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Research methods & reporting

Rebecca S Crane
To ensure methodological rigour, research on Mindfulness-Based Programs (MBPs) should include systems for assessing and reporting the integrity of the intervention. The critical variable of the quality of the teaching and the degree of adherence to the curriculum are likely to influence research outcomes and their interpretation. Currently, three tools for assessing intervention integrity in the MBP field have been developed, but they need further research and development. Research going forward needs to include systematic methods for demonstrating and verifying the integrity of the MBP, both to ensure the rigor of individual studies and to enable different studies of the same MBP to be fairly and validly compared with each other...
October 5, 2018: Current Opinion in Psychology
Floor A van den Brand, Gera E Nagelhout, Bjorn Winkens, Niels H Chavannes, Onno C P van Schayck
BACKGROUND: Financial incentives are potentially useful tools to aid smoking cessation, but robust evidence to support their efficacy, particularly in combination with other interventions (eg, group counselling), has not been reported. We aimed to investigate whether financial incentives combined with a smoking cessation group training programme (compared with a training programme with no incentives) organised at the workplace would increase 12-month abstinence rates in tobacco-smoking employees with different education and income levels...
October 17, 2018: Lancet. Public Health
Rafael Caldas, Diego Rátiva, Fernando Buarque de Lima Neto
Gait analysis is relevant for the functional diagnostic of several musculoskeletal disorders. Walking patterns can be analyzed using techniques such as video processing and inertial measurement units (IMU). In this work, a Self-Organizing Maps (SOM) algorithm is applied to reduce the complexity of kinematic features obtained by IMU sensors of a sample of 40 individuals. Our system provides a simpler data representation (2-D graphic) than conventional methods, which often applies statistical analysis. We have tested the proposed method to analyze typical and simulated limping gait pattern under well-controlled conditions...
October 17, 2018: Medical Engineering & Physics
Shumei Miao, Tingyu Xu, Yonghui Wu, Hui Xie, Jingqi Wang, Shenqi Jing, Yaoyun Zhang, Xiaoliang Zhang, Yinshuang Yang, Xin Zhang, Tao Shan, Li Wang, Hua Xu, Shui Wang, Yun Liu
BACKGROUND: The wide adoption of electronic health record systems (EHRs) in hospitals in China has made large amounts of data available for clinical research including breast cancer. Unfortunately, much of detailed clinical information is embedded in clinical narratives e.g., breast radiology reports. The American College of Radiology (ACR) has developed a Breast Imaging Reporting and Data System (BI-RADS) to standardize the clinical findings from breast radiology reports. OBJECTIVES: This study aims to develop natural language processing (NLP) methods to extract BI-RADS findings from breast ultrasound reports in Chinese, thus to support clinical operation and breast cancer research in China...
November 2018: International Journal of Medical Informatics
Richard B Lipton, Sagar Munjal, Aftab Alam, Dawn C Buse, Kristina M Fanning, Michael L Reed, Todd J Schwedt, David W Dodick
OBJECTIVES: To summarize the baseline methods for the Migraine in America Symptoms and Treatment (MAST) Study and evaluate gender differences in sociodemographics and headache features; consultation and diagnosis patterns; and patterns of acute and preventive treatment use for migraine among study participants. BACKGROUND: The MAST Study is a longitudinal, internet-based panel study of symptoms, approaches to management, and unmet treatment needs among US adults with migraine...
October 20, 2018: Headache
Zhiyuan Meng, Xiaojun Chen, Lingjun Guan, Zhiying Xu, Qingxia Zhang, Yueyi Song, Fang Liu, Tianle Fan
Because of the increase of people's attention to food safety, monitoring the residue of pesticide in rice is becoming more and more important. Commercial and home processing techniques have been used to transform paddy rice into rice products for human or animal consumption, which may reduce the pesticide content in rice. The degradation of tricyclazole during different stages of commercial and home processing and storage was assessed in this paper. Many researches studying the occurrence and distribution of pesticide residues during rice cropping and processing have been reported...
October 19, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Vibha Prasad, Aaron Voigt
Neuronal accumulations of the presynaptic protein α-synuclein represent a hallmark of Parkinson's disease (PD). Multiple system atrophy and dementia with Lewy bodies are other neurodegenerative diseases in which α-synuclein aggregates are the main pathological characteristic. This is why these diseases are summarized as synucleinopathies. The abnormal α-Synuclein accumulation eventually results in the formation of Lewy bodies and Lewy neurites in surviving neurons of the brain. α-Synuclein aggregation has been widely researched in vitro but little is known about α-synuclein aggregation in vivo...
