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Research methods & reporting

Iván Flores Martínez, Laura Helena Atuesta
BACKGROUND: Research has shown the substantial impact on mental health for victims of drug-related crime in Mexico, especially individuals who have been heavily exposed to violence. However, the effect of drug-related violence in non-victims has been less studied because causal pathways via indirect violence are more ambiguous. We argue that drug-related violence does have an influence on the mental health of non-victims: For example, because of how violence is publicized by criminal groups, including their use of gruesome killing methods in executions, or via news about government confrontations with these criminal groups...
August 13, 2018: International Journal on Drug Policy
Laurens R Krol, Juliane Pawlitzki, Fabien Lotte, Klaus Gramann, Thorsten O Zander
BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) is a popular method to monitor brain activity, but it is difficult to evaluate EEG-based analysis methods because no ground-truth brain activity is available for comparison. Therefore, in order to test and evaluate such methods, researchers often use simulated EEG data instead of actual EEG recordings. Simulated data can be used, among other things, to assess or compare signal processing and machine learning algorithms, to model EEG variabilities, and to design source reconstruction methods...
August 13, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Hamed Hosseini, Mohammad Ali Mansournia, Seyed Massood Nabavi, Ali Asghar Akhlaghi, Jaleh Gholami, Kazem Mohammad, Reza Majdzadeh
Randomized clinical trials are considered the ideal source for generation of robust evidence for clinical and public health decision making. Estimation of treatment effect in observational studies is always subject to varying degrees of bias due to lack of random allocation, blindness, precise definition of intervention, as well as the existence of potential unknown and unmeasured confounding variables. Unlike other conventional methods, instrumental variable analysis (IVA), as a method for controlling confounding bias in non-randomized studies, attempts to estimate the treatment effect with the least bias even without knowing and measuring the potential confounders in the causal pathway...
August 1, 2018: Archives of Iranian Medicine
Andrea Lakatos, Márton Kolossváry, Miklós Szabó, Ágnes Jermendy, Zsolt Bagyura, Péter Barsi, Gábor Rudas, Lajos R Kozák
Background and purpose: To develop an evidence-based, standardized structured reporting (SR) method for brain MRI examinations in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE) suitable both for clinical and research use. Methods: SR template development was based on comprehensive review of the pertinent literature with the basic sections and subdivisions of the template defined according to MRI sequences (both conventional and diffusion-weighted, MR-spectroscopy (MRS), and T2*-weighted imaging), and the items targeted on age-related imaging patterns of HIE...
July 30, 2018: Ideggyógyászati Szemle
Rosa Silva, Sérgio Abrunheiro, Daniela Cardoso, Paulo Costa, Filipa Couto, Cátia Agrenha, João Apóstolo
OBJECTIVE: The objective of the review was to synthesize the effectiveness of multisensory stimulation in managing neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in older adults with major neurocognitive disorder (NCD). INTRODUCTION: Major neurocognitive disorder is characterized by changes in specific cognitive domains with a progressive deterioration in cognitive ability and capacity for independent living. Most older adults with this condition have one or more concomitant symptoms known as NPS...
August 2018: JBI Database of Systematic Reviews and Implementation Reports
Max M Feinstein, Anthony E Pannunzio, Samuel Lobell, Eric Kodish
Informed consent for pediatric anesthesia challenges practitioners to navigate complex ethical, medical, and legal ambiguities. A patient's status as a minor does not negate the importance of his or her participation in the decision-making process but, rather, necessitates a nuanced evaluation of age and development to involve the patient to an appropriate extent. Given the complexities involved with pediatric informed consent in anesthesia practice and research, it is important to understand the experience of key stakeholders involved...
August 14, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
David T Lubkin, Muath Bishawi, Andrew S Barbas, Todd V Brennan, Allan D Kirk
OBJECTIVES: Extracellular mitochondrial DNA and N-formyl peptides released following tissue damage may contribute to systemic inflammation through stimulation of the innate immune system. In this review, we evaluate existing in vivo human data regarding a role for mitochondrial DNA and N-formyl peptides in producing systemic inflammation in trauma and critical illness, investigate the utility of these molecules in risk prediction and clinical decision support, and provide suggestions for standardization of future research...
