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Bacteriophage storage

Jenna Senecal, Annika Nordin, Prithvi Simha, Björn Vinnerås
Over four billion people are discharging untreated human excreta into the environment without any prior treatment, causing eutrophication and spreading disease. The most nutrient rich fraction is the urine. Urine can be collected separately and dehydrated in an alkaline bed producing a nutrient rich fertiliser. However, faecal cross-contamination during the collection risks to introduce pathogens to the urine. The objective of this hygiene assessment was to study the inactivation of five microorganisms (Ascaris suum, Enterococcus faecalis, bacteriophages MS2 and ΦX 174 and Salmonella spp) in alkaline dehydrated urine...
July 18, 2018: Water Research
Naiana Gabiatti, Pingfeng Yu, Jacques Mathieu, Grant W Lu, Xifan Wang, Hangjun Zhang, Hugo M Soares, Pedro J J Alvarez
Bacterial endospores can serve as phage genome protection shells against various environmental stresses to enhance microbial control applications. The genomes of polyvalent lytic Bacillus phages PBSC1 and PBSC2, infecting both B. subtilis subsp. subtilis and B. cereus NRS 248, were incorporated into B. subtilis endospores (without integration into the host chromosome). When PBSC1 and PBSC2 were released from germinating endospores, they significantly inhibited the growth of the targeted opportunistic pathogen B...
July 13, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Dongqin Xu, Yanhua Jiang, Lianzhu Wang, Lin Yao, Fengling Li, Yuxiu Zhai, Yuan Zhang
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of bacteriophage (phage) SLMP1 to reduce Salmonella Typhimurium on contaminated raw salmon fillets and scallop adductors as a function of Salmonella inoculum level, phage dose, storage temperature, and storage time. Samples were inoculated with 102 and 104 CFU/g Salmonella and then treated with different concentrations of phage SLMP1, followed by incubation at 4, 15, and 25°C, respectively. The results showed that 108 PFU/g was the optimal concentration of phage for the control of Salmonella, which was applied in the following storage experiments over a 7-day period at 4°C, a 4-day period at 15°C, and a 2-day period at 25°C...
August 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Chikage Tanaka, Kohsuke Yamada, Honami Takeuchi, Yoshio Inokuchi, Akiko Kashiwagi, Takahiro Toba
The control of bacterial growth during milk processing is crucial for the quality maintenance of commercial milk and milk products. During a period of cold storage prior to heat treatments, some psychrotrophic bacteria grow and produce extracellular heat resistant lipases and proteases that cause product defects. The use of lytic bacteriophages (phage) that infect and kill bacteria could be a useful tool for suppressing bacterial growth during this cold storage phase. In this study, we isolated a Pseudomonas lactis and a phage from raw cow's milk...
July 6, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Li Guo, Ruobing Xu, Lu Gou, Zhichao Liu, Yiming Zhao, Dingxin Liu, Lei Zhang, Hailan Chen, Michael G Kong
Viruses are serious pathogenic contamination that severely affect the environment and human health. Cold atmospheric-pressure plasma efficiently inactivates pathogenic bacteria, however, the mechanism of virus inactivation by plasma is not fully understood. In this study, surface plasma in argon mixed with 1% air and plasma-activated water were used to treat water containing bacteriophages. Both agents efficiently inactivated bacteriophages T4, Φ174, and MS2 in a time-dependent manner. Prolonged storage had marginal effects on the anti-viral activity of plasma-activated water...
June 18, 2018: Applied and Environmental Microbiology
Erica L Vonasek, Angela H Choi, Juan Sanchez, Nitin Nitin
There is a significant unmet need to develop antimicrobial solutions to reduce the risk of contamination in fresh produce. Bacteriophages have been proposed as a potential approach for controlling foodborne pathogens. This study evaluated the combination of edible dip coatings with T7 bacteriophages on whole and cut produce. The evaluation includes an assessment of phage loading, phage storage stability, antimicrobial activity, and phage stability during simulated gastric digestion on sliced cucumbers, sliced apples, and whole cherry tomatoes...
July 2018: Journal of Food Science
Namfon Booncharoen, Skorn Mongkolsuk, Kwanrawee Sirikanchana
Enterococcus faecalis bacteria have been recently reported for their ability to host bacteriophages that are specifically from human sewage, suggesting their application to track human fecal contamination in water resources. However, little is known about the survivability of sewage-specific enterococcal bacteriophages in various water matrices under ambient and storage conditions. In this study, bacteriophages that were derived from the Thailand-isolated E. faecalis strains AIM06 and SR14 exhibited morphologies consistent with the Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, and Myoviridae families...
