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Lysogenic bacteriophage

Inga Eichhorn, Torsten Semmler, Alexander Mellmann, Derek Pickard, Muna F Anjum, Angelika Fruth, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) are a cause of bloody diarrhea, hemorrhagic colitis (HC) and the potentially fatal hemolytic uremic syndrome (HUS). While O157:H7 is the dominant EHEC serotype, non-O157 EHEC have emerged as serious causes of disease. In Germany, the most important non-O157 O-serogroups causing one third of EHEC infections, including diarrhea as well as HUS, are O26, O103, O111 and O145. Interestingly, we identified EHEC O-serogroups O26 and O111 in one single sequence type complex, STC29, that also harbours atypical enteropathogenic E...
August 10, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Zhenlong Yang, Shengjian Yuan, Ling Chen, Quan Liu, Haoran Zhang, Yingfei Ma, Ting Wei, Shuqiang Huang
AsXd-1, a bacteriophage that infects Aeromonas salmonicida, was isolated from the wastewater of a seafood market in Shenzhen, China. The 39,014-bp genome of this phage contains 52 open reading frames (ORFs), 30 of which were found to be homologous to reference sequences that putatively encode functional phage proteins. Nine out of the remaining 22 ORFs with unknown functions were unique to AsXd-1. Gene annotation suggests that AsXd-1 has both lysogenic and lytic life cycles. Furthermore, both phylogenetic analysis based on the large subunit of terminase and genome sequence comparisons show that AsXd-1 is closely related to phages belonging to the genus Hk97virus...
August 10, 2018: Archives of Virology
Nadine Fornelos, Douglas F Browning, Anja Pavlin, Zdravko Podlesek, Vesna Hodnik, Margarita Salas, Matej Butala
The GIL01 bacteriophage is a temperate phage that infects the insect pathogen Bacillus thuringiensis. During the lytic cycle, phage gene transcription is initiated from three promoters: P1 and P2, which control the expression of the early phage genes involved in genome replication and P3, which controls the expression of the late genes responsible for virion maturation and host lysis. Unlike most temperate phages, GIL01 lysogeny is not maintained by a dedicated phage repressor but rather by the host's regulator of the SOS response, LexA...
July 24, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Douglas R Deutsch, Bryan Utter, Kathleen J Verratti, Heike Sichtig, Luke J Tallon, Vincent A Fischetti
Staphylococcus aureus is a major human pathogen with well-characterized bacteriophage contributions to its virulence potential. Recently, we identified plasmidial and episomal prophages in S. aureus strains using an extra-chromosomal DNA (exDNA) isolation and sequencing approach, uncovering the plasmidial phage ϕBU01, which was found to encode important virulence determinants. Here, we expanded our extra-chromosomal sequencing of S. aureus , selecting 15 diverse clinical isolates with known chromosomal sequences for exDNA isolation and next-generation sequencing...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Inga Eichhorn, Katrin Heidemanns, Rainer G Ulrich, Herbert Schmidt, Torsten Semmler, Angelika Fruth, Astrid Bethe, David Goulding, Derek Pickard, Helge Karch, Lothar H Wieler
Bacteriophages play an important role in the evolution of bacterial pathogens. A phage-mediated transfer of stx-genes to atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (aEPEC) which are prevalent in different hosts, would convert them to enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC). We decided to confirm this hypothesis experimentally to provide conclusive evidence that aEPEC isolated from different mammalian hosts are indeed progenitors of typical EHEC which gain the ability to produce Shiga-Toxin by lysogeny with stx-converting bacteriophages, utilizing the model phage Φ3538 Δstx2 ::cat...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
Josicelli Souza Crispim, Roberto Sousa Dias, Pedro Marcus Pereira Vidigal, Maíra Paula de Sousa, Cynthia Canêdo da Silva, Mateus Ferreira Santana, Sérgio Oliveira de Paula
Bacteria of the genus Desulfovibrio belong to the group of Sulphate Reducing Bacteria (SRB). SRB generate significant liabilities in the petroleum industry, mainly due to their ability to microbiologically induce corrosion, biofilm formation and H2 S production. Bacteriophages are an alternative control method for SRB, whose information for this group of bacteria however, is scarce. The present study developed a workflow for the identification of complete prophages in Desulfovibrio. Poly-lysogenesis was shown to be common in Desulfovibrio...