August 14, 2018: Critical Care Medicine
Cain C T Clark, Glauber Carvalho Nobre, John F T Fernandes, Jason Moran, Benjamin Drury, Andrea Mannini, Piotr Gronek, Robert Podstawski
 It is evident that a growing number of studies advocate a wrist-worn accelerometer for the assessment of patterns of physical activity a priori; yet, the veracity of this site over any other body-mounted location for its accuracy in activity classification is hither to unexplored.
 The objective of this review was to identify the relative accuracy for classifying physical activities according to accelerometer site and analytical technique.
 A search of electronic databases was conducted using Web of Science, PubMed and Google Scholar...
August 16, 2018: Physiological Measurement
Eike Sebastian Debus, Levente Kriston, Thea Schwaneberg, Sandra Hischke, Henrik Christian Rieß, Martin Härter, Ursula Marschall, Hannes Federrath, Christian-Alexander Behrendt
BACKGROUND: Atherosclerotic disease of the lower extremity arteries (PAD) remains a significant burden on global healthcare systems with increasing prevalence. Various guidelines on the diagnosis and treatment of patients with PAD are available but they often lack a sufficient evidence base for high-grade recommendations since randomized and controlled trials (RCT) remain rare or are frequently subject to conflicts of interest. This registry trial aims to evaluate the outcomes of catheter-based endovascular revascularisations vs...
August 16, 2018: VASA. Zeitschrift Für Gefässkrankheiten
Joseph K McLaughlan, Leia Vos, Brigid Waldron-Perrine, Tanya Sherman, Scott R Millis
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVE: Despite the widespread use of the Cognitive Log, information regarding normative performance is only available in individuals with known brain injury and in healthy college students. The purpose of the current research is to provide information about Cognitive Log performance in a regional group of rehabilitation patients without history of brain injury. Secondarily, non-neurological factors that may predict performance are considered. Research Method/Design: Participants included in this study were 121 consecutive patients admitted to an inpatient rehabilitation hospital spinal cord and orthopedic floor...
August 2018: Rehabilitation Psychology
Caoimhe Madden, Sinéad Lydon, Ciara Curran, Andrew W Murphy, Paul O'Connor
BACKGROUND: There is limited research, and guidance, on how to address safety in general practice proactively. OBJECTIVES: This review aimed to synthesize the literature describing the use of patient record review (PRR) to measure and improve patient safety in primary care. The PRR methodologies utilized and the resulting outcomes were examined. METHODS: Searches were conducted using Medline, Embase, CINAHL and PsycINFO in February 2017. Reference lists of included studies and existing review papers were also screened...
December 2018: European Journal of General Practice
Young-Hwa Kim, Pil-Gu Park, Sang-Hwan Seo, Kee-Jong Hong, Hyewon Youn
Purpose: Study on the pathogen and the pathogen-related disease require the information at both cellular and organism level. However, lack of appropriate high-quality antibodies and the difference between the experimental animal models make it difficult to analyze in vivo mechanism of pathogen-related diseases. For more reliable research on the infection and immune-response of pathogen-related diseases, accurate analysis is essential to provide spatiotemporal information of pathogens and immune activity to avoid false-positive or mis-interpretations...
July 2018: Clinical and Experimental Vaccine Research
Alexandra G M Caron, Colette R Thomas, Kathryn L E Berry, Cherie A Motti, Ellen Ariel, Jon E Brodie
Quantifying the extent of microplastic (<5 mm) contamination in the marine environment is an emerging field of study. Reliable extraction of microplastics from the gastro-intestinal content of marine organisms is crucial to evaluate microplastic contamination in marine fauna. Extraction protocols and variations thereof have been reported, however, these have mostly focussed on relatively homogenous samples (i.e. water, sediment, etc.). Here, we present a microplastic extraction protocol for examining green turtle ( Chelonia mydas ) chyme (i...