July 2018: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Jessica Chopyk, Sarah Allard, Daniel J Nasko, Anthony Bui, Emmanuel F Mongodin, Amy R Sapkota
Agricultural ponds have a great potential as a means of capture and storage of water for irrigation. However, pond topography (small size, shallow depth) leaves them susceptible to environmental, agricultural, and anthropogenic exposures that may influence microbial dynamics. Therefore, the aim of this project was to characterize the bacterial and viral communities of pond water in the Mid-Atlantic United States with a focus on the late season (October-December), where decreasing temperature and nutrient levels can affect the composition of microbial communities...
2018: Frontiers in Microbiology
Pushpinder Kaur Litt, Joyjit Saha, Divya Jaroni
Non-O157 Shiga toxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) are an important group of foodborne pathogens, implicated in several outbreaks and recalls in the past 2 decades. It is therefore crucial to devise effective control strategies against these pathogens. Bacteriophages present an attractive alternative to conventional pathogen control methods in the food industry. Bacteriophages, targeting non-O157 STEC (O26, O45, O103, O111, O121, O145), were isolated from beef cattle operations in Oklahoma. Their host range and lytic ability were determined against several ( n = 21) non-O157 STEC isolates, by using the spot-on-lawn assay...
May 2018: Journal of Food Protection
Sharon S Y Leung, Thaigarajan Parumasivam, An Nguyen, Thomas Gengenbach, Elizabeth A Carter, Nicholas B Carrigy, Hui Wang, Reinhard Vehring, Warren H Finlay, Sandra Morales, Warwick J Britton, Elizabeth Kutter, Hak-Kim Chan
This study aimed to assess the robustness of using a spray drying approach and formulation design in producing inhalable phage powders. Two types of Pseudomonas phages, PEV2 (Podovirus) and PEV40 (Myovirus) in two formulations containing different amounts of trehalose (70% and 60%) and leucine (30% and 40%) were studied. Most of the surface of the produced powders was found to be covered in crystalline leucine. The powders were stored at 4 °C and 20 °C under vacuum. The phage stability and in vitro aerosol performance of the phage powders were examined on the day of production and after 1, 3 and 12 months of storage...
June 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Yajie Zhang, Xiujuan Peng, Hairui Zhang, Alan B Watts, Debadyuti Ghosh
The severity of multidrug resistance to antibiotics has urged development of alternative treatment approaches, including bacteriophage therapy. Given the complexity of the bacteriophage structure, formulation and stability are primary concerns. Our present work optimized process and formulations of phage powder manufacturing and investigated the stability of lyophilized bacteriophage powders under ambient storage. The model phage M13 was formulated with trehalose, mannitol, sucrose and PEG6000 and lyophilized in different conditions...
May 5, 2018: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Simon D Goldenberg, Rahul Batra, Ian Beales, Jonathan Leith Digby-Bell, Peter Miles Irving, Lee Kellingray, Arjan Narbad, Ngozi Franslem-Elumogo
Fecal microbiota transplant (FMT) has emerged as a highly efficacious treatment for difficult cases of refractory and/or recurrent Clostridium difficile infection (CDI). There have been many well-conducted randomized controlled trials and thousands of patients reported in case series that describe success rates of approximately 90% following one or more FMT. Although the exact mechanisms of FMT have yet to be fully elucidated, replacement or restoration of a 'normal' microbiota (or at least a microbiota resembling those who have never had CDI) appears to have a positive effect on the gut dysbiosis that is thought to exist in these patients...
March 2018: Infectious Diseases and Therapy
Rachel Yoon Kyung Chang, Ke Chen, Jiping Wang, Martin Wallin, Warwick Britton, Sandra Morales, Elizabeth Kutter, Jian Li, Hak-Kim Chan
Bacteriophage therapy is a promising alternative treatment to antibiotics, as it has been documented to be efficacious against multidrug-resistant bacteria with minimal side effects. Several groups have demonstrated the efficacy of phage suspension in vivo to treat lung infections using intranasal delivery; however, phage dry-powder administration to the lungs has not yet been explored. Powder formulations provide potential advantages over a liquid formulation, including easy storage, transport, and administration...
