia Andleeb, Muhammad Ali, Sana Raza, Muhammad A Nawaz, Tahir Hussain, Sadeeq U Rahman, Syed S A Shah
Bacteriophages (phages/viruses) need host bacteria to replicate and propagate. Primarily, a bacteriophage contains a head/capsid to encapsidate the genetic material. Some phages contain tails. Phages encode endolysins to hydrolyze bacterial cell wall. The two main classes of phages are lytic or virulent and lysogenic or temperate. In comparison with antibiotics, to deal with bacterial infections, phage therapy is thought to be more effective. In 1921, the use of phages against bacterial infections was first demonstrated...
November 28, 2018: Journal of Basic Microbiology
Stefania Arioli, Giovanni Eraclio, Giulia Della Scala, Eros Neri, Stefano Colombo, Andrea Scaloni, Maria Grazia Fortina, Diego Mora
Streptococcus thermophilus DSM 20167T showed autolytic behavior when cultured in lactose- and sucrose-limited conditions. The amount of cell lysis induced was inversely related to the energetic status of the cells, as demonstrated by exposing cells to membrane-uncoupling and glycolysis inhibitors. Genome sequence analysis of strain DSM 20617T revealed the presence of a pac -type temperate bacteriophage, designated Φ20617, whose genomic organization and structure resemble those of temperate streptococcal bacteriophages...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Arshnee Moodley, Witold Kot, Sofia Nälgård, Dziuginta Jakociune, Horst Neve, Lars Hestbjerg Hansen, Luca Guardabassi, Finn K Vogensen
We aimed to isolate and characterize bacteriophages (phages) with preferential activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus pseudintermedius (MRSP), a multidrug-resistant canine pathogen. Four phages were isolated from canine faeces using two MRSP strains as initial hosts. Phage host range was evaluated by the spot test on 17 MRSP, 43 methicillin-susceptible S. pseudintermedius (MSSP), and six other staphylococci isolated from dogs. Transmission electron microscopy was used for presumptive identification followed by whole genome sequencing (WGS)...
November 12, 2018: Research in Veterinary Science
Astrid Wahl, Aurélia Battesti, Mireille Ansaldi
Thanks to the exponentially increasing number of publicly available bacterial genome sequences, one can now estimate the important contribution of integrated viral sequences to the diversity of bacterial genomes. Indeed, temperate bacteriophages are able to stably integrate the genome of their host through site-specific recombination and transmit vertically to the host siblings. Lysogenic conversion has been long acknowledged to provide additional functions to the host, and particularly to bacterial pathogen genomes where prophages contribute important virulence factors...
November 22, 2018: Molecular Microbiology
Sean Benler, Ana Georgina Cobián-Güemes, Katelyn McNair, Shr-Hau Hung, Kyle Levi, Rob Edwards, Forest Rohwer
BACKGROUND: Diversity-generating retroelements (DGRs) are genetic cassettes that selectively mutate target genes to produce hypervariable proteins. First characterized in Bordetella bacteriophage BPP-1, the DGR creates a hypervariable phage tail fiber that enables host tropism switching. Subsequent surveys for DGRs conclude that the majority identified to date are bacterial or archaeal in origin. This work examines bacteriophage and bacterial genomes for novel phage-encoded DGRs. RESULTS: This survey discovered 92 DGRs that were only found in phages exhibiting a temperate lifestyle...
