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Lysogenic bacteriophage

Aleksandra Dydecka, Bożena Nejman-Faleńczyk, Sylwia Bloch, Gracja Topka, Agnieszka Necel, Logan W Donaldson, Grzegorz Węgrzyn, Alicja Węgrzyn
The exo-xis region of lambdoid bacteriophage genomes contains several established and potential genes that are evolutionarily conserved, but not essential for phage propagation under laboratory conditions. Nevertheless, deletion or overexpression of either the whole exo-xis region and important regulatory elements can significantly influence the regulation of phage development. This report defines specific roles for orf60a and orf61 in bacteriophage λ and Φ24B , a specific Shiga toxin-converting phage with clinical relevance...
October 11, 2018: Viruses
Jaewoo Bai, Byeonghwa Jeon, Sangryeol Ryu
Salmonella contamination of fresh produce is the primary bacterial cause of a significant number of foodborne outbreaks and infections. Bacteriophages can be used as natural antibacterial agents to control foodborne pathogens. However, the rapid development of bacterial resistance to phage infection is a significant barrier to practical phage application. To overcome this problem, we developed a novel phage cocktail consisting of the three phages (BSPM4, BSP101 and BSP22A) that target different host receptors, including flagella, O-antigen and BtuB, respectively...
February 2019: Food Microbiology
Qasim Ali
Bacteriophage can be an effective means of regulating bacterial populations when conditions allow phage invasion of bacterial colonies. Phage can either infect and lyse a host cell, or insert their DNA into the host cell genome; the latter process is called lysogeny. The clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) system, linked with CRISPR-associated (Cas) genes, is a regulatory system present in a variety of bacteria which confers immunity against bacteriophage. Studies of the group behaviour of bacteria with CRISPR/Cas systems have provided evidence that CRISPR in lysogenized bacteria can cause an inability to form biofilm...
October 7, 2018: Journal of Biological Dynamics
P Buerger, K D Weynberg, E M Wood-Charlson, Y Sato, B L Willis, M J H van Oppen
Research into causative agents underlying coral disease have focused primarily on bacteria, whereas potential roles of viruses have been largely unaddressed. Bacteriophages may contribute to diseases through the lysogenic introduction of virulence genes into bacteria, or prevent diseases through lysis of bacterial pathogens. To identify candidate phages that may influence the pathogenicity of black band disease (BBD), communities of bacteria (16S rRNA) and T4-bacteriophages (gp23) were simultaneously profiled with amplicon sequencing among BBD-lesions and healthy-coral-tissue of Montipora hispida, as well as seawater (study site: the central Great Barrier Reef)...
October 2, 2018: Environmental Microbiology
Svetlana Alexeeva, Jesús Adrián Guerra Martínez, Maciej Spus, Eddy J Smid
BACKGROUND: In complex microbial ecosystems such as the marine environment, the gastrointestinal tract, but also in mixed culture fermentations, bacteriophages are frequently found to be a part of the microbial community. Moreover, prophages or prophage-like elements are frequently identified in sequenced bacterial genomes. The mixed undefined starter cultures represent an ecosystem which is shaped by long term evolution under relatively defined environmental conditions and provides an interesting model to study co-evolution of phages and their hosts as well as the impact of diversity on microbial community stability...
September 24, 2018: BMC Microbiology
Qiuyan Shao, Jimmy T Trinh, Lanying Zeng
Cellular decision-making guides complex development such as cell differentiation and disease progression. Much of our knowledge about decision-making is derived from simple models, such as bacteriophage lambda infection, in which lambda chooses between the vegetative lytic fate and the dormant lysogenic fate. This paradigmatic system is broadly understood but lacking mechanistic details, partly due to limited resolution of past studies. Here, we discuss how modern technologies have enabled high-resolution examination of lambda decision-making to provide new insights and exciting possibilities in studying this classical system...