2018: MethodsX
Miel Ap Vugts, Margot Cw Joosen, Agali Mert, Aglaia Me Zedlitz, Hubertus Jm Vrijhoef
BACKGROUND: Current evidence for the effectiveness of specialist multidisciplinary programs for burdensome chronic pain and functional somatic syndromes drives the effort to improve approaches, strategies, and delivery modes. It remains unknown to what extent and in what respect serious gaming during the regular outpatient rehabilitation can contribute to health outcomes. OBJECTIVE: The objectives of our study were to determine the effect of additional serious gaming on (1) physical and emotional functioning in general; (2) particular outcome domains; and (3) patient global impressions of change, general health, and functioning and to determine (4) the dependency of serious gaming effects on adherence...
August 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Internet Research
Pleuntje Jellema, Margo Annemans, Ann Heylighen
In research and design, Creative Research Methods (CRMs) are useful to gain insight into user perspectives. Reviews suggest that CRMs offer potential to engage people, yet little detail is available regarding their use in relation to built health care environments. Consider environments for cancer care, where patients are confronted with particular physical and emotional challenges. This review aims to synthesize what is known from existing literature about CRMs exploring user experience when researching and designing (cancer) care environments...
August 16, 2018: Qualitative Health Research
Nicholas Wagner, Danilo Puggioni, James M Rondinelli
Statistical analysis of local atomic distortions in crystalline materials is a powerful tool for understanding coupled electronic and structural phase transitions in transition metal compounds. The analyses of such complex materials, however, often require significant domain knowledge to recognize limitations in the available data, whether it be experimentally reported crystal structures, property measurements, or computed quantities, and to understand when additional experiments or simulations may be necessary...
August 16, 2018: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
Zhi-Qiang Wang, Yong Chen, Shuang-Shuang Liu, Hong-Xiang Li, Wei-Wen Li, Ling Dong, Chun-Nian He, Fei-Hu Chen, Pei-Gen Xiao
The purpose of this study was to combine morphological, microscopic, UHPLC multiple-component assay and fingerprinting studies in order to evaluate the quality of Moutan Cortex (MC) systematically. The root system of Paeonia suffruticosa was measured to compare the morphological variation and the chemical composition of different grades of MC was discussed according to previous studies. The difference between the main microscopic features of MC powder and the xylem powder is dramatic, the MC powder contains great amount of starch granules and clusters of calcium oxalate, while the xylem powder displays considerable vessels...
July 2018: Zhongguo Zhong Yao za Zhi, Zhongguo Zhongyao Zazhi, China Journal of Chinese Materia Medica
Nuno Henrique Franco, Peter Sandøe, I Anna S Olsson
Animal use in biomedical research is generally justified by its potential benefits to the health of humans, or other animals, or the environment. However, ethical acceptability also requires scientists to limit harm to animals in their research. Training in laboratory animal science (LAS) helps scientists to do this by promoting best practice and the 3Rs. This study evaluated scientists' awareness and application of the 3Rs, and their approach to other ethical issues in animal research. It was based on an online survey of participants in LAS courses held in eight venues in four European countries: Portugal (Porto, Braga), Germany (Munich, Heidelberg), Switzerland (Basel, Lausanne, Zurich), and Denmark (Copenhagen)...
2018: PloS One
Vivekanand Shukla, Rafael B Araujo, Naresh K Jena, Rajeev Ahuja
Graphene's emergence can be viewed as a positive upheaval in 2D materials research. Along the same line, the realization of a related elemental 2D material, borophene, is another breakthrough. To circumvent the stability issues of borophene, which is reported to have been synthesized on metallic substrates under extreme conditions, hydrogenation of borophene (otherwise called as borophane or hydrogen boride or boron hydride) has been a plausible solution, but only proposed computationally. A recent report (H...
August 15, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Victor Otero Martinez, Fernanda Washington de Mendonça Lima, Chrissie Ferreira de Carvalho, José Antônio Menezes-Filho
Studies suggest that the protozoan Toxoplasma gondii can disturb human behavior. This study aimed to systematically review the scientific literature on the possible associations between Toxoplasma gondii infection and neurobehavioral abnormalities in humans. We reviewed and summarized the studies published since 1990. The descriptors used were related to T. gondii infection and behavioral outcomes in humans; the main databases of the medical literature were accessed. The results of eight original articles published between 1994 and 2016 were evaluated and described...
August 14, 2018: Parasitology Research
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