October 23, 2018: Microbiome
Aleksandra Dydecka, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Sylwia Bloch, Gracja Topka, Agnieszka Necel, Logan W Donaldson, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Alicja Węgrzyn
The exo-xis region of lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contains several established and potential genes that are evolutionarily conserved, but not essential for phage propagation under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, deletion or overexpression of either the whole exo-xis region and important regulatory elements can significantly influence the regulation of phage development. This report defines specific roles for orf60a and orf61 in bacteriophage λ and Φ24B , a specific Shiga toxin-converting phage with clinical relevance...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Jaewoo Bai, Byeonghwa Jeon, Sangryeol Ryu
Salmonella contamination of fresh produce is the primary bacterial cause of a significant number of foodborne outbreaks and infections. Bacteriophages can be used as natural antibacterial agents to control foodborne pathogens. However, the rapid development of bacterial resistance to phage infection is a significant barrier to practical phage application. To overcome this problem, we developed a novel phage cocktail consisting of the three phages (BSPM4, BSP101 and BSP22A) that target different host receptors, including flagella, O-antigen and BtuB, respectively...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Qasim Ali
Bacteriophage can be an effective means of regulating bacterial populations when conditions allow phage invasion of bacterial colonies. Phage can either infect and lyse a host cell, or insert their DNA into the host cell genome; the latter process is called lysogeny. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system, linked with CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes, is a regulatory system present in a variety of bacteria which confers immunity against bacteriophage. Studies of the group behaviour of bacteria with CRISPR/Cas systems have provided evidence that CRISPR in lysogenized bacteria can cause an inability to form biofilm...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
P Buerger, K D Weynberg, E M Wood-Charlson, Y Sato, B L Willis, M J H van Oppen
Research into causative agents underlying coral disease have focused primarily on bacteria, whereas potential roles of viruses have been largely unaddressed. Bacteriophages may contribute to diseases through the lysogenic introduction of virulence genes into bacteria, or prevent diseases through lysis of bacterial pathogens. To identify candidate phages that may influence the pathogenicity of black band disease (BBD), communities of bacteria (16S rRNA) and T4-bacteriophages (gp23) were simultaneously profiled with amplicon sequencing among BBD-lesions and healthy-coral-tissue of Montipora hispida, as well as seawater (study site: the central Great Barrier Reef)...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Svetlana Alexeeva, Jesús Adrián Guerra Martínez, Maciej Spus, Eddy J Smid
BACKGROUND: In complex microbial ecosystems such as the marine environment, the gastrointestinal tract, but also in mixed culture fermentations, bacteriophages are frequently found to be a part of the microbial community. Moreover, prophages or prophage-like elements are frequently identified in sequenced bacterial genomes. The mixed undefined starter cultures represent an ecosystem which is shaped by long term evolution under relatively defined environmental conditions and provides an interesting model to study co-evolution of phages and their hosts as well as the impact of diversity on microbial community stability...
September 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Qiuyan Shao, Jimmy T Trinh, Lanying Zeng
Cellular decision-making guides complex development such as cell differentiation and disease progression. Much of our knowledge about decision-making is derived from simple models, such as bacteriophage lambda infection, in which lambda chooses between the vegetative lytic fate and the dormant lysogenic fate. This paradigmatic system is broadly understood but lacking mechanistic details, partly due to limited resolution of past studies. Here, we discuss how modern technologies have enabled high-resolution examination of lambda decision-making to provide new insights and exciting possibilities in studying this classical system...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qiuyan Shao, Michael G Cortes, Jimmy T Trinh, Jingwen Guan, Gábor Balázsi, Lanying Zeng
Cellular decision-making arises from the expression of genes along a regulatory cascade, which leads to a choice between distinct phenotypic states. DNA dosage variations, often introduced by replication, can significantly affect gene expression to ultimately bias decision outcomes. The bacteriophage lambda system has long served as a paradigm for cell-fate determination, yet the effect of DNA replication remains largely unknown. Here, through single-cell studies and mathematical modeling we show that DNA replication drastically boosts cI expression to allow lysogenic commitment by providing more templates...