2019: Methods in Molecular Biology
I-T-S-A Cruz, F-C Fraiz, A Celli, J-M Amenabar, L-R-S Assunção
BACKGROUND: The objective of this study was to evaluate the dental and oral manifestations in patients with celiac disease. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 40 patients with the disease and 40 without the disease matched by age in southern Brazil. The CD group included patients previously diagnosed by positive anti-endomysial (IgA) examination and confirmed by small intestine biopsy. The presence of dental enamel defects and dental caries was evaluated by a calibrated researcher according to AINE's and WHO's criteria, respectively...
October 20, 2018: Medicina Oral, Patología Oral y Cirugía Bucal
Nao Hagiwara, Briana Mezuk, Jennifer Elston Lafata, Scott R Vrana, Michael D Fetters
INTRODUCTION: Patient-physician racial discordance is associated with Black patient reports of dissatisfaction and mistrust, which in turn are associated with poor adherence to treatment recommendations and underutilisation of healthcare. Research further has shown that patient dissatisfaction and mistrust are magnified particularly when physicians hold high levels of implicit racial bias. This suggests that physician implicit racial bias manifests in their communication behaviours during medical interactions...
October 18, 2018: BMJ Open
Hwon Heo, Juyeong Jo, Jae In Jung, Young-Min Han, Seongsoo Lee, Song Rae Kim, Seung-Hae Kwon, Kil-Nam Kim, Byung Joon Hwang, Yun Kee, Byoung Dae Lee, Dongmin Kang, Song Her
Bioluminescence imaging has proven to be a highly sensitive technique for assessing in vitro transcriptional activity toward understanding gene regulation patterns; however, application of this technique is limited for brain research. In particular, the poor spatiotemporal resolution is a main hurdle for monitoring the dynamic changes of transcriptional activity in specific regions of the brain during longitudinal analysis of living animals. To overcome this limitation, in this study, we modified a lentivirus-based luciferase glucocorticoid receptor (GR) reporter by inserting destabilizing sequence genes, and then the reporter was stereotaxically injected in the mouse infralimbic prefrontal cortex (IL-PFC)...
October 19, 2018: Biology Open
Nazli Bashi, Farhad Fatehi, Mina Fallah, Darren Walters, Mohanraj Karunanithi
BACKGROUND: Despite the plethora of evidence on mHealth interventions for patient education, there is a lack of information regarding their structures and delivery strategies. OBJECTIVE: This review aimed to investigate the structures and strategies of patient education programs delivered through smartphone apps for people with diverse conditions and illnesses. We also examined the aim of educational interventions in terms of health promotion, disease prevention, and illness management...
October 19, 2018: JMIR MHealth and UHealth
Flavia D'Alessio, Gerrit Koopman, Sophie Houard, Edmond J Remarque, Norbert Stockhofe, Othmar G Engelhardt
A major challenge in influenza research is the selection of an appropriate animal model that accurately reflects the disease and the protective immune response observed in humans. A workshop organised by the EDUFLUVAC consortium, a European Union funded project coordinated by the European Vaccine Initiative, brought together experts from the influenza vaccine community with the aim to discuss the current knowledge and future perspectives for testing broadly reactive influenza vaccines in animal models. The programme included a diversity of models from well-established and publicly accepted models to cutting edge, newly developed animal models as well as ex-vivo approaches and human models...
October 16, 2018: Vaccine
Angéline Kernalléguen, Christine Enjalbal, Jean-Claude Alvarez, Omar Belgacem, Georges Léonetti, Daniel Lafitte, Anne-Laure Pélissier-Alicot
New designer drugs, as synthetic cannabinoids (SCs), continuously appear on the market and are booming due to their cannabis-like effect. New generation of smokable SCs, structurally dissimilar from Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), have isomers with distinguishable pharmacokinetic parameters and therefore different in vivo effects. The isoforms are misidentified using conventional techniques such as gas or liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry - or tandem mass - spectrometry. The aim of this study was to differentiate three positional isomers (JWH-007, JWH-019 and JWH-122) in single human hair samples, which store numerous substances revealing a way of life and consumption style...
