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Research methods & reporting

Oana A Tatucu-Babet, Emma J Ridley
Outpatients who receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) may represent a group at significant risk of malnutrition owing to the underlying conditions that are often treated with HBOT (e.g., non-healing diabetic wounds and radiation-induced skin injury). In this issue, See and colleagues provide new, preliminary evidence of the prevalence of malnutrition in a small group of HBOT outpatients treated in an Australian hospital, reporting that approximately one-third of patients receiving HBOT were at risk of malnutrition...
December 24, 2018: Diving and Hyperbaric Medicine: the Journal of the South Pacific Underwater Medicine Society
Akram Hernández-Vásquez, Carlos Rojas-Roque, Marilina Santero, Francisco Javier Prado-Galbarro, Diego Rosselli
OBJECTIVES: . To estimate out-of-pocket spending on health (GBS) and identify its associated factors in Peruvian older adults. MATERIALS AND METHODS.: Analytical cross-sectional study of the National Household Survey on Living Conditions and Poverty (ENAHO) 2017. Older adults were considered to be all individuals aged 60 and over and the GBS was considered the main study variable. Prevalence ratios (PR) and adjusted prevalence ratios (PRa) were estimated for each of the factors associated with GBS...
July 2018: Revista Peruana de Medicina Experimental y Salud Pública
Ming Yi, Ruoqing Zhu, Robert M Stephens
Accurate assessment of the association between continuous variables such as gene expression and survival is a critical aspect of precision medicine. In this report, we provide a review of some of the available survival analysis and validation tools by referencing published studies that have utilized these tools. We have identified pitfalls associated with the assumptions inherent in those applications that have the potential to impact scientific research through their potential bias. In order to overcome these pitfalls, we have developed a novel method that enables the logrank test method to handle continuous variables that comprehensively evaluates survival association with derived aggregate statistics...
2018: PloS One
Nicholas Paul Holmes, Luigi Tamè
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) over human primary somatosensory cortex (S1), unlike over primary motor cortex (M1), does not produce an immediate, objective output. Researchers must therefore rely on one or more indirect methods to position the TMS coil over S1. The 'gold standard' method of TMS coil positioning is to use individual functional and structural magnetic resonance imaging (F/SMRI) alongside a stereotactic navigation system. In the absence of these facilities, however, one common method used to locate S1 is to find the scalp location which produces twitches in a hand muscle (e...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Neurophysiology
Davoud Pourmarzi, Lisa Hall, Julie Hepworth, Andrew Smirnov, Tony Rahman, Gerrard FitzGerald
Several community-based models for treating Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) infection have been implemented to improve treatment accessibility and health outcomes. However, there is a lack of knowledge regarding how well these models achieve the desired goals. We conducted a mixed-method systematic review of quantitative and qualitative evidence about clinical effectiveness, cost effectiveness and acceptability of community-based HCV treatment models. Seventeen databases were researched for published and unpublished studies...
December 5, 2018: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Seher Unver, Semra Eyi, Zeynep Kizilcik Ozkan
Pain during negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT) has been reported in the literature. PURPOSE: The study was conducted to describe patients' pain experience, pain-coping skills, and the effect of NPWT-related pain on daily life activities following abdominal surgery. METHOD: Using a descriptive, qualitative design, semi-structured face-to-face interviews were conducted between April 3, 2016 and December 26, 2016, in the surgical ward of a university hospital in Edirne, Turkey...
December 2018: Ostomy/wound Management
Anita Chung, Aileen Collier, Merryn Gott
BACKGROUND: Public health approaches to palliative care prioritise community-focused initiatives to support people with palliative care needs and their families. The nature and extent of these initiatives have not previously been reported. AIM: To identify community-led and/or focused initiatives that have been developed to support family carers of people with palliative care needs and for which evaluation information is reported in the empirical literature. DESIGN: An integrative study design was undertaken using systematic methods...