February 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Pushpinder Kaur Litt, Divya Jaroni
Bacteriophages, recovered from beef cattle environment and specifically targeting Escherichia coli O157:H7, were examined for their physiological and morphological characteristics. Degree of bacterial lysis and host range of isolated bacteriophages was determined against 55 isolates of E. coli O157:H7. Morphology of phages was examined under transmission electron microscope. Phage growth parameters, particularly rate of adsorption, rise period, latent period, and burst size were also determined. The stability of isolated phages was tested at acidic and alkaline pH, at high temperatures, and in cold storage...
2017: International Journal of Microbiology
Małgorzata B Łobocka, Aleksandra Głowacka, Piotr Golec
In a view of growing interest in bacteriophages as the most abundant members of microbial communities and as antibacterial agents, reliable methods for bacteriophage long-term preservation, that warrant the access to original or mutant stocks of unchanged properties, have become of crucial importance. A storage method that retains the infectivity of any kind of bacteriophage virions, either in a cell lysate or in a purified suspension, does not exist, due to the enormous diversity of bacteriophages and hence the differentiation of their sensitivity to various storage conditions...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Juhong Chen, Rachael A Picard, Danhui Wang, Sam R Nugen
Ease of use, low cost, and convenient transport are the key requirements for a commercial bacteria detection kit designed for resource-limited settings. Here, we report the colorimetric detection of Escherichia coli (E. coli) in food samples using freeze-dried engineered bacteriophages (phages). In this approach, we have engineered T7 phages to carry the lacZ operon driven by T7 promoter to overexpress reporter enzymes. The engineered phages were freeze-dried in a water-soluble polymer for storage and transportation...
November 22, 2017: ACS Sensors
Neha Bhardwaj, Sanjeev K Bhardwaj, Jyotsana Mehta, Ki-Hyun Kim, Akash Deep
To produce a sensitive and specific biosensor for Staphylococcus aureus, bacteriophages have been interfaced with a water-dispersible and environmentally stable metal-organic framework (MOF), NH2 -MIL-53(Fe). The conjugation of the MOF with bacteriophages has been achieved through the use of glutaraldehyde as cross-linker. Highly sensitive detection of S. aureus in both synthetic and real samples was realized by the proposed MOF-bacteriophage biosensor based on the photoluminescence quenching phenomena: limit of detection (31 CFU/mL) and range of detection (40 to 4 × 108 CFU/mL)...
October 4, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Wei-Ju Chung, Yujia Cui, Chi-Shuo Chen, Wesley H Wei, Rong-Shing Chang, Wun-Yi Shu, Ian C Hsu
DNA samples are commonly frozen for storage. However, freezing can compromise the integrity of DNA molecules. Considering the wide applications of DNA molecules in nanotechnology, changes to DNA integrity at the molecular level may cause undesirable outcomes. However, the effects of freezing on DNA integrity have not been fully explored. To investigate the impact of freezing on DNA integrity, samples of frozen and non-frozen bacteriophage lambda DNA were studied using optical tweezers. Tension (5-35 pN) was applied to DNA molecules to mimic mechanical interactions between DNA and other biomolecules...
December 2017: Journal of Biological Physics
Andrew M Armstrong, Mark D Sobsey, Lisa M Casanova
Households that lack piped water supply are often forced to meet water needs by storing in the home, leaving water vulnerable to contamination by viruses. Storage in copper containers can potentially prevent this type of contamination, but the inactivation kinetics of viruses by copper need to be described to make appropriate storage recommendations. This work characterized inactivation kinetics of bacteriophage MS2 as a surrogate for enteric viruses by dissolved ionic copper in water. Reduction of MS2 increased with increasing doses of copper...
September 2017: Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology
Julianne Peabody, Pavan Muttil, Bryce Chackerian, Ebenezer Tumban
HPV infections are associated with human cancers. Although three prophylactic vaccines have been approved to protect against HPV infections, the vaccines require cold-chain storage and may not be suitable for third world countries with less developed refrigeration facilities. We previously developed a bacteriophage L2 virus-like particle (VLP)-based candidate vaccine, which elicited broadly protective antibodies against diverse HPV types. Spray-drying of MS2-16L2 VLPs into a dry powder enhanced the stability of these VLPs...
June 2017: Papillomavirus Research
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