June 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
Susanne Bury, Manonmani Soundararajan, Richa Bharti, Rudolf von Bünau, Konrad U Förstner, Tobias A Oelschlaeger
Shiga toxin (Stx) producing E. coli (STEC) such as Enterohemorrhagic E. coli (EHEC) are the major cause of foodborne illness in humans. In vitro studies showed the probiotic Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) to efficiently inhibit the production of Stx. Life threatening EHEC strains as for example the serotype O104:H4, responsible for the great outbreak in 2011 in Germany, evolutionary developed from certain E. coli strains which got infected by stx2 -encoding lambdoid phages turning the E. coli into lysogenic and subsequently Stx producing strains...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Bartosz Roszniowski, Siobhán McClean, Zuzanna Drulis-Kawa
Burkholderia cenocepacia , is a Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that belongs to Burkholderia cepacia complex (BCC) group. BCC representatives carry various pathogenicity factors and can infect humans and plants. Phages as bacterial viruses play a significant role in biodiversity and ecological balance in the environment. Specifically, horizontal gene transfer (HGT) and lysogenic conversion (temperate phages) influence microbial diversification and fitness. In this study, we describe the prevalence and gene content of prophages in 16 fully sequenced B...
May 31, 2018: Viruses
Juan D Hernandez-Doria, Vanessa Sperandio
Bacteriophage-encoded genetic elements control bacterial biological functions. Enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) strains harbor lambda-phages encoding the Shiga-toxin (Stx), which is expressed during the phage lytic cycle and associated with exacerbated disease. Phages also reside dormant within bacterial chromosomes through their lysogenic cycle, but how this impacts EHEC virulence remains unknown. We find that during lysogeny the phage transcription factor Cro activates the EHEC type III secretion system (T3SS)...
May 9, 2018: Cell Host & Microbe
Hossein Noormohammadi, Shamsozoha Abolmaali, Shakiba Darvish Alipour Astaneh
Drug-resistant Gram-positive pathogens have been a rising risk in hospitals and food industries from the last decades. Here in, the potential of endolysin production in Dasht Desert Bacterial Culture Collection (DDBCC), against indicator bacteria, was investigated. DDBCC was screened against autoclaved-indicator bacteria; Streptococcus faecalis, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus sp, Bacillus subtilis and Staphylococcus aureus as the substrates for the endolysin enzymes. The endolysins were produced in BHI medium followed by ammonium sulfate purification...
June 2018: Microbial Pathogenesis
Karthic Rajamanickam, Sidney Hayes
The temperate bacteriophage lambda (λ) CII protein is a positive regulator of transcription from promoter pE , a component of the lysogenic response. The expression of cII was examined in vectors devoid of phage transcription-modulating elements. Their removal enabled evaluating if the expression of the small RNA OOP, on its own, could suppress CII activities, including complementing for a lysogenic response, cell toxicity and causing rapid cellular loss of ColE1 plasmids. The results confirm that OOP RNA expression from the genetic element pO-oop-to can prevent the ability of plasmid-encoded CII to complement for a lysogenic response, suggesting that it serves as a powerful regulatory pivot in λ development...
March 7, 2018: Viruses
Sana Zouari, Monia Kamel Ben Halima, Mariana Reyes-Prieto, Amparo Latorre, Rosario Gil
Aphids (Hemiptera: Aphididae) can harbor two types of bacterial symbionts. In addition to the obligate endosymbiont Buchnera aphidicola Munson, Baumann and Kinsey 1991 (Enterobacteriales: Enterobacteriaceae), several facultative symbiotic bacteria, called secondary (S) symbionts, have been identified among many important pest aphid species. To determine interpopulational diversity of S-symbionts, we carried out a survey in a total of 18 populations of six aphid species collected from six localities in Tunisia, by performing a diagnostic polymerase chain reaction analysis of partial 16S-23S rRNA operon sequences...
April 5, 2018: Environmental Entomology
Lucy Cheng, Laura J Marinelli, Noël Grosset, Sorel T Fitz-Gibbon, Charles A Bowman, Brian Q Dang, Daniel A Russell, Deborah Jacobs-Sera, Baochen Shi, Matteo Pellegrini, Jeff F Miller, Michel Gautier, Graham F Hatfull, Robert L Modlin
BACKGROUND: A remarkable exception to the large genetic diversity often observed for bacteriophages infecting a specific bacterial host was found for the Cutibacterium acnes (formerly Propionibacterium acnes) phages, which are highly homogeneous. Phages infecting the related species, which is also a member of the Propionibacteriaceae family, Propionibacterium freudenreichii, a bacterium used in production of Swiss-type cheeses, have also been described and are common contaminants of the cheese manufacturing process...