December 5, 2018: Palliative Medicine
Jason Tipples
People overestimate the duration of threat-related facial expressions, and this effect increases with self-reported fearfulness (Tipples in Emotion, 8, 127-131, 2008, Emotion, 11, 74-80, 2011). One explanation (Cheng, Tipples, Narayanan, & Meck in Timing and Time Perception, 4, 99-122, 2016) for this effect is that emotion increases the rate at which temporal information accumulates. Here I tested whether increased overestimation for threat-related facial expressions in high fearfulness generalizes to pictures of threatening animals...
December 4, 2018: Attention, Perception & Psychophysics
Feiyue Deng, Anran Zhang, Catherine Chan
Developing culturally appropriate diabetes nutrition interventions for immigrants could be facilitated knowing what is successful in the home country and other relevant countries. The primary purpose of this scoping review was to identify the design and delivery methods of nutrition interventions for Chinese populations with type 2 diabetes, in their home countries and as immigrants to western countries. A total of 14 articles was retrieved and included. Overall, the approaches used in China often were modelled on intensive lifestyle programs although alternative strategies were also identified...
December 4, 2018: Journal of Immigrant and Minority Health
Thomas M Atkinson, Bryce B Reeve, Amylou C Dueck, Antonia V Bennett, Tito R Mendoza, Lauren J Rogak, Ethan Basch, Yuelin Li
BACKGROUND: Traditional concordance metrics have shortcomings based on dataset characteristics (e.g., multiple attributes rated, missing data); therefore it is necessary to explore supplemental approaches to quantifying agreement between independent assessments. The purpose of this methodological paper is to apply an Item Response Theory (IRT) -based framework to an existing dataset that included unidimensional clinician and multiple attribute patient ratings of symptomatic adverse events (AEs), and explore the utility of this method in patient-reported outcome (PRO) and health-related quality of life (HRQOL) research...
December 4, 2018: Journal of patient-reported outcomes
Laurelie R Wall, Sanjeewa Kularatna, Elizabeth C Ward, Bena Cartmill, Anne J Hill, Elizabeth Isenring, Joshua Byrnes, Sandro V Porceddu
Research advocates for the use of intensive, prophylactic swallowing therapy to help reduce the severity of dysphagia in patients receiving (chemo)radiotherapy ([C]RT) for head/neck cancer (HNC). Unfortunately, the intensity of this therapy, coupled with growing patient numbers and limited clinical resources, provides challenges to many international cancer facilities. Telepractice has been proposed as a potential method to provide patients with greater support in home-practice, whilst minimising burden to the health service...
December 4, 2018: Dysphagia
Karen Borschmann, Kathryn S Hayward, Audrey Raffelt, Leonid Churilov, Sharon Kramer, Julie Bernhardt
Background: The ineffectiveness of most complex stroke recovery trials may be explained by inadequate intervention design. The primary aim of this review was to explore the rationales given for interventions and dose in stroke rehabilitation randomised controlled trials (RCTs). Methods: We searched the Cochrane Stroke Group library for RCTs that met the following criteria: (1) training based intervention; (2) >50% participants who were stroke survivors; (3) full peer-reviewed text; (4) English language...
2018: Stroke Research and Treatment
Enra Mehmedika Suljic, Admir Mehicevic, Nevena Mahmutbegovic
Introduction: Recent research reported that prolonged use of AET is associated with changes in bone metabolism, with consequent reduction in bone mineral density (BMD) and increased risk of fractures. Objectives: Therefore, the aim of our study was to investigate the effects of carbamazepine on serum levels of 25 -hydroxyvitamin D and on biomarker of bone formation and resorption (serum levels of osteocalcin). Material and methods: We measured serum levels of 25-OHD and osteocalcin (OCLN) in normal controls (n=30) and in epilepsy patients taking carbamazepine (CBZ) (n=50) in monotherapy for a period of at least twelve months...