August 31, 2018: iScience
Anne Aucouturier, Florian Chain, Philippe Langella, Elena Bidnenko
Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium of major importance for the dairy industry and for human health. Recent sequencing surveys of this species have provided evidence that all lactococcal genomes contain prophages and prophage-like elements. The prophage-related sequences encompass up to 10% of the bacterial chromosomes and thus contribute significantly to the genetic diversity of lactococci. However, the impact of these resident prophages on the physiology of L. lactis is presently unknown. The genome of the first sequenced prototype strain, L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yibao Chen, Lan Yang, Erchao Sun, Jiaoyang Song, Bin Wu
A novel virulent bacteriophage, vB_BbrM_PHB04, infecting Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from wastewater collected at a swine farm in China. Phage vB_BbrM_PHB04 exhibited growth over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions and showed different efficiency of plating values and lytic spectra within the same strains at 25 °C and 37 °C. High-throughput sequencing revealed that vB_BbrM_PHB04 has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with 124 putative open reading frames. Overall, the genome of vB_BbrM_PHB04 showed very low similarity (the highest nucleotide identity 82%, 1% coverage) to other phage sequences in the GenBank database...
September 18, 2018: Archives of Virology
Qiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Kai Pei, Jing Wang, Zhu Liu, Ping Yin, Donghai Peng, Tingting Zou
A bacteriophage can replicate and release virions from a host cell in the lytic cycle or switch to a lysogenic process in which the phage integrates itself into the host genome as a prophage. In Bacillus cells, some types of phages employ the arbitrium communication system, which contains an arbitrium hexapeptide, the cellular receptor AimR and the lysogenic negative regulator AimX. This system controls the decision between the lytic and lysogenic cycles. However, both the mechanism of molecular recognition between the arbitrium peptide and AimR and how downstream gene expression is regulated remain unknown...
November 2018: Nature Microbiology
Richard H Baltz
Bacteriophage contamination and cell lysis have been recurring issues with some actinomycetes used in the pharmaceutical fermentation industry since the commercialization of streptomycin in the 1940s. In the early years, spontaneous phage-resistant mutants or lysogens were isolated to address the problem. In some cases, multiple phages were isolated from different contaminated fermentors, so strains resistant to multiple phages were isolated to stabilize the fermentation processes. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, the early scaleup of the Escherichia coli fermentation process for the production of human insulin A and B chains encountered contamination with multiple coliphages...
November 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Marcos Parras-Moltó, Alberto López-Bueno
The oral cavity is a major portal of entry for human pathogens including viruses. However, metagenomics has revealed that highly personalized and time-persistent bacteriophage assemblages dominate this habitat. Most oral bacteriophages follow lysogenic life cycles, deploying complex strategies to manage bacterial homeostasis. Although bacterial dysbiosis underlies common oral pathologies such as caries and periodontitis, the cause of these bacteria replacements remains obscure, and it is theorized that bacteriophages play an important role...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Alexander Mellmann, Derek Pickard, Muna F Anjum, Angelika Fruth, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a cause of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). While O157:H7 is the dominant EHEC serotype, non-O157 EHEC have emerged as serious causes of disease. In Germany, the most important non-O157 O-serogroups causing one third of EHEC infections, including diarrhea as well as HUS, are O26, O103, O111 and O145. Interestingly, we identified EHEC O-serogroups O26 and O111 in one single sequence type complex, STC29, that also harbours atypical enteropathogenic E...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Zhenlong Yang, Shengjian Yuan, Ling Chen, Quan Liu, Haoran Zhang, Yingfei Ma, Ting Wei, Shuqiang Huang
AsXd-1, a bacteriophage that infects Aeromonas salmonicida, was isolated from the wastewater of a seafood market in Shenzhen, China. The 39,014-bp genome of this phage contains 52 open reading frames (ORFs), 30 of which were found to be homologous to reference sequences that putatively encode functional phage proteins. Nine out of the remaining 22 ORFs with unknown functions were unique to AsXd-1. Gene annotation suggests that AsXd-1 has both lysogenic and lytic life cycles. Furthermore, both phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit of terminase and genome sequence comparisons show that AsXd-1 is closely related to phages belonging to the genus Hk97virus...
November 2018: Archives of Virology
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