September 21, 2018: Journal of Biological Chemistry
Qiuyan Shao, Michael G Cortes, Jimmy T Trinh, Jingwen Guan, Gábor Balázsi, Lanying Zeng
Cellular decision-making arises from the expression of genes along a regulatory cascade, which leads to a choice between distinct phenotypic states. DNA dosage variations, often introduced by replication, can significantly affect gene expression to ultimately bias decision outcomes. The bacteriophage lambda system has long served as a paradigm for cell-fate determination, yet the effect of DNA replication remains largely unknown. Here, through single-cell studies and mathematical modeling we show that DNA replication drastically boosts cI expression to allow lysogenic commitment by providing more templates...
August 31, 2018: iScience
Anne Aucouturier, Florian Chain, Philippe Langella, Elena Bidnenko
Lactococcus lactis is a lactic acid bacterium of major importance for the dairy industry and for human health. Recent sequencing surveys of this species have provided evidence that all lactococcal genomes contain prophages and prophage-like elements. The prophage-related sequences encompass up to 10% of the bacterial chromosomes and thus contribute significantly to the genetic diversity of lactococci. However, the impact of these resident prophages on the physiology of L. lactis is presently unknown. The genome of the first sequenced prototype strain, L...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Yibao Chen, Lan Yang, Erchao Sun, Jiaoyang Song, Bin Wu
A novel virulent bacteriophage, vB_BbrM_PHB04, infecting Bordetella bronchiseptica was isolated from wastewater collected at a swine farm in China. Phage vB_BbrM_PHB04 exhibited growth over a wide range of temperature and pH conditions and showed different efficiency of plating values and lytic spectra within the same strains at 25 °C and 37 °C. High-throughput sequencing revealed that vB_BbrM_PHB04 has a linear double-stranded DNA genome with 124 putative open reading frames. Overall, the genome of vB_BbrM_PHB04 showed very low similarity (the highest nucleotide identity 82%, 1% coverage) to other phage sequences in the GenBank database...
September 18, 2018: Archives of Virology
Qiang Wang, Zeyuan Guan, Kai Pei, Jing Wang, Zhu Liu, Ping Yin, Donghai Peng, Tingting Zou
A bacteriophage can replicate and release virions from a host cell in the lytic cycle or switch to a lysogenic process in which the phage integrates itself into the host genome as a prophage. In Bacillus cells, some types of phages employ the arbitrium communication system, which contains an arbitrium hexapeptide, the cellular receptor AimR and the lysogenic negative regulator AimX. This system controls the decision between the lytic and lysogenic cycles. However, both the mechanism of molecular recognition between the arbitrium peptide and AimR and how downstream gene expression is regulated remain unknown...
September 17, 2018: Nature Microbiology
Richard H Baltz
Bacteriophage contamination and cell lysis have been recurring issues with some actinomycetes used in the pharmaceutical fermentation industry since the commercialization of streptomycin in the 1940s. In the early years, spontaneous phage-resistant mutants or lysogens were isolated to address the problem. In some cases, multiple phages were isolated from different contaminated fermentors, so strains resistant to multiple phages were isolated to stabilize the fermentation processes. With the advent of recombinant DNA technology, the early scaleup of the Escherichia coli fermentation process for the production of human insulin A and B chains encountered contamination with multiple coliphages...
November 2018: Journal of Industrial Microbiology & Biotechnology
Marcos Parras-Moltó, Alberto López-Bueno
The oral cavity is a major portal of entry for human pathogens including viruses. However, metagenomics has revealed that highly personalized and time-persistent bacteriophage assemblages dominate this habitat. Most oral bacteriophages follow lysogenic life cycles, deploying complex strategies to manage bacterial homeostasis. Although bacterial dysbiosis underlies common oral pathologies such as caries and periodontitis, the cause of these bacteria replacements remains obscure, and it is theorized that bacteriophages play an important role...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Alexander Mellmann, Derek Pickard, Muna F Anjum, Angelika Fruth, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a cause of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). While O157:H7 is the dominant EHEC serotype, non-O157 EHEC have emerged as serious causes of disease. In Germany, the most important non-O157 O-serogroups causing one third of EHEC infections, including diarrhea as well as HUS, are O26, O103, O111 and O145. Interestingly, we identified EHEC O-serogroups O26 and O111 in one single sequence type complex, STC29, that also harbours atypical enteropathogenic E...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Zhenlong Yang, Shengjian Yuan, Ling Chen, Quan Liu, Haoran Zhang, Yingfei Ma, Ting Wei, Shuqiang Huang
AsXd-1, a bacteriophage that infects Aeromonas salmonicida, was isolated from the wastewater of a seafood market in Shenzhen, China. The 39,014-bp genome of this phage contains 52 open reading frames (ORFs), 30 of which were found to be homologous to reference sequences that putatively encode functional phage proteins. Nine out of the remaining 22 ORFs with unknown functions were unique to AsXd-1. Gene annotation suggests that AsXd-1 has both lysogenic and lytic life cycles. Furthermore, both phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit of terminase and genome sequence comparisons show that AsXd-1 is closely related to phages belonging to the genus Hk97virus...