March 1, 2018: BMC Microbiology
S Rigvava, I Kusradze, N Karumidze, T Dvalidze, M Katsitadze, S Barbakadze, D Bolkvadze, M Goderdzishvili
Bacteriophages represent the widest group of viruses, from which only virulent phages are used as antibacterial agent. But the picture in the case of temperate phage is absolutely different; many lysogenic phages express gene products that have subtle effects on the phenotype of the host cell. This process is called lysogenic conversion. In present study we characterized new temperate Enterococcus faecium phage vB_GEC_EFS_2, which was isolated from river Mtkvari. The phage is a member of Siphoviridae family...
January 2018: Georgian Medical News
Min-Soo Kim, Jin-Woo Bae
Bacteriophages are central members and potential modulators of the gut microbiome; however, the ecological and evolutionary relationships of gut bacteria and phages are poorly understood. Here we investigated the abundance and diversity of lysogenic bacteria (lysogens) in the bacterial community of C57BL/6J mice by detecting integrated prophages in genomes reconstructed from the metagenome of commensal bacteria. For the activities of lysogens and prophages, we compared the prophage genomes with the metagenome of free phages...
April 2018: ISME Journal
Scott Wushke, Zimo Jin, Victor Spicer, Xiang Li Zhang, Brian Fristensky, Oleg V Krokhin, David B Levin, Richard Sparling
This study characterizes a cryptic (pro)phage-related sequence within the Caldibacillus debilis GB1 genome, designated CBP1.CBP1 is a Siphoviridae-like genome highly related to GBVS1 from Geobacillus sp. 6k51. The CBP1genome is a 37,315 bp region containing 69 putative ORFs with a GC content of 42% flanked on both sides by host DNA integrated into the main bacterial chromosome (contig 16). Bioinformatic analyses identified cassettes of genes within the CBP1 genome that were similar in function, yet distinct in sequence, from genes previously identified in GBVS1...
March 2018: Extremophiles: Life Under Extreme Conditions
Taylor Miller-Ensminger, Andrea Garretto, Jonathon Brenner, Krystal Thomas-White, Adriano Zambom, Alan J Wolfe, Catherine Putonti
Bacterial viruses (bacteriophages) play a significant role in microbial community dynamics. Within the human gastrointestinal tract, for instance, associations among bacteriophages (phages), microbiota stability, and human health have been discovered. In contrast to the gastrointestinal tract, the phages associated with the urinary microbiota are largely unknown. Preliminary metagenomic surveys of the urinary virome indicate a rich diversity of novel lytic phage sequences at an abundance far outnumbering that of eukaryotic viruses...
April 1, 2018: Journal of Bacteriology
Krupa M Parmar, Nishant A Dafale, Hitesh Tikariha, Hemant J Purohit
Combating bacterial pathogens has become a global concern especially when the antibiotics and chemical agents are failing to control the spread due to its resistance. Bacteriophages act as a safe biocontrol agent by selectively lysing the bacterial pathogens without affecting the natural beneficial microflora. The present study describes the screening of prominent enteric pathogens NDK1, NDK2, NDK3, and NDK4 (Escherichia, Klebsiella, Enterobacter, and Serratia) mostly observed in domestic wastewater; against which KNP1, KNP2, KNP3, and KNP4 phages were isolated...
May 2018: Archives of Microbiology
Maroš Pleška, Moritz Lang, Dominik Refardt, Bruce R Levin, Călin C Guet
Temperate bacteriophages integrate in bacterial genomes as prophages and represent an important source of genetic variation for bacterial evolution, frequently transmitting fitness-augmenting genes such as toxins responsible for virulence of major pathogens. However, only a fraction of bacteriophage infections are lysogenic and lead to prophage acquisition, whereas the majority are lytic and kill the infected bacteria. Unless able to discriminate lytic from lysogenic infections, mechanisms of immunity to bacteriophages are expected to act as a double-edged sword and increase the odds of survival at the cost of depriving bacteria of potentially beneficial prophages...
February 2018: Nature Ecology & Evolution
A C Hernandez-Morales, L L Lessor, T L Wood, D Migl, E M Mijalis, W K Russell, R F Young, J J Gill
The increased prevalence of drug-resistant, nosocomial Acinetobacter infections, particularly from pathogenic members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex, necessitates the exploration of novel treatments such as phage therapy. In the present study, we characterize phage Petty, a novel podophage that infects multidrug-resistant Acinetobacter nosocomialis and Acinetobacter baumannii Genome analysis reveals that phage Petty is a 40,431bp ϕKMV-like phage, with a coding density of 92.2% and a G+C content of 42...
January 3, 2018: Journal of Virology
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