October 2018: Medical Archives
Huiling Zhao, Yuting Cao, Yue Wang, Liya Zhang, Chen Chen, Yaoyan Wang, Xiaofan Lu, Shengjie Liu, Fangrong Yan
We aim to construct more accurate prognostic model for KIRC patients by combining the clinical and genetic information and monitor the disease progression in dynamically updated manner. By obtaining cross-validated prognostic indices from clinical and genetic model, we combine the two sources information into the Super learner model, and then introduce the time-varying effect into the combined model using the landmark method for real-time dynamic prediction. The Super learner model has better prognostic performance since it can not only employ the preferable clinical prognostic model constructed by oneself or reported in the current literature, but also incorporate genome level information to strengthen effectiveness...
December 4, 2018: Scientific Reports
Samara Noble, Carissa Bonner, Jolyn Hersch, Jesse Jansen, Kevin McGeechan, Kirsten McCaffery
Objective Chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients report limited social support, which can affect symptom severity. Friends are a key source of social support for young adults with CFS, but there is limited research on friends' responses to the CFS label. We explored the potential benefits or harms of the CFS label for shaping the potential for social support from a friend's perspective. Method 207 university students responded to hypothetical scenarios about a close friend experiencing CFS. Participants were randomly allocated to either the CFS-label or no-label conditions...
October 15, 2018: Patient Education and Counseling
Patrick Williamson, Amin Mohamadi, Arun J Ramappa, Joseph P DeAngelis, Ara Nazarian
BACKGROUND: Numerous biomechanical studies have addressed normal shoulder function and the factors that affect it. While these investigations include a mix of in-vivo clinical reports, ex-vivo cadaveric studies, and computer-based simulations, each has its own strengths and limitations. A robust methodology is essential in cadaveric work but does not always come easily. Precise quantitative measurements are difficult in in-vivo studies, and simulation studies require validation steps...
November 14, 2018: Journal of Biomechanics
Sheena Chung, Tara Rosewall, Ravi Menezes, Tuula Kalliomäki
INTRODUCTION: Hundreds of thousands of Ontario women receive breast screening imaging each year. The patient's medical history is a vital tool used to personalize breast screening approaches. This study evaluated the accuracy of self-reported medical and imaging history in patients about to receive breast imaging procedures in a large urban Canadian hospital. The patient experience with using a blank screening form vs. a novel prefilled screening form was also evaluated. METHODS AND MATERIALS: The study was conducted in two phases...
December 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging and Radiation Sciences
Marlaine Figueroa Gray, Clarissa Hsu, Linda Kiel, Sascha Dublin
BACKGROUND: Nausea during pregnancy affects 80% of pregnant women and can severely affect women's functioning and quality of life. Women often have difficulty deciding whether to take anti-nausea medications due to concern about medication risks. This paper foregrounds U.S. women's voices as they share their experiences making decisions about anti-nausea medication use. METHODS: As a pilot study, we conducted two focus groups including 20 women who had filled at least one prescription for an anti-nausea medication during pregnancy...
December 4, 2018: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Alice Rose, Sheeba Rosewilliam, Andy Soundy
OBJECTIVES: To assess the extent of shared decision-making within goal-setting meetings and explore patient-reported factors that influenced their participation to shared decision-making about their goals. DESIGN: A two-phase explanatory sequential mixed-methods study, using questionnaires and interviews. SETTING: A rehabilitation centre and patients' homes. SUBJECTS: Frail elderly patients. MAIN MEASURES: Quantitative data were collected after every patient's goal-setting meeting using the Multifocal Approach to Sharing in Shared Decision Making (MAPPIN'SDM) questionnaire that assesses competencies relevant to shared decision-making...
December 4, 2018: Clinical Rehabilitation
Takahiro Umemoto, Stefan Tenbohlen
Diagnoses of power transformers by partial discharge (PD) measurement are effective to prevent dielectric failures of the apparatus. Ultra-high frequency (UHF) method has recently received attention due to its various advantages, such as the robustness against external noise and the capability of PD localization. However, electromagnetic (EM) waves radiated from PD tend to suffer attenuation before arriving at UHF sensors, because active part of the transformer disturbs the EM wave propagation. In some cases, that results in poor detection sensitivity...
December 3, 2018: Sensors
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