November 2018: Archives of Virology
Nadine Fornelos, Douglas F Browning, Anja Pavlin, Zdravko Podlesek, Vesna Hodnik, Margarita Salas, Matej Butala
The GIL01 bacteriophage is a temperate phage that infects the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. During the lytic cycle, phage gene transcription is initiated from three promoters: P1 and P2, which control the expression of the early phage genes involved in genome replication and P3, which controls the expression of the late genes responsible for virion maturation and host lysis. Unlike most temperate phages, GIL01 lysogeny is not maintained by a dedicated phage repressor but rather by the host's regulator of the SOS response, LexA...
October 12, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Douglas R Deutsch, Bryan Utter, Kathleen J Verratti, Heike Sichtig, Luke J Tallon, Vincent A Fischetti
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen with well-characterized bacteriophage contributions to its virulence potential. Recently, we identified plasmidial and episomal prophages in S. aureus strains using an extra-chromosomal DNA (exDNA) isolation and sequencing approach, uncovering the plasmidial phage ϕBU01, which was found to encode important virulence determinants. Here, we expanded our extra-chromosomal sequencing of S. aureus , selecting 15 diverse clinical isolates with known chromosomal sequences for exDNA isolation and next-generation sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Inga Eichhorn, Katrin Heidemanns, Rainer G Ulrich, Herbert Schmidt, Torsten Semmler, Angelika Fruth, Astrid Bethe, David Goulding, Derek Pickard, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Bacteriophages play an important role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. A phage-mediated transfer of stx-genes to atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) which are prevalent in different hosts, would convert them to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). We decided to confirm this hypothesis experimentally to provide conclusive evidence that aEPEC isolated from different mammalian hosts are indeed progenitors of typical EHEC which gain the ability to produce Shiga-Toxin by lysogeny with stx-converting bacteriophages, utilizing the model phage Φ3538 Δstx2 ::cat...
October 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Josicelli Souza Crispim, Roberto Sousa Dias, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Maíra Paula de Sousa, Cynthia Canêdo da Silva, Mateus Ferreira Santana, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula
Bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio belong to the group of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). SRB generate significant liabilities in the petroleum industry, mainly due to their ability to microbiologically induce corrosion, biofilm formation and H2 S production. Bacteriophages are an alternative control method for SRB, whose information for this group of bacteria however, is scarce. The present study developed a workflow for the identification of complete prophages in Desulfovibrio. Poly-lysogenesis was shown to be common in Desulfovibrio...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susanne Bury, Manonmani Soundararajan, Richa Bharti, Rudolf von Bünau, Konrad U Förstner, Tobias A Oelschlaeger
Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli (STEC) such as Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are the major cause of foodborne illness in humans. In vitro studies showed the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) to efficiently inhibit the production of Stx. Life threatening EHEC strains as for example the serotype O104:H4, responsible for the great outbreak in 2011 in Germany, evolutionary developed from certain E. coli strains which got infected by stx2 -encoding lambdoid phages turning the E. coli into lysogenic and subsequently Stx producing strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bartosz Roszniowski, Siobhán McClean, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Burkholderia cenocepacia , is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that belongs to Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) group. BCC representatives carry various pathogenicity factors and can infect humans and plants. Phages as bacterial viruses play a significant role in biodiversity and ecological balance in the environment. Specifically, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and lysogenic conversion (temperate phages) influence microbial diversification and fitness. In this study, we describe the prevalence and gene content of prophages in 16 fully sequenced B...
May 31, 2018: Viruses
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