December 24, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
Samantha L Thomas, Amy Bestman, Hannah Pitt, Rebecca Cassidy, Simone McCarthy, Christian Nyemcsok, Sean Cowlishaw, Mike Daube
BACKGROUND: Research has demonstrated that the promotion of gambling, particularly within sport, may have a significant impact on positively shaping young people's attitudes towards gambling. While some governments have implemented restrictions to limit young people's exposure to gambling advertising, few studies have investigated where young people recall seeing gambling advertising, and whether they perceive that advertising restrictions have gone far enough in reducing exposure to these promotions...
October 19, 2018: Harm Reduction Journal
Xiaofeng Liu, Min Wang, Yufeng Qin, Xuan Shi, Peiqing Cong, Yaosheng Chen, Zuyong He
BACKGROUND: Targeted DNA integration is widely used in basic research and commercial applications because it eliminates positional effects on transgene expression. Targeted integration in mammalian cells is generally achieved through a double crossover event between the genome and a linear donor containing two homology arms flanking the gene of interest. However, this strategy is generally less efficient at introducing larger DNA fragments. Using the homology-independent NHEJ mechanism has recently been shown to improve efficiency of integrating larger DNA fragments at targeted sites, but integration through this mechanism is direction-independent...
October 19, 2018: BMC Biotechnology
Justice Mbizo, Anthony Okafor, Melanie A Sutton, Bryan Leyva, Leauna M Stone, Oluwadamilola Olaku
BACKGROUND: Although a quarter of Americans are estimated to have multiple chronic conditions, information on the impact of chronic disease dyads and triads on use of complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is scarce. The purpose of this study is to: 1) estimate the prevalence and odds of CAM use among participants with hypercholesterolemia, hypertension, diabetes, and obesity; and 2) examine the effects of chronic condition dyads and triads on the use of CAM modalities, specifically manipulative and body-based methods, biological treatments, mind-body interventions, energy therapies, and alternative medical systems...
October 19, 2018: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Julie M Robillard, Jessica H Jun, Jen-Ai Lai, Tanya L Feng
BACKGROUND: Online health information is unregulated and can be of highly variable quality. There is currently no singular quantitative tool that has undergone a validation process, can be used for a broad range of health information, and strikes a balance between ease of use, concision and comprehensiveness. To address this gap, we developed the QUality Evaluation Scoring Tool (QUEST). Here we report on the analysis of the reliability and validity of the QUEST in assessing the quality of online health information...
October 19, 2018: BMC Medical Informatics and Decision Making
Brian L Mishara, Luc Dargis
BACKGROUND: The diversity of guidelines for safe public messaging about suicide and the heterogeneous scientific research on the topic warrants comparisons of guidelines and analysis of the relevance of research findings to determine best practices. METHODS: We searched databases and websites for organizations' guidelines concerning safe public messaging on suicide, and relevant research articles. RESULTS: We identified 24 public messaging guidelines, 11 terminology guidelines and 44 research papers...
September 18, 2018: Journal of Affective Disorders
Satish Garre, Aparni K Gamage, Todd R Faner, Pavithra Dedigama-Arachchige, Mary Kay H Pflum
Kinase enzymes phosphorylate protein substrates in a highly ordered manner to control cell signaling. Unregulated kinase activity is associated with a variety of disease states, most notably cancer, making the characterization of kinase activity in cellulo critical to understand disease formation. However, the paucity of available tools has prevented a full mapping of the substrates and interacting proteins of kinases involved in cellular function. Recently we developed kinase-catalyzed crosslinking to covalently connect substrate and kinase in a phosphorylation-dependent manner...
October 19, 2018: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Kaylie Johnson, Annie Heiderscheit
Mental health settings are common workplaces for music therapists. Few studies have examined the clinical practice and effectiveness of music therapy in adolescent inpatient mental health settings. Additionally, there is little research that discusses how music therapy is implemented and how patient needs are addressed in sessions. The primary purpose of this study was to survey music therapists working in inpatient adolescent mental health treatment regarding their clinical practice to (1) identify goals addressed in music therapy sessions and (2) examine music therapy interventions utilized in adolescent inpatient mental health units...
October 18, 2018: Journal of Music Therapy
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